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Talks on “dark matter”and “dark energy” strenuously sough

(2016-09-12 12:54:20)
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核外电子

太阳

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Talks on “dark matter”and “dark energy” strenuously sought in the human science field and the solution

 

Gong Shiyuan, Renmin University of China

 

Abstract:Scientists have devoted a huge amount of scientific research investment to looking for dark energy and dark matter, but without a satisfactory answer. According to the nuclear fusion theory, the sun can radiate 4.26 million tons of light matters and energy per second into the solar system space, with the radiation time up to 5.0 billion years; and even over 5.0 billion years. Besides, in the sun, there are frequent happenings of physical phenomena with huge eruption of the matters, such as solar prominence, solar corona, solar flare and solar wind, with the eruption of the overwhelming amount of high-temperature matters. The Galaxy has nearly 200 billion stars, which started releasing the light matters billions of years ago, and frequent happenings of superior eruption phenomena, such as solar prominent, solar corona, matter ejection, superior solar flare and solar wind. According to the law of conservation of matter and energy, the superior energy and matters released or erupted by any star shall not disappear without ground. The vast space of the universe is far bigger than the sum of the stars, the product of the minimal mass with the vast universe space will be a super-huge figure. Besides, in the vast expanse of the universe space, there are a superior number of meteorites, ice blocks, nebulae and particles; all cosmic ray characteristics and particle matters completely comply with the characteristics of dark matter and dark energy. The temperature of superior energy radiated by 200 billion stars in the Galaxy, after the attenuation in the vast cosmic space, is reduced to about 3K. The above is my simple understanding of “dark energy” and “dark matter”.

 

Keywords: dark matter, dark energy, solar corona, solar prominence, solar flare, solar wind

 

In the comic space, the light rays run with the light speed here and there. According to the “dynamic mass”principle of Einstein, such light rays moving in the light speed have very high motion mass, and these lights are continuous. The sun is very far from other stars in the galaxy. Among them, there are the movements of light rays here and there. The light rays also move among other stars. Even in the vast stellar space, in the huge space between the star galaxies with the distance up to 500 million light years, there are continuous light rays. In the comic space spanning up to 500 million light years, if the “light ray masses” from all continuous motions are accumulated, this would be very huge mass. Probably we cannot predict and calculate this mass because the interstellar space of the universe is really too large so that even the product of a very minimal mass with such huge three-dimensional space would be frightening.

 

If there isn’t light ray in the huge space of the star galaxy, we cannot see and observe the remote star and star galaxy. It is said that we now can detect the movement of remote star galaxy with the distance of 1 billion, 10 billion, even 15 billion and 20 billion light years. It should be said that the light rays emitted by all galaxies are continuous, which may be considered as being composed of continuous photons. Light rays exist and run in various directions and angles! We can see all objects from any direction we want to see. We imagine: the traveling speed of light is 300 thousand km/s, then the distance that the light travels in a day is about 26 billion km (which is a gigantic figure. If the aircraft fuel is sufficient, and the aircraft can fly at the speed of 1000km per hour, then this distance can only be reached with innumerable years).

 

If it is one hundred million light years (the aircraft cannot reach even it has been worn off till its loss), it should be said that the distance that the light ray runs for one hundred million years is very large. If there is a remote star ten billion light years from the earth in the universe and its light ray can reach the earth, this beam of light should be composed of continuous photons. (The solar sail can fly out of the solar system with the spacecraft, if the sail diameter is 300m, 0.5t spacecraft can be sent to the Mars within 200 days; if the sail diameter is up to 2,000m, it can make the 5t spacecraft fly out of the solar system. The solar sail can fly out of the solar system, fully demonstrating that the light ray has “particulate” nature.) In 1905, Einstein further raised that light wave is discontinuous, and has the particulate nature, thus called it light quantum. No matter whether the light ray has “static mass”, or “motion mass”; or what the mass of these photons is. The product with such superior space shall be superlarge. The light rays in the universe are far more than one beam, and even in the darkest comic space, there should be the light ray. At the same time, some light rays even have the length up to over 10 billion light years. If the masses of these light rays are accumulated, the result would be unimaginable.

