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Arts administration 艺术管理

(2011-07-11 22:37:14)
标签:

艺术管理

文化机构

英国伦敦大学

印第安纳大学

卡耐基

杂谈

  Arts administration 艺术管理

   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 来源:维基百科,自由百科全书 翻译:刘聪明

  Arts Administrationis the business end of an arts organization responsible for facilitating the day-to-day operation of the organization and fulfilling its mission. An arts organization includes professional for-profit (e.g., auction houses, art galleries, music presenting companies, etc.) and many smaller professional and nonprofessional 501 (c) not-for-profit, arts related businesses (e.g., theaters, museums, jazz, opera, and ballet organizations).[1] The general duties of an arts administrator can include staff management, marketing, managing budgets, public relations, fundraising, program development and evaluation and board relations.

  艺术管理是在艺术机构负责机构的日常运行和任务实施的业务终端。一个艺术机构包括职业性的、营利性的(如拍卖室、画廊、音乐推广公司等)及许多更小的职业性与非职业性、非营利性的艺术相关业务(如剧院、博物馆、爵士、歌剧、芭蕾团体)。[1]艺术管理者的本职工作包括职员管理、市场营销、预算管理、公关、筹集资金、项目开发与评估以及董事会关系。

  Arts Administrators 艺术管理者

   Arts administrators work for arts and cultural organizations such as theatres, "...art galleries, museums, arts festivals, arts centers, arts councils, regional arts boards, dance companies, community arts organizations, disability arts organizations and local authorities."[2]

  艺术管理者为艺术与文化机构工作,如剧院、画廊、博物馆、艺术节、艺术中心、艺术理事会、地区艺术委员会、舞蹈团、社区艺术团体、残疾人艺术团以及地方当局。[2](译注:按照中国国情包括文化部、厅、局、馆之类的艺术行政机构。)

  An arts administrator in a small organization may do marketing, event booking, and handle financial issues. An arts administrator for a larger arts organization may be responsible for buildings and facilities, creative staff (e.g., performers/artists), other administrative staff, public relations, marketing, and writing reports. A senior level-arts administrator may advise the Board of Directors or other senior managers on "strategic planning and management decisions. An effective arts administrator must also be knowledgeable in local, state and federal public policy as it relates to human resources, health insurance, labor laws and volunteer risk management." [2]

  小团体的艺术管理者可做市场营销、票务及处理财务问题。大的机构的艺术管理者可负责场馆与设施、主创人员(如演员/艺人)、其他行政职员、公共关系、市场营销、撰写报告。资深的艺术管理者可向公司董事会或其他高管提取“战略规划与管理决策”的建议。富有成效的艺术管理者还必须熟知地方、州和联邦与人力资源、医疗保险、劳动法及义工风险管理相关的公共政策。[2](译注:类似于HR要干的事情。)

  Some notable professionals in the field include Philippe de Montebello, curator of New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art from 1977-2008. On his retirement, he was both the longest-serving director in the institution's history, and the longest-serving director of any major art museum in the world. Michael Maddo互联网x co-founded the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, home to Bolshoi Ballet and Bolshoi Opera who are amongst the oldest and grandest ballet and opera companies in the world. Another notable figure in arts administration is John Lane of John Lane's Ogunquit Playhouse in Ogunquit, Maine. Lane acquired the playhouse in 1950 and successfully ran the organization, still considered to be "America's foremost summer theatre," until his retirement in 1994. The website is found at www.ogunquitplayhouse.org

  该领域知名的执业者有:Philippe de Montebello,1977-2008年任纽约大都会艺术博物馆馆长。在退休时,他成为该机构有史以来在位时间最长的主管以及世界各大艺术博物馆在位时间最长的主管。Michael Maddox曾在莫斯科共同创建莫斯科大剧院,其主场芭蕾舞团和歌剧团是世界上最古老最宏大的芭蕾与歌剧团体。另一个值得注意的人物是在缅因州的Ogunquit建立“John Lane’s Ogunquit Playhouse(奥甘奎特剧场)”的John Lane。他在1950年收购该剧场并成功运行,直到1994年他退休时,仍是“美国最著名的夏日露天剧场”。(网址:www.ogunquitplayhouse.org)

