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高中英语状语从句及专项练习

(2011-06-25 21:50:01)
标签:

杂谈

高中状语从句讲解及专项练习

高中状语从句基础知识

 

用作状语的句子就叫做状语从句(adverbial clause)。

状语从句通常由一个连词或起着连词作用的词组引导, 这些词或词组被称作为关联词或引导词。

状语从句同状语一样,在句中的位置比较灵活,可置于句首、句末或句中。

 

例如:

           Do it as you were told! 按照你被告知的那样去做!(引导词是as,从句置于句末)

           Whatever he says, just don’t believe him. 不管他说什么,你只要不相信就行了。(引导词是whatever,从句置于句首)

           Put in articles where they are necessary in the following passage. 在下列段落中需要处填入冠词。(引导词是where, 从句置于句中)

状语从句根据其表达的意思和用途不同,可分为时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、方式状语从句、比较状语从句等类别。

 

例如:

           Once you’ve finished, go to bed. 你干完了就去睡觉。(时间)

           You can borrow it as long as you’re not careless with it. 你可以借去用,只要你不乱用就行了。(让步)

           Now that you have come, you may as well stay. 既然你已经来了,你最好还是留下吧。(让步)

           Don’t move! Stay where you are! 别动!就站在那儿别动!(地点)

           They set out early so that they might arrive at the airport in time. 他们很早出发,以便及时赶到机场。(目的)

           It is such a difficult problem that nobody can work it out. 这是一个很难的问题,谁也解不出。(结果)

           He opened his lips as if he were going to say something. 他动了动嘴唇,好像要说什么似的。(方式)

           In case it rains, do not expect me. 如若下雨,就不要等我了。(条件)

           The harder you study, the more knowledge you will get. 学习越用功,得到的知识就越多。(比较)

 

时间状语从句拓宽知识

时间状语从句表时间,其关联词主要有:

when, while, as,

before, after,

since,

(not) until,

as soon as,

hardly/scarcely/barely…when, no sooner… than,

the minute/moment/second…,

directly/immediately,

each (every, next, the first…) time

 

例如:

           Soon after her mother returned, the girl went to sleep.女孩在她母亲回来后不久就睡着了。

           I have lived in Shanghai since I was a child.我从小就住在上海。

when, while和as在引导时间状语从句时都可表示“当……时候”,但互相间有区别。

when:主句和从句的动作可以是同时发生,也可以是先后发生,动词如果是指可以持续发生的动作的话,通常用进行时态来表示;when 引导的时间状语可以表示一段时间内发生的动作,也可以表示某一时间点所发生的动作。

while:主句和从句的动作基本上是同时发生的,动词如果是指可以持续发生的动作的话,通常用进行时态来表示;while 引导的时间状语只表示一段时间内发生的动作;while 也可以指两个动词间的对比,表示反差相当于but。

as:  主句和从句的动作可以是同时发生,也可以是先后发生,但强调动作是紧接着发生,表示“随着……、一边……一边、正当……”。

 

例如:

           While I was having dinner, he was reading a very interesting story. 当我在用餐时,他正在读一本有趣的小说。(主、从句的动作持续在一段时间内同时发生)

           I will go on a trip to Canada when I have enough money. 当我有足够的资金的时候,我会到加拿大去旅行。(主、从句的动作先后发生)

           We were having a party when the lights went out suddenly. 当灯突然熄灭的时候,我们正在开派对。(灯熄灭是突然的动作,when 在这里引导的时间状语从句是表示某一时间点所发生的动作)

           While we were watching TV, the boy came in hurriedly. 当我们在看电视时,男孩匆忙跑了进来。(主、从句的动作同时发生,可以用when来代替)

           While my mum was busy preparing supper, my dad was reading a newspaper. 当我妈妈忙于准备晚饭时,我爸爸倒在看报纸。(表示对比,可以用but来代替)

           As the pupils walked along the street, they sang happily. 学生们一边沿着街道走,一边愉快地唱歌。(主、从句的动作同时发生, 强调“一边……一边”,不可替换)

           As spring comes, everything comes to life. 春回大地,万物苏醒。(表示紧接发生的动作,“随着……”)

一些表示时间的副词和短语也可以引导时间状语从句。

 

例如:

           Directly the mother was out of sight of her son, she wanted to see him. 这个母亲一看不到儿子就想见他。(directly相当于as soon as)

           We’ll leave the minute you’re ready. 你准备好了我们就走。(the minute引导从句)

           The day he returned home, he found great changes had taken place in his hometown. 他回家的那一天发现家乡已发生了翻天覆地的变化。(the day引导从句)

           The first time she saw the dress, she fell in love with it. 当她第一眼看到这条裙子,她立刻就喜欢上了。(the first time 引导时间状语从句, 相当于when she saw the dress for the first time, …)

            

 

地点状语从句拓宽知识

地点状语从句表地点,其关联词有where,  wherever, anywhere, everywhere, etc.

