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[转]水下拍摄如何用好自动模式

(2011-07-17 16:12:30)
标签:

白平衡

闪光灯

水下拍摄

自动模式

时尚

分类: 水下摄影知识
Shooting In Auto Mode
如何用好自动模式

If you don't want to learn about manual exposure just yet, put your camera on auto mode – usually indicated by an Auto or a “P”(for program)  on your camera’s mode dial. Note: "A" may be another option the mode dial but it does not stand for auto! Auto mode is the easiest way to shoot because the camera chooses the settings and manages the exposure for you. All you need to do is point and shoot.

如果你现在不想马上学习手动曝光,那么你就先把你的相机设定为自动档--通常相机上显示为AUTO或者P档(程序档)。要注意“A”档是另一个模式(我:一般指光圈优先)并非是自动模式。自动模式下,相机将自动设定和管理曝光。你要做的只是对准拍摄。

The Auto Mode Blues
自动模式下的“蓝调”

The problem with letting the camera choose the exposure for you is that cameras are not designed to be used underwater. As you’ve now learned, light acts differently underwater than it does on land (again, technically, in air), absorbing the warmer colors like red, orange and yellow pretty quickly as you descend, resulting in very blue images. To some degree, your eyes can adjust to this, so you see shades of reds and yellows, but your camera does not, so it can’t record those same colors. There are some easy solutions that can help restore color to your images, but if you choose not to use them, be warned: with the exception of very shallow water on very sunny days, your images will be singing the blues - literally.

让相机为你处理曝光的问题是,你的相机并不是设计用来在水下拍摄的。正如你已经了解到的,光线在水下的表现与在陆地上(再次重申,从技术上来说,是空气中)是不同的,暖色调,诸如红色、橙色和黄色会以比你以为更快的速度被吸收,导致的结果就是成像一片“蓝调”。在某种程度上,你的眼睛可以适应一些,还能看到一些红色与黄色的影子,但是你的相机办不到,所以它不能记录还原相同的颜色。有一些简单有效的方法可以帮助你还原色彩,你可以不选择他们,但必须满足以下条件:在非常浅的地方,并且有非常好的阳光。否则你的照片将充满“蓝调”。

[转]水下拍摄如何用好自动模式
Images can look very blue when shot in auto mode and without a strobe
在没有外闪的情况下采用自动模式,图像一片蓝色

“Can I Use The Built In Flash?”
“我可以使用内置闪光灯吗?”

Artificial light is the best way to capture the vivid colors underwater. However, using the on-camera flash in not advisable underwater, as its position close to the lens will create backscatter. The built-in flash is also fairly weak when used underwater. So ideally, you will need to buy an external strobe.

人造光源是在水下捕捉生动色彩的最佳方式。然而,在水下使用内置闪光灯是不可取的,因为它太靠近镜头以至于很容易产生散射问题。另外,在水下,内置闪光灯相对来说太薄弱了。所以,理想的话,还是要购买外置闪光灯。

Buying a strobe is the one investment that will immediately and noticeably improve your photography, even more so than upgrading to a more advanced camera. For more on strobes, see our Lighting Guide. 

购买外闪是一个能让你立即而且可以明显改善摄影效果的投资捷径,这甚至比你直接升级相机本身来的更有见效。想要在外闪上了解更多,可以看我们的灯光指南(我:回头翻译这篇)。

If you are just starting out, you may not want to spend the extra money on or deal with the extra hassle of an external strobe. Even the simplest digital cameras come with a built in on-camera flash, and all point & shoot housings are designed to enable the use of this flash. It can be helpful in restoring color and lighting small subjects when shooting macro photography, but ultimately the benefits of the camera’s internal flash are limited underwater. Our recommendation, of course – is to bite the bullet and buy at least one strobe if you are serious about learning more about underwater photography. 

