加载中…
个人资料
旅行2m7y酒店
旅行2m7y酒店
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:289
  • 关注人气:1
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
正文 字体大小:

[热门]适应性景观形态——绿道的演变(译)

(2011-06-29 19:56:33)
标签:

杂谈

  The Evolution of Greenway as an Adaptive Landscape Form 适应性景观形态——绿道的演变

  Greenways, sometimes referred to as environmental corridors, landscape linkages, wildlife corridors, or riparian buffers, provide an important way both to protect natural areas and to provide recreation opportunities. The term greenway es form the “green” in green belt and the “way” in parkway, implying a recreational or pedestrian use rather than a typical street corridor, as well as an emphasis on introducing or maintaining vegetation, in a location where such vegetation is otherwise lacking, They also tend to have a mostly contiguous pathway, allowing urban muting via bicycle or foot.

  绿道,有时被称作环境廊道、景观连接、野生动物通道或者水滨缓冲地带,有着保护自然地区和提供游憩机会的重要作用。“绿道”一词中的“绿”来源于“绿带”,“道”来源于“公园大道”,含有游憩和步行的功能,而不是一般意义上的街道,强调在植被贫乏区的植物种植和养护。绿道试图建立完整的连接通道,利于自行车或步行的城市交通方式。

  Little, in his landmark book, Greenways for America, gave a prehensive definition to greenway—a linear open space established along either a natural corridor, such as riverfront, steam valley, or ridgeline, or overland along a railroad right-to-way converted to recreational use, a canal, a scenic road, or other route. He classified greenways into five general types: (1) urban riverside-waterfront greenways; (2) recreational greenways; (3) ecologically significant natural corridors; (4) scenic and historic routes; (5) prehensive greenway systems or works.

  里特在其代表著作《美国的绿道》中给绿道下了一个全面的定义:绿道是沿着诸如河滨、溪谷、山脊线等自然走廊,或是陆地上沿着用作游憩活动的废弃铁路线、运河、景观到等线形路线。他将绿道分为五类:(1)城市滨水绿道;(2)游憩绿道;(3)自然生态廊道;(4)景观和历史线路;(5)综合绿道系统或网络。

  Greenways contribute to many ecological and societal values. They help maintain biological diversity, protect water resources, conserve soils, support recreation, enhance munity and cultural cohesion, and provide species migration routes during climate or seasonal change. Greenways can be used to create interconnected works of open space that may include more traditional non-linear parks and natural areas. They can help to maintain ecological integrity in human-dominated landscapes, especially with regard to sustaining high-quality water reserves and preserving biological diversity. In addition to habitat protection and water quality, greenways are pursuing other objectives, including historic preservation using greenways to highlight area culture and heritage.

  绿道有着众多生态和社会价值。绿道帮助维护生物文章欣赏多样性、保护水资源和土壤,提供动物季节性迁徙的通廊。绿道可创造开敞空间相互联系的互通网络,具备传统分离的公园和保护地所不及的功能。绿道有助于保护人类主宰环境中的生态完整性,特别是在保护高质量水资源和保护生物多样性方面。除了栖息地和水质保护,绿道的其他目标还包括历史遗存保护,通过绿岛的建设强化地区文化和遗产之间的关系。

  In tracing the evolution of greenways, three distinct stages or “generations” can be identified. These are:

  绿道的演化,可分为三个明显的阶段或者说“三代”:

  Generation 1 greenways (pre-1700s-circa 1960). These are the axes, boulevards and parkways that first linked urban spaces—the “ancestral” greenways.

  第一代绿道(1700年前—大约1960年):轴线、林荫道和公园路开始连接城市空间,这些可看作是绿道的祖先。

  Generation 2 greenways (circa 1960-circa 1985). These are trail-oriented, primarily recreational, greenways and linear parks that provide access to rivers, streams, ridgelines, railbeds and other corridors within the urban fabric. An important emphasis of most of these greenways is non-motorized travel.

  第二代绿道(大约1960年-1985年):以步道为导向,游憩为功能的绿道和线性公园,提供接近城市肌理中河流、溪流、山脊线、铁路基面和其他通道的机会。大多数此类绿道以非机动车交通为特点。

  Generation 3 greenways (circa 1985 onward). These are the emerging “multi-objective” greenways that address needs of wildlife, flood damage reduction, water quality, historic preservation, education and other infrastructure needs in addition to urban beautification and recreation.