地点状语从句中有些部分经常可以省略。

地点状语从句经常容易和定语从句混淆。

 

例如:

           Corn grows best where the ground is rich. 谷物在土地肥沃的地方长得最好。

           You are able to go wherever you like. 你喜欢上哪儿就可以上哪儿。

           Everywhere you go, never forget your motherland. 无论你到哪里,都不要忘记自己的祖国。

           He would live with his grandmother anywhere she lived. 不管他的祖母住在哪儿,她都愿意和她住在一起。

           Such kind of structure should be avoided wherever (it is) possible. 像此种结构随处都得避免。(it is 可以省略)

           Fill in the blanks with the proper form of verbs where necessary.在下面的空格里,如需要使用动词的,用其恰当形式填写。(同样省略了where 之后的主谓结构)

           Please make a mark where you have a question to ask. 在你有问题需要问的地方做一个标记。(此句句子为地点状语从句,由where 来引导。 但常常被误认为定语从句, 其实假定where 引导的是定语从句的话, 该“定语从句”在意义上无法修饰其“先行词”mark)

           College graduates should go where our country most needs them. 大学毕业生应到祖国最需要他们的地方去。(还是由where 来引导的地点状语从句,如作为定语从句来理解的话,那么定语从句的先行词都没有,go 是动词。但因为常常被误认为定语从句,所以学生常会用“in which 或to which”来代替where)

 

 

原因状语从句表原因或理由,其关联词有because, as, since, in that, now that, etc.

because, as, since 均表示“因为、由于”的意思。

because 语气最强,用以回答why, 可与强调词only, just以及否定词not连用。

as 和since的语气较弱,所表示的原因比较明显,或是已知的事实,故不需要强调。它们引导的从句多置于句首,且不能用强调词修饰,也不可和否定词not 连用。as 指“由于”;since 指“既然”

 

例如:

           George was worried because he hadn’t had any letter from Green. 乔治很着急,因为他一直未收到格林的信。

           You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you. 你不该仅仅因为有些人说了你的坏话就发怒。

           The man bought the expensive house easily only because his parents had given him a large sum of money. 就因为这个男的父母给了一大笔钱,所以他能轻松买下这么贵的房子。

           It was because I wanted to see my uncle that I went to town yesterday.我昨天是由于要去看我的叔叔而进城的。(because 引导的原因状语从句的强调句形式:It is (was) because …. that …, since 与 as 无此形式)

           As the bell had rung, all the students went to the classroom. 由于上课铃声响了,同学们都进了教室。

           Since you’re going, I will go too. 既然你要去,我也去吧。

 

 

结果状语从句表结果,其关联词有so, so that , so…that, such…that, with the result that, etc.

so…that常和形容词或副词连用,若有与有形容词的短语连用,则引起倒装;such…that 常和名次连用。

结果状语从句常置于主句之后。

目的状语从句表目的,其关联词有so that, in order that, lest, etc.

目的状语从句中常常有情态动词may (might), shall (should), will (would), can (could) 来表示目的。

so that 和in order that 所引导的目的状语从句可放于句首。

lest 和in case 引导目的状语从句时表示“以免、以防”的意思,一般用虚拟语气。

 

例如:

           They had oral practice every morning, so that they made rapid progress in their speaking. 他们每天早晨练习口语, 结果他们口语能力提高很快。

           He worked so hard that he finished his task in three days. 他工作得很努力,三天就完成了任务。

           She is such a demanding girl that it’s impossible for any other one to please her. 她是一个如此苛刻的女孩以至于不可能有人会令她满意。

           I was in the bath, with the result that I didn’t hear the telephone. 我在洗澡,所以没听见电话铃声。

           He drew a plan of the village so that she could find his house easily. 他花了一张这个村子的草图,以便于她能找到他的房子。

           In order that the grass and flowers could bloom again, it was necessary that the rocks should be removed. 为了这些花草能再开花,这些石头必须搬走。

           Take your umbrella with you, lest/in case it should rain. 带上你的伞,以防下雨。(should rain 是虚拟形式)

 