如果你是刚刚起步,你可能不想马上去花一笔额外的费用用来购买外闪。最简单的傻瓜数码相机也配有闪光灯,所有为傻瓜机配套的潜水壳都设计成可以使用内置闪光。它能在拍摄微距时候有一定帮助,但毕竟在水下,内置闪光的作用非常有限。我们的建议是,如果你真的非常想学习水下摄影的话,那你硬着头皮也要买一个外闪。(我:说得很形象,确实如此!就像你要玩单反,至少要买个闪光灯一样,要拍水下照片,就一定要配水下外闪)

Shooting Without Flash
不用闪光灯拍摄

In the right conditions, you will be able to create great images without using any flash at all, only relying on the natural ambient light. Remember to: 
  • Stay shallow
  • Shoot at mid-day (between 10am – 2pm) when the sun is high in the sky and the maximum amount of light is penetrating underwater
  • Shoot with the sun to your back, as you would on land (as you will soon learn this is not always the case underwater).
当条件允许,你也可以不用任何闪光灯来获得完美的成像,仅仅依靠自然光线。但要切记:

  • 在潜水处拍摄
  • 在正午拍摄(10点到14点之间),因为这个时候太阳在天空中最高的位置,能够有最多的光线照射入水
  • 顺光拍摄,就像你在陆地上拍摄常规(你马上就会了解,顺光拍摄在水下并不是一贯坚持的原则)
[转]水下拍摄如何用好自动模式

Here are a few more tips to help you create great ambient light images. 
这里有几个诀窍,让你能够利用自然光来创作好的水下作品。

Using Filters
使用滤镜

Filters are another option when looking to shoot without strobes. Filters are small colored gels placed in front of the camera’s lens that help adjust for color loss. There are filters designed specifically for underwater use that can be an easy solution for getting good color in your images. 

滤镜是另一种在没有外闪的情况下可以选择的方式。滤镜就是一小片有色的透明有机玻璃,放置在镜头前可以调整色彩丢失。有专门用来水下使用的滤镜让你解决色彩的问题。(我:滤镜常用在摄像,因为摄像很难有长时间的灯光照射,但是毕竟它的弥补很有限)

Try Using Underwater Mode
尝试使用水下模式

Many recent compact cameras are equipped with an “Underwater Mode.” This mode attempts to adjust the camera’s white balance to compensate for the loss of color underwater without the need for an artificial light source.

现在许多小型相机都拥有“水下模式”。这个模式是通过调整白平衡来弥补水下色彩的丢失而不需要人工光源。

Underwater mode works differently in different camera models, and generally it appears to be improving. Reports of the effectiveness of underwater modes range from pretty good to excellent depending on the camera model. For the most part, it works best in shallow depths of up to about 8 meters where plenty of sunlight still exists in the water column. In some cameras, the underwater mode even adjusts at various depths based on the ambient conditions. For example, there will be a different adjustment when shooting at 8 meters versus 3 meters because of the different amount ambient light at each depth. 

不同型号的相机,其水下模式也不尽相同,一般来说总能有些效果。水下模式下成像好坏还是和相机型号有很大关系。大多数情况下,水下模式比较适用在水深不超过8米的地方,那里还有比较充足的阳光。有些相机,水下模式甚至可以按照深度来调整。比如,在8米与3米位置的调整是不同的,因为光线的吸收程度不同。

Manual White Balance
自定义设置白平衡

If your camera has a manual white balance function, and you are inclined to learn how to use it, we recommend shooting ambient light images with custom white balance settings when possible (if custom settings are not for you, go ahead and skip to the next section).

如果你的相机有自定义白平衡功能,并且你也想了解如何使用它的话,我们建议你每次拍摄时按照周遭光线情况来调整白平衡(如果你觉得自定义白平衡不适合你的话,可以跳过这一节)。

Setting the custom white balance is actually quite easy. What it will do is maximize the amount of color captured at any particular depth / lighting conditions by calibrating against the color white and adjust accordingly for the light at that depth. Basically, you are telling the camera what white is (technically it reads white and adjusts for a specific tone of gray, but that’s a more advanced topic). In order to set the custom white balance, you will have to carry a white slate with you underwater. In a pinch you can use a patch of white sand or even the palm of your hand.

