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[转载]李景琪译爱默生散文【论自然】全文

(2011-09-16 16:37:45)
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分类: 研究生英语教学

新浪日志1017

《论自然全文》

Chapter I NATURE【第一章 大自然】

By Ralph Waldo Emerson

原著/拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生()

/李景琪猎人hunter560

2011910 星期六)

1

To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile.

欲步入孤独者,须远离书斋,一如远离社会。阅读写作时,虽无人旁伴,仍非独处一隅。若渴望独处,则可仰望星空。由天穹洒下之华光,将你与俗世隔离。你可想象,大气之所以清澈透明,就为我们观望天国永恒之崇高。从市井仰望群星,竟如此辉煌!若星辰千年一现,人类关于上帝之城的记忆,必将世代相传,而被永久信仰、崇拜、珍存。然而每夜,美丽天使们芳颜展现,并以警世之微笑,照亮宇宙。

2

The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood.

星辰唤醒景仰之情,因其虽常现天穹,终遥不可及:而当心扉开放,自然景物总会留下亲近的印记。自然永无吝啬之外貌。如同智者也不会因大自然奥秘、发现其完美,而丧失对其好奇之心。自然之于智慧之心灵,绝非玩具。花朵、动物与群山,均折射智者思维之灵光,如同它们曾愉悦其纯真的童年。

3.

When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature.

谈论自然时,心灵倍感清晰,而诗意盎然。留存诸多自然物体之完整印象,而此恰可区分伐木工手中的圆木,与诗人心中之树。今晨我见迷人景色,无疑由二十至三十个农场组成。米勒拥有这片土地,洛克拥有那片,而曼宁则为远处树林之主,然而他们都无法拥有这片风景。地平线上有一财产,却无人拥有,除非有慧眼者可将各处景致整合为一,这就是诗人。此为所有农场中最珍贵者,却无人能凭产权而据为己有。说实话,只有极少数成年人见到过自然。多数人不见太阳,至少,只是浮光掠影。阳光只照亮成年人双目,却可射入儿童的眼睛和心田。大自然热爱者的内、外感觉和谐共处;虽为成人却怀有婴儿之心灵,其与天地之交流已成每日之食粮;尽管心情悲怆,但面对自然时,仍会欣喜若狂。大自然言:彼,吾所造也,应湮灭其无谓之悲伤,与吾同处应欢乐。不仅是阳光和夏天,四季中每一时辰都献出欢欣;因为从闷热的正午,到严酷的子夜,每一时刻和变化都符合并佐证着人们不同的心里状态。大自然真可谓悲剧与喜剧同台上演。人健康时,空气也会异常热忱友好。越过空旷公地,逗留雪潭,乌云之下,暮光之中,虽未觉鸿运当头,却兴奋异常,竟乐而生惧。在树林中也是如此,人们抛落岁月如同蛇蟒蜕皮,人生无论处于何种阶段,总是孩童。树林之中,青春永恒。上帝之庄园内,礼节与神圣主宰一切,节日常年不断,宾客寓此千年不觉厌倦。在树林里,我们回归理性和信仰。那里,无不幸降临我的生命,无屈辱和灾祸,(请留下我的双眼,此大自然无法修复),伫立荒地,我脑袋沐浴欢快的空气,并扶摇直上无垠的太空,所有卑鄙的自高自大消失殆尽。我变成了一只透明的眼球,我虽化乌有,却饱览一切;宇宙之环流穿身而过,我已成为上帝的一部分,或为祂的粒子。密友之名听来已感陌生而意外:当兄弟,成熟人,主人和仆人,已成杂乱琐事。我是那无拘无束、不朽美人的情人。我发现,与街道和村庄相比,荒野更亲切,更自然。在静谧的风景里,尤其是遥远的地平线,人们看到自然如此之美,一如人类之本性。

 

The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right.

田野和树林使我们欣喜若狂,意指人类和植物的神秘联系。我并非孤独、受冷落,植物向我点头,我颔首以报。暴风雨中摇曳的树枝,于我既新奇又熟悉。惊奇之余,却不感意外。其对我之影响,一如我自认所思、所为公正、无误时,袭遍身心的高尚情操和美好感情。

5

Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population.

然须肯定,此欢愉之力并不寓于自然之中,而存于人。抑或,存在二者和谐相处之中。此欢愉应节制享用。因为,自然并不总以节日盛装示人,同一场景,昨天芬芳闪光,似为山林仙女之嬉戏而设,今日竟愁云密布。自然总是身披其精神之色彩。对落难者而言,其体内之火蕴含悲哀。于是,挚友亡故时,风景似不值一顾。在劳苦大众眼里,晚霞之辉煌灿烂也会减半。

 

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