条件状语从句拓宽知识

条件状语从句表条件,其关联词有

if;

only if,

unless,

as/so long as;  as/so far as,

provided/providing (that),

suppose, supposing,

assuming,

on condition that,

once(note: some can + ~ing/~ed): Once begun, …

in case

条件状语从句分为真实条件和非真实条件两种。非真实条件状语从句可查看本书“虚拟语气”内容,本节只讨论真实条件情况。

条件状语从句在句中位置灵活,可置前也可置后;从句动词常用现在时态或过去时态表示。

 

例如:

           If the weather is fine tomorrow, we shall go to attend the pop-song singer’s concert. 如果明天天好的话,那么我们就去参加那位流行歌手的音乐会。

           Suppose he didn’t believe in us, what should we do then?如果他不信任我们的话,那我们该怎么办?(在此处,suppose 相当于if 的用法。)

           Supposing Tom can’t come to repair our TV set, who will do the work?如果汤姆布来修我们的电视机的话,那谁来干这活呢?(supposing的用法同上)

           Assuming that you are right, they are sure to get much profit from that. 假设你是正确的话,那他们就会从那儿获得巨额利润。(assuming 后经常跟上含有that的从句,相当于if 从句)

           Providing (that) there is no opposition, we shall bring the meeting to an end.如果没什么反对意见的话,那今天的会就开到这里。(providing 引导从句时that可加可不加,等同于if 引导的条件状语从句)

           You may borrow my lap-top, on condition that you won’t lend it to anyone else.你可以借用我的手提电脑,只要你不擅自借给他人就行了。(on condition 后经常跟带有that 的从句 )

英语有一种条件状语从句与主句并无直接关系,被称为间接条件状语从句。

 

例如:

           You are so careless to your work that I don’t think you will accomplish anything in future, if I may say so. 如我可直言,你对待工作如此粗枝大叶以至于我认为你今后将无法有所作为。(等同于‘I am telling you, if I may, that you so careless to your work that …’)

If引导的条件状语从句有时会省略主谓结构。

例如:

           If necessary, call me up at any time. 必要时你随时打电话给我。(If it is necessary, …)

            

 

让步状语从句表“虽然,尽管,即使”等意思,其关联词有

though; although;

even if/though;

however;

no matter how/what/who…

whether…or…not…     

in spite of/despite +n phrase

for all (that),

in spite of the fact that,

wh-ever,

从句的位置即可置于主句之前也可以之后。

 

例如:

           He works hard though he is very old.随他很牢,但工作很卖力。

           Even if I had been invited, I wouldn’t attend his birthday party.即使我是被邀请了,我也不会出席他的生日派对。

           They are good people, for all that their ways of life are different from ours. 他们是好人,尽管他们的生活方式与我们不同。

           He went out in spite of the fact that he had a bad cold. 尽管他患感冒很严重,他仍旧外出了。

           You can’t come in, whoever you are.不管你是谁,都不可以进来。(相当于No matter who you are, you can’t come in. 注意no matter who 和whoever都可以用来引导让步状语从句,但whoever还可以用来引导名词性从句。)

           However busy he is, he is willing to help anyone who needs his help. 无论他有多忙,他总会帮助那些需要他帮助的人。

            

让步状语从句的倒装。由as所引导的让步状语从句置于句首时,通常会出现倒装的语法结构。

 

例如:

           Old as I am, I can still fight. 虽然我老了,但仍能战斗。(相当于Although I am old, I can ….)

           Boy as he is, he is very careful with his work.虽然他是个男孩子,但他对工作却是一丝不苟的。(相当于Though he is a boy, he is ….注意当名词置于句首时,必须使用其最简单结构。)

           Try as you may, you will never succeed. 你尽管试吧,但决不会成功。

 

 

方式状语从句拓宽知识

方式状语从句表动作方式,其关联词有(just) as, as if, as though, the way, how, etc. 多置于主句之后。

 

例如:

           You ought to finish the task as he does. 你应该像他那样来完成此项任务。

           They talked as if they had been friends for a long time. 他们说话的样子就好像是多年的好友一般。

           To be frank, I don’t like the way he eats.说实话,我不太喜欢他吃饭的样子。(the way 相当于the way that, 也相当于the way in which)

           Do it how you can. 你可按自己之所能去做。(how等同于in whatever manner)

as 之前通常可以用just或exactly来强调。

方式状语从句有时可以省略部分成分。

 

例如:

           I did just as you told me. 我正是按照您的吩咐去做的。

           He did as told. 他遵嘱而行。(相当于He did as he had been told.)

           He paused as if expecting her to speak.他停顿了一下,就仿佛等她说话似的。(相当于as if he was expecting her to speak.)