自定义设置白平衡其实很简单。你所要做的就是在特定深度和光照条件下最大程度对白色进行校准。说简单了,就是你告诉相机什么是白色(技术上来说,就是白色和灰度调整,不过那是进阶课程)。为了能设定好白平衡,你必须带一个白板下水。没有的话,你也可以用一片白色的沙滩或是
你的手掌来代替。

Here’s what to do.
接下来就是如何去做。

Select custom white balance in your menu, fill the frame with the white slate and press the shutter. You should get an “ok”, “success” or “WB set” message. You have now set the white balance for that particular depth and lighting conditions. You’ll need to reset the white balance with every few meters of depth or each time the lighting conditions change. Keep in mind that you still will not be able to restore color at any significant depth without strobes.

首先从相机菜单中选择白平衡,将取景框对准填满白板,然后按下快门。你就会得到“OK”,“成功”或者“WB SET“等类似信息。你现在就已经设定好在特定深度和光照条件下的白平衡。当然在不同深度和光照条件产生变化的时候,你都要重新设定白平衡。你始终要明白没有外闪的话,你是不能完全还原色彩的。

Pick A Starting Point – Macro is A Good Choice
选择一个起点--微距是一个不错的选择哦!

While you may have the desire to start shooting everything you see on the reef, in order to learn, you’ll need to pick a starting point. Ultimately shooting macro is easier than wide angle, so it’s a good place to start focusing your energy.

当你想拍摄珊瑚礁上的一切,为了学习,你需要选择一个起点。选择微距拍摄要比广角来的简单,所以这是你集中精力的一个好开端。

[转]水下拍摄如何用好自动模式

The first step is to put the camera in macro mode (if shooting with a point & shoot camera – SLR’s need to use a macro lens). Look for the flower icon to indicate macro mode. This mode allows you to focus closer to the subject than in normal mode. You may find that it takes longer to focus, so it is best used with relatively still subjects.  However, the ability to focus closer will allow you to minimize the amount of water in between the subject and your camera and allow you to shoot smaller subjects, which would otherwise be mere specks in the frame if shot from farther away.

第一步是把相机设定为微距模式(这是针对傻瓜机的,单反相机需要配备微距镜头。我:连这个都不知道还玩单反?!)。微距模式的代号是一朵花花。这种模式允许你比常规模式更接近被摄物的距离进行拍摄。你可能会发现微距模式的对焦时间会比较长,所以它比较适合拍摄静物。然而,近距离拍摄可以将镜头和被摄物之间的水保持最少,同时你可以拍摄很小的物体,那些在长距离拍摄中只是一些小点的东西。

Macro mode is the one area where trying your camera’s internal flash may work out in some cases. With small subjects, it is possible to light up the entire frame so the colors are reintroduced into the image. However, if the water isn’t very clear, you will notice backscatter in your images. Refer to your camera’s manual to see how to turn the flash on and off. 

微距模式是让你的相机有机会可以发挥内闪功能的方式。对于小的物体,内闪就有机会将整个取景范围照亮使得色彩得到比较好的还原。但是,如果水里不是很清澈的话,你还是会发现图像中会有散射。请参考你相机的说明书以了解如何开关内闪。

To fill the frame as much as possible with your subject, try using the cameras optical zoom. The further in you zoom, the more the subject will fill the frame, making the subject appear larger. The more you zoom in, however, the harder it will be to focus. Make sure you half click and remain still when focusing and in telephoto. Don’t use the zoom as an alternative to moving in closer. This is a common mistake. Remember – closer is better! Using digital zoom is not advisable because you will lose image quality. 

为了让你想拍的物体能尽可能充满取景框,尝试使用相机的光学变焦。焦距越大,越能让被摄物充满取景框,使得被摄物显的更大(我:这是我翻译到现在最无聊的一节,难倒说老外都是傻瓜?!)。焦距越大,相反的,越难对焦。确保你在远射对焦时候半按快门并保持住。使用变焦是不能代替接近原则的。这是一个常识错误。记住!--越近越好!不要使用数码变焦,那样你会丢失太多图像质量。

[转]水下拍摄如何用好自动模式

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