  Issues in Arts Administration 艺术管理中的问题

   Like any business, arts organizations must work within changing external and internal environments.[3] External changes can include cultural, social, demographic, economic, political, legal and technological. Internal changes can include audience, membership, Board of Directors, personnel, facilities, growth, and financial. Another change that must be taken into consideration is the growing need for technology-based marketing programs (i.e.: social media) in order for the organization to change with the times and bring younger visitor and member pools into the organization. Although a good arts administrator constantly monitors and manages change, he must also remain aware of the overall direction and mood of the organization while helping people do their day-to-day jobs.[4] Arts organizations, as part of the economic system, experience the effects of the expansion and contractions in the local , regional, national and world economy.[5] Many arts organizations struggle in difficult economic times. There are assistance programs specifically for arts and cultural organizations such as artsincrisis.org which is designed to provide planning assistance and consulting to struggling arts organizations throughout the United States.

  同其他业务一样,艺术机构必须在不断变化的外部与内部环境中运行。[3]外部变化包括文化、社会、人口、经济、政治、法律与技术,内部变化包括受众、会员、董事会、员工、设施、发展和资金。另外必须想到的变化是,日益增长的建立在技术基础上的市场营销计划(比如社会媒体)的需求,这是为了使机构与时俱进,并吸取新鲜血液(更年轻的顾客和会员池)。尽管优秀的艺术管理者经常监控和管理着这些变化,在帮助人们进行日常工作时,他还要对总体方向和组织氛围保持清醒头脑。[4]作为经济体系的一员,艺术机构经历着本地、区域、国家和世界经济增长与收缩的影响。[5]许多艺术机构在经济困难期挣扎。有专门面向艺术与文化机构的援助项目,如artsincrisis.org网站,这是为挣扎在美国各地的艺术机构提供规划援助和咨询而设。

  Academic programs 学院专业

   Arts administration programs are available at a number of universities and colleges in the US, the UK, Canada and Australia. Some academic units offer certificate programs for practitioners seeking continuing education or professional development education.

  艺术管理专业在美国、英国、加拿大、澳大利亚等的大学里都有。一些学术单位面向从业人员开设继续教育或专业提升教育的认证课程。

  While programs in arts administration draw on many elements of related administration fields, such as business administration, they also include specialized courses on administering non-profit art and cultural organizations.

  当艺术管理专业借鉴管理领域的诸多元素时,比如商业管理,它们也会包括一些非营利性的艺术与文化机构的专业课。

  Arts administration programs award a range of credentials, including certificates and diplomas, Bachelor's degrees, and Master's degrees. These programs usually blend curriculum elements from existing administration programs such as public administration, business administration, arts law, and management.

  艺术管理专业授予以下学位与学历证书:学士、硕士。这些专业通常结合已有的管理专业的课程内容,如公共管理、商业管理、艺术法律以及管理学。

  Indeed, at the University of Wisconsin Madison, the arts administration program is a specialization within the Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. The MA in Arts Administration program at Columbia University is the only program that ties together curriculum elements from public and private managements/administration, law, and business and finance at an ivy league university. Many arts administration programs include a practicum in which the student volunteers or works in an arts or cultural organization to gain practical experience. Arts administration programs began in the 1970s at several schools, after meetings with the National Endowment for the Arts on the question of how the next generations of arts leaders would be educated.

  的确,在美国威斯康辛-麦迪逊大学,艺术管理专业是属于MBA(工商管理硕士)的专业。哥伦比亚大学的艺术管理专业的MA(艺术学硕士)是常青藤大学唯一的综合公众与私人管理、法律、商业与金融课程要素的专业。许多艺术管理专业包括学生作为志愿者或职员在艺术或文化机构实习以获得实践经验。艺术管理专业始于1970年代的几所学校,是在全国艺术捐赠会议关于怎样培养下一代艺术行业领导者的议题后兴起。

  At some universities, similar programs are called arts management (e.g. American University) or arts leadership (e.g. DePaul University). Universities such as American, Wisconsin and Indiana, among many others, offer programs to students in all arts disciplines, while others, such as DePaul, specialize in one discipline (in DePaul's case, theatre). The Master's degree at some schools is an MBA, while other universities offer MFA, MA, and MPA degrees, largely depending on where the program is housed. At American University, the program is physically located in the new multidisciplinary arts center and the curriculum and faculty are part of the Department of Performing Arts. At Indiana University, the program is housed in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs. The atmosphere of these programs differs, though the curricula are similar. Variances between programs often revolve around the centrality of arts in the curriculum, on one end of the continuum, and the centrality of business skills, on the other end of that continuum. Other programs, such as Ohio State, Indiana, and (increasingly) American, are strongly rooted in cultural policy. Most programs require two years in residence, though Drexel and Goucher offer online options. Some programs offer dual-degrees.