 

 

比较状语从句表示比较,其关联词有(not)as/so … as, than, the + 比较级,the + 比较级, etc.

 

例如:

           China is much larger than Japan. 中国比日本大得多。

           The more you have read, the more you have learned. 你读得越多就学得越多。

           I can walk faster than you can run. 我走得比你跑得还快呢。

           He woke up as suddenly as he had fallen asleep. 他醒来得和他入睡得一样快。

 

 

            

此外,下列结构还可表示对比或对照,其关联词有except, but, etc.

 

例如:

           The concert was wonderful except that the last part was too loud. 这个音乐会整体不错,就是最后一部分太响了。

           It never rains but it pours. 从来都是祸不单行。

 

状语从句测试

1.         John shut everybody out of the kitchen ________he could prepare his grand surprise for the party.

A. which   B. when         C. so that          D. as if

2.         I would appreciate it ________ you call back this afternoon for the doctor’s appointment.

A. until                       B. if               C. when                       D. that

3.         As far as I am concerned,education is about learning and the more you learn,________.

A. the more for life are you equipped

B. the more equipped for life you are

C. the more life you are equipped for

D. you are equipped the more for life

4.         After the war,a new school building was put up _______there had once been a theatre.

A. that                   B. where               C. which               D. when

5.         —Is Mr. Smith in the office?

—Yes,_____ he is in charge of the office,he must be there.

A. since                 B. however                   C. whether                   D. for

6.         As your good friend, I will do ________help you.

A. that I can to                                                        B. what I can to

C. all that I can                                                D. what I can

7.         John may phone tonight. I don’t  want to go out ________he phones.

A. as long as                                             B. in order to

C. in case                                                        D. so that

8.         Someone called me up in the middle of the night,but they hung up ________I could answer the phone.

A. as                                                               B. since

C. until                                                            D. before

9.         —Don’t look down upon Bob. He has his own advantages.

—Oh, ________others are weak, he is strong.

A. If                                                                     B. When

C. Where                                                         D. Though

10.     It is ten years ________he smoked.

A. that                                                            B. when

C. since                                                           D. while

11.     We must hurry up ________catch up with the last train.

A. that                                                          B. so that to

C. in order that                                                 D. in order to

12.     No matter ________hard it may be,I will carry it out.

A. what                                                    B. whatever

C. how                                                     D. however

13.     ________ you may do,you must do it well.

A. Which                                                        B. Whenever

C. Whatever                                                    D. When

14.     —Are you thinking about going to New York for the holiday?

—No. But if I ___the time,I would definitely go.

A. have                                             B. had

C. have had                                       D. would have

15. ____ you are so weak,you’d better stay at home.

A. Since                                                          B. For

C. Because                                                      D. Though

16. English and French are taught here. You can choose ________you like.

A. no matter which                      B. whichever

C. which                                    D. whatever

17. I saw Mr. Smith last Sunday. We had not seen each other ________I left London.

A. as                                                            B. before

C. since                                                           D. till

18. I’ll be back before you ________.

A. will leave                                      B. will have left

C. leave                                             D. would leave

19. The problem won’t be settled until we ________a chance to discuss it thoroughly.

A. have had                                              B. will have

C. will have had                                        D. would have

20.If you _____this experiment,you will understand the theory better.

A. will be doing                                         B. have done

C. will have done                                       D. would do

21. They went on working ______it was late at night.

A. even if                                                               B. as if

C. however                                                      D. as though

22. I hurried ________I wouldn’t be late for class.

A. since                                                    B. so that

C. as if                                                     D. unless

23. The volleyball match will be put off if it ______.

A. will rain                                                       B. rains

C. rained                                                         D. is raining

24.______ you talk to someone or write a message,you show your skills to others.

A. At times                                                      B. Some time

C. By the time                                            D. Every time

25.Although he is considered a great writer,________.

A. however his works are not widely read

B. but his works are not widely read

C. his works are not widely read

D. still his works are not widely read

26. The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she _______.

A. will arrive                               B. is going to arrive

C. arrives                                          D. is arriving

27.We should finish the important job,________.

A. long it takes however

B. it takes however long

C. long however it takes

D. however long it takes

 

 

28.________he made an important speech at the meeting was true.

A. That                                      B. Why

C. What                                     D. How

29.________comes to the party will receive a gift.

A. Which                                    B. Who

C. Which one                           D. Whoever

30. She is willing to help you, ________busy she is.

A. what                                      B. how

C. however                                 D. whatever

31. I don’t care whether he stays ________goes.

A. nor                                          B. then

C. or                                            D. otherwise

32.No matter _____hard it may be,I’ll carry it out.

