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I have several basic physics questions for the high&nbsp

(2016-09-12 11:16:42)

I have several basic physics questions for the high school students, can answer them?

Gong Shiyuan, Renmin University of China

We live on the earth, dealing with the matters all the time. It may be said that all matters are composed of atoms. Atom is the minimum particle in the matter evolution, chemical change and physical change, is composed of atomic nucleus and extranuclear electron. Atomic nucleus has very minimal volume, only accounting for one per one hundred billion of total atom volume, in which there is the super interior space. “Some professors give a metaphor: the atomic nucleus has very small volume, but has most of the mass for the atom. If the size of the nucleus is like a glass ball, the electronic orbit will be two kilometers away.”Another metaphor is given like this, “If the weight of an apple is magnified into the size of the earth, the volume of the atomic nucleus is only that of the current apple”! The above metaphor basically implies the huge space in the atom. That is to say, these atoms containing super interior space have constituted our human body and the earth, the sun, Saturn, Jupiter, supernovae as well as meteorite and nebulae and so on.

As we know, atomic nucleus has positive charge, and extranuclear electron has negative charge, and positive and negative charges attract each other. Since the atom volume is extremely minimal, such attraction of positive and negative charges shall be super large in such minimal space. Though extranuclear electron produces the eccentric force under the high-speed motion, the object and atom also undertake super external pressure; the internal pressure of the sun and the earth has been up to the level beyond our imagination. Why is there such internal super attraction; at the same time, when super and huge external pressure is applied outside, why cannot the orbital electrons outside the nucleus be combined with positive charge of nucleus? Or why did they fall onto the nucleus? If the temperature has the effect, why can it happen also on Uranus, Neptune and Pluto at extremely low temperature? Why? Why does such queer and some “abnormal”things happen?

After the calculation, the pressure generated by 10 atmospheric pressures is about equivalent to the pressure intensity generated by 100t object uniformly pressed on the 1m2 area. The seawater pressure undertaken by the undersea boat in the submarine layer should be said that it will be far more than 10 atmospheric pressures. Internal pressure in the depth of 1,000km and 2,000km in the earth can be far more than maximum seawater pressure undertaken by the undersea boat. The mass of the sun may be times that of the earth. The internal pressure formed in the sun will also be times that of the earth (which is said to be up to 250 billion atmospheric pressures). The volume of atom is very minimal, and the short-distance attraction of positive and negative charges in the atom shall be super large; at the same time, super large external pressure is also applied outside. Why? Why? Do the electron and orbit structure outside the atomic nucleus exist? Why cannot those extranuclear negative charges be combined with the positive and negative charges in nucleus or fall onto the atomic nucleus? Why? Why?

After the calculation, the pressure generated by 10 atmospheric pressures is about equivalent tothe pressure intensity generated by 100t object uniformly pressed on the 1m2 area. Then, ten thousand atmospheric pressures are equivalent to the pressure intensity generated by 100 thousand t object uniformly pressed on the 1m2 area. Then, how large are 10t objects? Specifically, what is such figure? The water discharge at the full-load status of the largest “atomic powered aircraft carrier” in the world can reach 100 thousand t. Then, 10 thousand atmospheric pressures are about equivalent to the pressure intensity generated by a “full-load atomic powered aircraft carrier”, which is “vertically” uniformly pressed on the 1m2 area. Let’s make a rough calculation: in case of 100 thousand atmospheric pressures; or one million atmospheric pressures, what will be the result? If en thousand atmospheric pressures are equivalent to the pressure intensity generated by a “full-load atomic powered aircraft carrier”vertically uniformly pressed on the 1m2 area, then 100 thousand atmospheric pressures are equivalent to the pressure intensity generated by ten “full-load atomic powered aircraft carriers”vertically uniformly pressed on the 1m2 area. Then one million atmospheric pressures are “equivalent to” 100 “full-load atomic powered aircraft carriers”vertically uniformly pressed on the 1m2 area. What is this pressure intensity?

It is said that the pressure in the sun can be up to 250 billion atmospheric pressures. What is 250 billion atmospheric pressures? Let’s calculate to get the result. We will not calculate and consider the 200 billion atmospheric pressures in the anterior integer position and subsequent 50 billion atmospheric pressures. We will calculate and analyze 100 million atmospheric pressures to see the result. That is, one hundred million atmospheric pressure is equivalent to that we 100 “nuclear powered aircraft carriers” at full load and vertically placed; to form the mass of 100 “full-load nuclear powered aircraft carriers” as a “basic unit data”. We then regroup it, and superimpose and place vertically 10 “basic units” to form a “new”basic unit; so that we can reach 10 million atmospheric pressures. One hundred million atmospheric pressures are equivalent to ten’s ten million atmospheric pressures, then what will be the data for 50 billion and 200 billion atmospheric pressures? You may calculate them. I have fallen in a faint.

In addition, the objects and matters similar to iron and steel cannot only undertake super pressure, but also has very strong “tensile strength”. A steel wire rope with the size of large thumb can undertake the object several ten, several hundred, even several thousand and tens of thousands of kilograms. There are the ropes made of carbon fiber and nylon rope, which can have very surprising “tensile” strength! It is said that “carbon fiber” rope with the size of a thumb can easily “lift” huge and heavy “locomotive”! Why does iron and steel have very strong “compressive strength”? but also can undertake huge “tensile strength”?

In addition, in high school, we studied and had certain understanding of the electron orbital structure of atoms and elements in physics and chemistry. From americium+95) 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 and curium+96) 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 and berkelium +97) 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2, we can see that the orbit in the innermost layer can only hold 2 electrons; the exterior layers can be arranged with 8, 18 and 32 electrons in order. It may be said that almost all elements and atoms are arranged with the electrons outside the atomic nucleus with this principle. Why? Why?

Why can the innermost layer of the atom only hold 2 electrons? Why can the second layer only hold 8 electrons? Why can the third layer only hold 18 electrons? Why can the fourth layer only hold 32 electrons? The undersea pressure is very large, and the pressure at 1,000km and 2,000km in the earth will be innumerable times that in the undersea area. Why is it impossible to break the electron arrangement and distribution outside the atomic nucleus? Why cannot the innermost layer be arranged with 3 electrons? Why cannot the second layer be arranged with 9 electrons? Why cannot the third layer be arranged with 19 electrons? Why cannot the fourth layer be arranged with 33 electrons? Why does the fifth layer have the different arrangement? Then why are all atoms, elements and matters executed with such principle? You may magnify all atoms to see whether almost all atoms are arranged with all electrons with such arrangement principle and distribution. Now we only simply understand and recite these contents. But why do these contents and principles exist and survive? Why are they unchanged all the time? Can you give certain detailed instinctive reasons? Since they exist, there shall be reason for their existence.

I have found the answer. My answer is both abstruse and simple to learn. I hope that some of my answers can be written into the teaching book in the high school. Besides, I hope that the friends loving science in the world can truly study, understand and master these scientific knowledge after my strenuous search. If you can completely study what I understand, you will feel much more enlightened.

If you really want to study and obtain the answer, you may help me to disseminate it! I will publicize my answer at the proper time! Actually I have many contents for lecturing. These contents will have very far-reaching scientific significance for scientific research in the future. I hope that you can understand and support me! Your little labor would have limitless virtue! Your understanding of my answers will benefit you very much in your future study. I hope that you support me!

I hope that the friends having true like for science and technology can actively move! Know my answer as soon as possible! I have many other contents, and my answers are absolutely different. It is really uneasy for me to get these answers! To obtain these answers, you need many things. I have many other things to lecture. I hope that the results from my diligent labor will not rot in my hands!

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