  第三代绿道(大约1985年以后):这个http://taoke.wlmeiwen.com时期的绿道展现出多目标,除了城市美化和游憩活动,绿道建设还关注野生动物需求、减轻洪水灾难、保护水质和历史遗产、教育和其他基础设施。

  The first generation of greenways were not called “greenways” as such, but they did provide the archetype for special, attractive, corridors weaving their way through the city. These were the landscaped axes and boulevards of Europe and later the parkways of the late nieenth century USA.

  第一代绿道当时并未称作“绿道”,但确实组成穿越于城市,特色魅力的通道网络的典型。这些通道便是欧洲景观化的轴线和林荫道和随后在美国19世纪http://www.wlmeiwen.com出现的公园路。

  Axes have many important functions and varied themes. As a minimum, axes have three functions: movement, use, and vision-experience. Axes, once introduced, bee a dominant landscape feature. They provide linkage of key features of destination points. The experience of traveling along the axis is as important—if not more important—as the movement and use functions. Modern greenways share these important characteristics as well.

  轴线由很多重要的功能和多样的主题。轴线有三个基本功能:移动、游憩和视觉体验。轴线一旦形成即成为特色的景观形态。轴线提供关键目的地点之间的http://www.gowangluo.cn联系。如果通行轴线的视觉体验不比移动和游憩的功能更重要,至少也是旗鼓相当的。现代绿道仍具有这三个典型特点。

  The first generation of greenways grew out of the axis concept. They evolved from more formal and ceremonial routes of movement into corridors that tried to reintroduce nature into the city.

  第一代绿道由轴线的思想产生而来。绿道从更加正式的交通线路逐渐演化为尝试将自然引进城市的廊道。

  In the 1960s, Olmstead, inspired by the European boulevards, proposed linking the College of California at Berkeley to the City of Oakland and the nearby hills with a landscaped “pleasure drive”. The idea included setting aside the Strawberry Creek Valley as a linear park. One important function of his parkways was to prepare visitors approaching a great park-to put them in the mood for the experience to e. Most of the parkway systems planned by Olmstead, however, were also transportation routes—for horse and carriage in Olmstead’s time, and later for automobiles.

  十九世纪七十年代,奥姆斯泰德受到欧洲林荫道的启发,提议用“愉悦的”风景道将‎加州伯克利学院和奥克兰市以及邻近的山丘连接起来。这个提议还包括规定一个溪谷带状公园。奥姆斯泰德公园路的重要功能在于让游客预感正在接近公园,从而沉浸于期待体验的情绪中。然而,由奥姆斯泰德规划的大多数公园路仍然是交通廊道,为了当时的马车和之后的机动车提供通行。

  The second generation of greenway is characterized by trail-oriented and non-motorized travel. In the second half of the twentieth century, as the automobile assumed almost total domination of North American cities, bicycles, pedestrians and equestrians sought escape from the noise and fumes. They wanted new non-motorized routes of travel. This was not always easy to achieve, especially in built-up areas where few traffic-free corridors remained.

  第二代绿道以步道和非机动车通行为特点。二十世纪后半叶,当机动车被作为北美城市的主导交通工具,自行车、行人和骑马者寻求远离噪音和尾气的途径。他们需要新的非机动车交通路线。这个目标的实现并不轻易,尤其是在仅有少量剩余自由行驶廊道的建成区。

  In the late 1960s William H. Whyte, reacting to this need to escape automobile, may have been the first person to coin the word “greenway”. In his book, The Last Landscape, he wrote: “There are all sorts of opportunities to link separated spaces together, and while plenty of money is needed to do it, ingenuity can acplish a great deal. Our metropolitan areas are crisscrossed with connective strips. Many are no longer in use…but they are there if we only look”.

  二十世纪六十年代末,‎威廉H •怀特回应远离机动车的需求,应当是第一http://www.shuizher.cn个使用“绿道”一词的人。在著作《最后的景观》中,他写道:“有很多机会连接分离的空间,这需要大量金钱,巧妙安排可以完成其中很大一部分。http://www.shuizher.cn/blog我们的都市地区交错连接的狭长土地,很多已经不再使用…但是我们仍然可以看到它们的存在”。

  Whereas many urban greenway corridors follow waterways including rivers, streams, shorelines, and canals, another type of corridor came on the sceneabandoned railroads. Like drainage ways and canals, railroad corridors offer pre-established swaths through the landscape. The grades are gentle and, like drainages, the routes often go under or over barriers such as highways, creeks, steep hills or other obstructions. The track corridor provides the “way” and the adjacent undeveloped, vegetated, strips of railroad ownership provide the “green”.