  在某些大学,类似的专业叫做arts management(如美国大学)或arts leadership(如DePaul大学)。(译注:management可能偏向商业领域,administration有点行政的意味,在商业性强的社会是差不多的;leadership当然强调培养领导者了。)美国大学、威斯康辛大学、印第安纳大学及其他一些大学为学生开设的专业包括所有艺术门类,而其他如DePaul大学专攻一门学科(DePaul是戏剧)。有的学校的硕士学位是MBA,而另一些大学是MFA、MA、MPA学位,主要取决于专业的立足点。在美国大学,该专业驻址于新型多门类艺术中心,课程和教师属于表演艺术系。在印第安纳大学,该专业归属公共与环境事务(Public and Environmental Affairs)学院。这些专业的氛围不同,尽管课程差不多。课程之间的差异往往围绕在艺术课程的中心地位(一方面强调这个)还是商业技能的中心地位(另一方面强调这个)。其他专业(如俄亥俄州立大学、印第安纳大学及美国大学)扎根于文化政策。大部分专业需要两年的住校学习,而Drexel大学和Goucher大学提供在线选择,有的专业有双学位。(译注:关于学位名称,在文章最后。)

  One example of a dual-degree Master's degree arts administration program, one that combines a Master of Arts degree (MA) in arts administration with a Master of Business Administration degree (MBA), is the program offered by the University of Cincinnati in conjunction with the Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. The UC/CCM Graduate Arts Administration Program, like most others, exists to prepare and train students to become successful CEOs and senior managers of nonprofit arts and cultural institutions. The philosophy and structure of the program reflects the understanding that sound business training and practical, real-world exposure to the field are both essential qualities of a successful arts administrator. More information can be found at the following link, www.ArtsAdminMBA.com.

  艺术管理专业双硕士学位的一个例子,也就是结合MA(艺术学硕士)和MBA(工商管理硕士),是辛辛那提大学(UC)联合辛辛那提音乐学院(CCM)所办的专业。UC/CCM毕业的艺术管理专业(就像其他一样)就是要将学生培养成成功的CEO和非营利文化艺术机构的高级管理者。该专业的理念和构建反映出,对健全业务培训和实践以及现实世界接触到的领域的了解,都是成功艺术管理者的必备素质。更多信息可从以下链接寻找:www.ArtsAdminMBA.com。

  Other programs may be joint offerings of two colleges within the same university, building upon the relative strengths of each college. Carnegie Mellon's Master of Arts Management (MAM) Program is one example; it is a collaborative effort of the College of Fine Arts and the School of Public Policy and Management in the Heinz College. Heinz College provides the core management coursework and the College of Fine Arts support the MAM Program with coursework specific to leading not-for-profit arts and culture institutions. Another example is the two-year MA/MBA program at Southern Methodist University, offering a Master of Arts in Arts Administration from the Meadows School of the Arts and a Master of Business Administration from the Cox School of Business.

  其他专业可能由同一大学的两个学院联合办学,建立在各自学院的相对优势基础上。卡耐基梅隆大学的艺术管理硕士(MAM)专业就是一个例子,它是美术学院和Heinz学院的公共政策和管理学院共同主办。Heinz学院提供核心管理课程,美术学院提供领导非营利艺术与文化机构的支撑课程。另外一个例子是,南方卫理公会大学的两年制MA/MBA专业,开设Meadows艺术学院的艺术管理的艺术学硕士和Cox商学院的工商管理硕士。

  Several universities offer concentrations in media (film, television, music, new media, etc.) management: Drexel University, Carnegie Mellon and Columbia College Chicago, among others. Carnegie Mellon offers a separate degree in film/television management. Columbia University's MA in Arts Administration program allows students to choose a visual arts or a performing arts focus.