A. what                                   B. whatever

C. how                                       D. however

33. Why do you want to find a new job ________you’ve got such a good one already?

A. that                                          B. where

C. which                                    D. when

34.________he is, he will be thinking of you.

A. Wherever                               B. Where

C. Now that                                D. As soon as

35. You should make it a rule to leave things ___ you can find them again.

A. when                              B. where

C. then                                D. there

36.He got excited at the news,_______ I was calm.

A. when                                     B. while

C. because                                  D. after

37.—Shall Brown come and play computer games?

—No,________ he has finished his homework.

A. when                                     B. if

C. unless                                    D. once

38._______ you try,you will never succeed.

A. If                                                 B. Until

C. Since                                     D. Unless

39. Hardly had he arrived in Hong Kong _____ she rang me up.

A. when                                     B. than

C. that                                       D. and

40.__they heard the shout for help,they rushed out.

A. Immediately                            B. The moment

C. The while                               D. All the above

41.______,he never seems able to do the work beautifully.

A. Try as he does                        B. as he tries

C. Try as does he                        D. As he does try

42.—The air is full of smoke and people are coughing.

—It will get worse_____ the government does something about the pollution.

A. but                                      B. unless

C. except                                    D. if

 

43.If ________,I would have gone with him.

A. had he told me                        B. he had told me

C. he has told me                        D. he would tell me

44.—Alice is moving to her new apartment next Saturday.

—I’ll be glad to help her,____ need some help.

A. should she                              B. if she will

C. if she                                     D. if she might

45. I came ________I heard the news.

A. until                                     B. as soon as

C. immediately                            D.B and C

46. What we have seen________.

A. from what we heard

B. all what we heard

C. to what we have heard

D. from what we have heard

47. We will never give in _____ they might do or say about our plan.

A. no matter how                        B. how

C. whatever                             D. although

48.If you go to Xi’an,you will find the places there more magnificent than commonly ________.

A. supposing                               B. supposed

C. to suppose                              D. suppose

49._______ he comes,we would not be able to go.

A. Without                                  B. Unless

C. Except                                          D. Even

50. It’s no wonder you’ve got a headache ______ you drank so much last night.

A. though                                   B. in case

C. when                                     D. while

51. I wonder if I __time. If I __time,I’ll go with you.

A. have;have                            B. will have;will have

C. have;will have               D. will have;have

52.By the time you ___ back,the supper ____ ready.

A. will get;will be                      B. get;was

C. get;will be                            D. will get;is

53. Telephone me as soon as you _______the results.

A. will get          B. get                    C. had got             D. got

54.______ I live,I will never give in to the enemy.

A. As far as                                    B. As long as

C. As well as                                      D. As soon as

55. I really wonder ____ he has posted me many packages _____he worked together.

A. how;after                                           B. why;when

C. when;before                                       D. why;since

56. Please pronounce the word _______I did.

A. by the way                                           B. the way

C. the moment                                                 D. like

57. I was about to leave my house ___the phone rang.

A. while                B. when        C. as                     D. after

58. I had cut the meat into pieces ___Mother started cooking.

A. when                                                   B. as soon as

C. after                                                    D. while

59.You should visit the part of the country when __.

A. spring will come                            B. it will be spring

C. it is spring                              D. it is coning spring

60. I don’t like to be interrupted if I ________.

A. speaks                                                 B. will speak

C. am speaking                                  D. would be speaking

 

 

 

阶段测试答案

1~5 CBBBA                                  6~10 BCDCC

11~15 DCCBA                            16~20 BCCAB

21~25 ABBDC                            26~30 CDADC

31~35 CCDAB                            36~40 BCDAD

41~45 ABBAD                            46~50 DCBBC

51~55 DCBBD                            56~60 BBACC

 

分析

1.so that引导目的状语从句。

2.if引导条件状语从句。

3.本句是the more… the more…句型,第二个比较级修饰形容词equipped。

4.where引导表示地点的状语从句。

5.since在这里引导原因状语从句。

7.in case以防万一。

19.主句为将来时态时,状语从句一般用一般现在时表将来,但如果强调状语从句的动作先完成,可用完成时。

24.此处的every time当连词使用。

37.这是对话省略,引出一个条件“除非他先完成作业”。

38.本句意为“除非你努力,(否则)你决不可能获得成功”。

43.本句的条件状语从句是虚拟语气。

50.when在本句中相当于since,seeing that,considering that,“既然;鉴于”。

56.“请按我的方法来发这个单词的音”。

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