  尽管很多城市绿道沿着诸如河流、溪流、海岸和运河等水道,还有另一类是沿着景观废弃的铁路线。如同下水管道和运河一样,铁路线是景观中现成的狭长通道。类似下水管道,铁路线的坡度平缓,经常从地下穿过或从高空越过高速公路、溪流、险山和其他障碍物。铁路线形成“道”,附属于铁路两侧的狭长地带尚未开发,覆盖着植被,形成“绿”。

  In the 1960s with modes of travel shifting from track to truck, many lines were abandoned. Thus, the Rails-to-Trails movement began. Inspired by the Illinois Prairie Path and, later, Seattle’s Burke Gilman Trail, there are now thousands of miles of rail trails (Rails to Trails Conservancy, 1990) and dedicated advocates and anizations like the National Rails to Trails Conservancy.

  20世纪60年代交通模式从轨道转变为汽车,很多线路线被废弃了。由此,展开了将铁路改作步行道的运动。受到伊利诺伊草原步行道和后来的西雅图伯克吉尔曼步行道的影响,如今已经有成千英里的铁路步行道(铁路改步道管理局,1990)和热情拥护者,以及像国家铁路改步道管理局这样的组织。

  More recently, greenways are also appeared along gas, water and electrical utility routes. In Florida, three utility panies were contemplated a 515 mile trail system on top of a natural gas pipeline work. A smaller, similar system was built in New Jersey and Delaware connecting nine state parks and wildlife refuges. With thousands of miles of gas pipeline laid each year, as well as equally extensive electric corridors, there could be thousands of new potential trail and greenway corridors.

  最近,绿道出现在天然气、水和电的市政设施线路上。在佛罗里达,三家市政公司考虑沿天然气输送管网修建长515英里的步行道系统。在新泽西州和特拉华州有一个小规模的类似系统,连接了9个州立公园和野生动物庇护地。随着http://www.shuizher.cn/trip每天上千英里燃气管道的展设,以及不断延伸的电力通道,地区将产生新的潜在的成千步行道和绿道通廊。

  In the 1980s two factors tended to change this trail standard somewhat. One was the growing popularity of urban trails, which led to crowing and user conflicts, especially among cyclists, walkers, in-line skaters and equestrians. A wider trail tread of 10 ft to as much as 16 ft was adopted and, in some places, several parallel trail treads were specified with separate lanes for each type of user. The other major factor of change was the advent of the “fat tire” or mountain bike during the 1980s. This type of bike, and related “all-track” (on-street-off-street) bikes, vastly expanded the range of acceptable bike trail systems and greenways were being built unpaved or with more naturalappearing crushed stone su***ces.

  20世纪80年代有两项影响步行道标准的因素。一个是城市步行道的日益流行造成拥挤和使用者间的矛盾,特别是在骑车、步行、轮滑和骑马的人之间。更宽的步行道路面采用10英尺到16英尺,在一些地段上,用相互分离的平行车道来区分不同的使用者。另一个变化是20世纪80年代“宽轮”或是山地自行车的发明。这种自行车和全能自行车大大扩展了自行车道系统,绿道不再需要展设展装,或只需要自然的碎石路面。

  A mon feature of Generation 1 and Generation 2 greenways is that they are primarily amenity oriented. That is, they were developed to address esthetic and recreational needs of city dwellers-beautified axes and corridors as well as non-motorized routes of movement.

  第一代和第二代绿道的共同特点是它们以福利设施为导向。也就是说,无论美化的轴线还是廊道,抑或非机动车道运动,都是为了满足城市居民的美学和游憩需求。

  Indeed, they were an adaptive response, a way to offset and mitigate the effects of crowing, automobile fumes, noise, and other ills of urbanization. Although Generation 3 greenways also serve this mitigating function, they have a significantly broader mission. These new greenways pursue multiple objectives such as habitat protection, flood hazard reduction, water quality, historic preservation, education, interpretation, and other purposes.