  许多大学专注于媒体(电影、电视、音乐、新媒体等)管理:Drexel(德雷克塞尔)大学、Carnegie Mellon(卡耐基梅隆)大学、芝加哥哥伦比亚学院及其他。卡耐基梅隆大学开设专门的影视管理专业,哥伦比亚大学的艺术管理的MA允许学生重点选择视觉艺术或表演艺术。

  Increasingly, the AAAE (Association of Arts Administration Educators) membership has become more interested and proactive in responding to key issues in the arts and in offering help to arts organizations on management, policy, governance, fund development, and financial issues. As a result of this new commitment, research in the program is growing in both amount and quality.

  更多地,AAAE(艺术管理教育联盟)成员对于艺术领域的关键问题,对艺术机构的管理、政策、治理、基金发展以及金融问题提供帮助,更加感兴趣与主动。这种新的承诺导致该专业的研究数量和质量不断上升。

  Further examples and information about arts administration programs can found at the Association of Arts Administration Educators website, www.artsadministration.org

  更多关于艺术管理专业的实例与信息请查看艺术管理教育联盟的网站:www.artsadministration.org。

  References 参考

  1. Byrnes, William, J, (2009). "Management and the Arts". Focal Press. p. 2.[《管理与艺术》]

  2. Arts administrator: Job description and activities[艺术管理者:职位描述及活动]

  3. Byrnes, William, J, (2009). "Management and the Arts". Focal Press. p. 84.

  4. Byrnes, William, J, (2009). "Management and the Arts". Focal Press. p. 87.

  5. Byrnes, William, J, (2009). "Management and the Arts". Focal Press. p. 93.

  External links 外部链接 Arts Management Network International information service for arts administration. [艺术管理网 有关艺术管理的国际资讯]

  Association of Arts Administration Educators An international association of degree-granting programs in arts and cultural management. [艺术管理教育联盟 关于艺术与文化管理的学位专业的国际组织]

  European Network of Cultural Administration Training Centres [文化管理培训中心欧洲网]

  Warwick University, UK. MA in Creative and Media Enterprises - MA in International Cultural Policy and Management [英国华威大学 创意与媒介企业MA-国际文化政策与管理MA]

  Birkbeck, University of London, UK. MA, MPhil, PhD Arts Policy and Management. [英国伦敦大学Birbeck学院 艺术政策与管理 MA,Mphil,PhD]

  King's College, University of London, UK. MA Cultural and Creative Industries. [英国伦敦大学国王学院 文化与创意产业MA]

  City University, London, UK. MA Cultural Leadership. [英国伦敦城市大学 文化领导MA]

  City University, London, UK. MA Culture, Policy and Management. [英国伦敦城市大学 文化政策与管理MA]

  Birkbeck, University of London, UK. MA Arts Business. [英国伦敦大学Birbeck学院 艺术商务MA]

  Managing Performance & Entrepreneurship, University of Leeds UK. BA and MA [英国利兹大学 演出管理与创业 BA与MA]

  University of New Orleans Graduate program in Arts Administration [美国新奥尔良大学 艺术管理专业]

  Arts and Administration Program, University of Oregon MA, MS, PhD [美国俄勒冈大学 艺术与管理专业 MA MS PhD]

  School of Art History and Cultural Policy, University College Dublin, Ireland MA, MLitt and PhD in Arts Management and Cultural Policy. [爱尔兰都柏林大学艺术史和文化政策学院 艺术管理与文化政策 MA,Mlitt,PhD]

  [译注:以上资料涉及到国外的各种学位,整理如下。]

  MA(Master of Arts)=艺术学硕士

  MLitt(Master of Literature)=文学硕士

  Mphil(Master of Philosophy)=哲学硕士

  PhD(Doctor of Philosophy)=哲学博士

  BA(Bachelor of Arts)=艺术学学士

  MS(Master of Sciense)=理学硕士

  MFA(Master of Fine Arts)=艺术硕士

  MPA(Master of Public Administration)=公共管理硕士

  MAM (Master of Arts Management)=艺术管理硕士

  This page was last modified on 14 June 2011 at 14:20.

  页面最后更新日期:2011-06-1414:20

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