 

Light ray should have certain mass. With regard to the dark energy and the temperature of cosmic background radiation, we can get the optimal answer. A super number of light rays with the radiation of the sun and supernova have very high and huge energy and temperature. Even after remote and long-lasting path attenuation, it can still have minimal energy and temperature. It is said that energy and light rays released by all the stars, the sun and supernova have the history of over 10 billion years. The energy released by all these stars (the sun) shall not disappear without ground, the light rays and temperature radiated by all stars and supernova are superimposed, thus the temperature would be higher and higher and would not disappear without ground. The earth receives the solar energy at the rate of about one 2.2 billionth of total solar energy. And most of solar energy has been reflected in the daytime and radiated into the cosmic space in the nighttime. Besides, there is huge energy in the earth, Saturn and Jupiter, which is also radiated into the vast cosmic space.

 

Actually, the earth only receives a very small portion of solar energy, which is subsequently released by burning and other methods; and all solar energy is finally radiated into the vast cosmic space. The energy radiated by the supernova, star, the sun and the earth shall not disappear without ground! But the cosmic space is superhuge (the sun is very close to the center of the Galaxy, but still has the distance of 26 thousand light years for the light ray). Therefore, the temperature formed by energy superposition looks still very low holistically, far lower than the surface temperature of the earth. But after the distance attenuation of the super cosmic space, the formed accumulative cosmic temperature can only reach more than 270 degrees below zero (that is, 3k cosmic background temperature). The characteristics of dark matter and dark energy in our current knowledge are very “queer” and “unfathomable”, so does the characteristics of light. Since in the universe, the star galaxies and all stars exist in various directions and angles, completely complying with the characteristics of dark matter and dark energy.

 

For the answer to the nature of light and the propagation of light ray, I never “negate” the wave of light (if yes, it should be absolutely horizontal wave). But we cannot negate the “particulate nature”of light. Solar sail phenomenon can serve as a good proof that “light” has “particulate nature”. Since “light” has the particulate nature, “light” should comply with some characteristics owned by the particles! We firstly assume that “photon” is a fundamental particle. Neutron, proton, electron, quark, gluon and neutrino have certain mass. No matter how small their mass is, they have certain mass and certain volume and boundary. I cannot provide the “photon” mass, but we can assume: (the mass of one photon is “m photon”). With the physical quantity of photon mass “m photon” in this assumption, we can answer many physical phenomena and natural phenomena.

 

We can understand and consider Einstein’s law of conservation of mass energy, E=mc^2: either the explosion of atomic bomb, or nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen bomb, will produce a super number of photons and light rays. The quantity of the photons generated by the nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen bomb cannot be calculated by us, and the calculation formula of Einstein can basically express the relation between the mass before the reaction and the mass after the reaction. Nuclear fusion reaction and nuclear fission reaction not only produce super number of photons, but also produce other particles and rays. If the mass of all photons (m photon) and the mass of other rays released by nuclear reactions are accumulated, it would be very probable to be close to the loss mass, so that it is not difficult for us to understand the loss mass from nuclear reactions.

 

Nuclear fusion reaction theory of the sun holds that the nuclear fusion reaction happens with 620 million t of hydrogen per second, in which 4.26 million t of matters are converted into energy, and solar energy can be released by means of light radiation. The sun releases 4.26 million t of light matters per second, then how many tons of “light matters” will be released in one light year and ten million light years? It is said that 65 million years ago, there wasn’t the human beings, the sun had existed and constantly released the energy.

 

We cannot calculate the quantity of “m photon”. If the sun released 4.26 million t of light matters per second, total quantity of light matters released by the sun after 5 billion years would be very gigantic if they are accumulated. The matters released by the sun would not disappear without ground, but remain in the universe. The Galaxy has about 200 billion stars, and the cosmic space has nearly 200 billion star galaxies. Let’s calculate the energy and light matters released by these 200 billion stars within 5 billion years.

 

In addition, except for the super light matter radiated by the sun, the solar flare, solar corona, solar prominence and solar wind often happen in the sun, and various particulate matters are erupted into the cosmic space, and the mass of these particulates is far more than that of m photon. In case of the continuous eruption for 65 million years, the number of particulate matters would be very probable to be a super number. The mass would be times that of the light matter previously calculated, because the mass of the particulate is multiple times that of the photon.