  确实,它们是一种适应性的反映,一种抵消和减弱拥挤、机动车尾气、噪音和其他城市化弊病的方法。尽管第三代绿道同样有这些减弱功能,它们还有一个显著的更广泛的任务。这些新的绿道追求多减肥药排行榜目标,包括栖息地保护、减轻洪水灾难、水质保护、历史遗迹保护、教育、展示和其他用途。

  Greenways are now seen by many as more than amenities for beautification and recreation. They can also help sustain threatened ecosystems. It should be noted, however, that as these concepts were being formulated, warning flags were going up. Some scientists, including Simberloff and Cox raised concerns that although corridors may offer wildlife benefits, not enough is known about the potential drawbacks such as transmission of disease, fires, and exposure of wildlife to domestic animals and poachers. Others warned that wildlife corridors are not a panacea. Along with greenways that link places, “interior habitat” is still needed, and it is important that the pursuit of greenways not divert attention and resources from saving this kind of habitat as well.

  目前很多人熟悉到绿道的功能远不止美化和游憩,绿道还能帮助维持受威胁的生态系统。应当留意,当这些观点被阐明的时候,也产生出一些相反的观点。包括Simberloff和考克斯等一些科学家提出,尽管廊道让野生动物收益,对于廊道潜在的缺点尚知之甚少,比如疾病传播、火灾蔓延和将野生动物暴露在家养动物和偷猎者的目光之下。另一些人提醒说野生动物廊道并不是万灵药。绿道连接区域的同时,“内部生境”也是需要的,这点很重要,因此兴购物建绿道不可以减弱人们对此类生境的关注和投入。

  In addition to habitat protection and water quality, Generation 3greenways are pursuing other objectives, including historic preservation using greenways to highlight area culture and heritage. Rivers, streams, canals, rail lines, and roads often played key roles in the settlement and development of cities, regions, states and nations. In the USA, a number of munities have been working on greenways with historic themes. On the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania, planners are saving old tunnels, canals, aqueducts and other artifacts as well as working to protect environmental features. They are developing interpretive programs to present the corridor’s heritage in terms its role in industry and transportation, as well as political and social history. The program is striving to have the greenway link together past, present and future as well as geographic points along the corridor.

  第三代绿道除了栖息地保护和水质保护的功能,还有其他目标,诸如通过建立绿道强化地区文化和遗产特色,从而保护历史遗迹。河流、溪流、运河、铁路线和道路通常对聚居和城市、地区、国家和民族的发展起着重要作用。在美国,众多社区正在实施绿道历史保护项目。在宾夕法尼亚州的斯库尔基尔河,规划师保留着旧有的通道、运河、渡槽和其他人工淘宝热卖设施,致力于环境特征的保护。他们通过开发展示项目展现廊道在产业和运输中的历史角色,以及蕴藏其中的政治和社会故事。这个项目力图用绿道联接场地的过去、现在和将来,以及廊道沿线的地理节点。

  Generation 3 greenways also have an educational role. Anne Lusk, champion of the Stowe, VT, trail and a greenway activist, has suggested that greenways and schools make useful partners. She sees greenways as the ideal outdoor classrooms, and suggested that more schools be developed adjacent to greenway corridors and that school children adopt segments of urban greenways that they can care for, learn from, and help, protect. A number of schools have already pursued this kind of policy. In Boulder, CO, a school has nurtured its own wetland and students continually work in this outdoor laboratory and classroom. Numerous similar projects are appearing with multiple benefits.

  第三代绿道还有教育功能。斯托步道和绿道的倡导者安妮•拉斯克建议说,绿道和学校可称为互利的伙伴。她认为绿道是理想的户外教学场所,提议更多的学校在绿道临近的地区发展,学校的学生选择部分城市绿道,作为照管、学习、互助和保护的场地。很多学校已经开始实行该政策。在Boulder,一所学校栽种自己的湿地,学生持久利用这个户外的实验室和教室。许多类似的项目展现出多重效益。

  Today’s interest in greenways is the current state of a long-term human endeavor—to have an esthetic counter-balance to urbanization. Greenways are here to stay, and the movement draws strength from the fact that greenways reflect an adaptive response to very basic human needs.

  今天绿道的发展方向正是人类长期努力确当前状态——富有美感的对抗城市化。绿道对人类基本需求的适应性回应是绿道存在和演化的推动力。

[置顶]收集的宝宝食谱http://h75t3f3.blog.163.com/blog/static/18955331720115297505141

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有