 

(Similar to) the star galaxies and its interiors of the Galaxy, (about 200 billion) particulate matters are erupted in the sun all year round. Stars, planets and innumerable meteorites are disintegrated into various particles of matters all the time (the Mercury is very close to the sun, thus having very serious matter evaporation). Every year, the earth has a large amount of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. If the gas quantity erupted from the earth is not very sufficient, the volcanic ash would absolutely not reach the height of over ten thousand meters (we may use the blower to make the experiment. The volcanic ash can rush to the height of ten thousand meters, it is unimaginable for the blower volume, and the air quantity is more unimaginable). Since the atmospheric layer has the limited volume and cannot be expanded limitlessly, atmospheric overflow is very serious (the volcanoes in the sun, Saturn and Jupiter are more frequent and fierce than in the earth, and the eruption level is unimaginable and unreachable in the earth).

 

After these super particulate matters erupted by the stars escape from the attraction of the stars, it is very probable that they are united into the small groups, and then gradually are formed into the nebula. Large area and large volume nebulae can be detected by our instruments; innumerable small area and small volume nebulae cannot be detected by us because of the technological level and the tolerance of instruments and equipment. Because their density and volume is very small and they cannot be formed into the nebula, we cannot easily observe and detect them. But in the dark interstellar space, a large number of them do exist. Since our current instruments have very large tolerance; we cannot discover these minimal nebulae and extremely remote particulate matters, actually their quantity would very probably be beyond our imagination; it would be very probable that their quantity is innumerable times that of the visible matters detected by us. Though they cannot be detected by our eyes and instruments, we must not say that they don’t exist. The accumulation of their total mass would very probably be far beyond “visible matter” detected by us and they would very probably be the “dark matter” we are strenuously searching for. They erupt from supernova and stars, carrying the super energy and super temperature, that is, “dark energy” we are strenuously searching for.

 

Cosmic space and galactic space are super large. The sun is very close to the center of the Galaxy, but the light ray will take more than 30 thousand years to reach it at the speed of 300 thousand km/s. Various matters are continuously erupted from super number of stars and supernovae all year round for billions of years, mostly accumulated inside and around the galaxies, to form invisible nebulae (which cannot be detected because of the tolerance of our instruments). Since the light rays of the stars and various particulates in the Galaxy are relatively concentrating, the interior temperature of the Galaxy is slightly higher than other places in the cosmic space. All dark matters are relatively concentrating, to form many holistic galaxies with very high mass. Such method can well address the mass deviation in the “galaxies”.

 

Let’s look at other natures of “light”. As we know, the attraction of black hole can attract and change the straight propagation of the light ray and can bend the light ray. If we consider the light ray as being composed of some “photons” with certain mass, the attraction and bending of the light ray with the super attraction of black hole can be well answered. We can temporarily consider “photon” as a fundamental particle with certain minimal mass. Though I cannot provide the detailed data for mass m photon of the photon, I propose two measurement methods. First, traditional measurement is used to measure other fundamental particles for precision measurement; second, I cannot tell whether it is successful, in which, according to the assumed mass m photon and the measured photon motion speed, and the mass of black hole and the arc of light ray when approaching the black hole (in the observation with the light tangent method, when the light ray passes the black hole at the light tangent direction, it is calculated with the deviation angle and arc). I don’t know whether this method is practicable, and this is only my contemplation.

The issues about “light” are some complex. Light speed

 

measurement and determination is not a simple thing. The wave and particle natures of light have exhausted innumerable scientists. I hope that my contents can be timely published and made available to related science and technology personnel, or related scientists for reference. Would you like to make the related scientists and experts to judge whether my analysis is correct? I have some more contents to be added!

 

神秘的地球:http://www.uux.cn/viewnews-43449.html

中国百科网:http://www.chinabaike.com/z/shenghuo/kp/2013/0126/1149975.html

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http://v.ku6.com/show/e7iJbgCS15-Q-Ahg.html (1分41秒)

天文论坛:http://www.astronomy.com.cn/bbs/thread-258565-1-1.html

 

物理学科网:http://wl.zxxk.com/article/226168.html

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数苑:http://www.math168.com/Dtxx/57065.htm

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