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Evidence and basis for the existence of black hole with superlarge mass in the center of the Gal

(2016-09-12 10:59:56)
标签:

地球

太阳

银河系

黑洞

大质量黑洞

Evidence and basis for the existence of black hole with superlarge mass in the center of the Galaxy


Gong Shiyuan (People's University, China)


Abstract: The Galaxy is a completely independent galactic system in the universe. The external galaxy is quite far from the Galaxy, thus having very minimal influence. The Galaxy has nearly 200 billion fixed stars, which can rotate the center of the Galaxy for a long time, and this justifies that there absolutely exists the star with superior mass in its center. After our careful and scientific calculation, this super-star has the mass more than that of 100 billion suns. The star with the mass of 100 billion suns can realize the collapse of atom structure. And we also calculated that the “event horizon” of this black hole has horizon distance of remote event with 268.8 billion km. Our evidence can completely prove that the star in the Galaxy is a black hole body with superlarge mass.


Keywords: Black hole, Star in the center of the Galaxy, Black hole with superlarge mass, Collapse of atom structure, Schwarzschild radius, Event horizon


1. Introduction of the Galaxy and black hole

The side of the Galaxy looks like a huge disk slightly swollen in its center with the diameter about 100 thousand light years. The Sun is situated at 26 thousand light years from the center of the Galaxy. The swollen place is the concentrated area of fixed stars in the galactic center, thus looking with a vast expanse of whiteness. The Galaxy has the swirling shape with 4 spiral arms symmetrically extended from the center of the Galaxy. The center of the Galaxy and 4 spiral arms are densely distributed with the fixed stars; the Sun is situated on the spiral arm called Orion arm, about 26.4 thousand light years from the center of the Galaxy, rotating anticlockwise; it will take the sun about 250 million years to rotate around the center of the Galaxy for one cycle. The Galaxy has two companion galaxies: Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud; collectively with the Galaxy called extragalactic system.


Galactic center: the protruded part in the center of galactic system has very bright spherical shape with the diameter about twenty thousand light years and the thickness of about ten thousand light years. This area is composed of the fixed stars with high density. Many evidences have proven that in the central area there is a huge black hole, and there are very fierce activities in the galactic nucleus. The central part of central bulge is galactic nucleus; it emits very strong radio, infrared ray, X-ray andγ-ray; its natures are not clear yet, which probably contains a black hole. But since there has not been the conclusive evidence for the black hole with large mass, the astronomers prudently avoid the conclusive words to raise the black hole with large mass.


Galactic halo: Galactic halo is dispersed in the spherical area around the galactic disk. It has the diameter about 100 thousand light years, where the distribution density of the fixed stars is very low, and some globular clusters composed of the old-aged fixed stars. Some think that outside the galactic halo, there still exists a galactic halo, a huge spherical radio emission area, which is extended at least to the place 320 thousand light years from the galactic center. The Galaxy is a Sb or Sc spiral galaxy with nearly 200 billion fixed stars, and is the largest giant galaxy except Andromeda galaxy in the group of galaxies.


In 1971, British astronomers Lynden Bell and Martinez analyzed the infrared observation and other characteristics in the central area of the Galaxy, pointing out that the energy in the center of the Galaxy is a black hole, and predicted that if their hypothesis was correct, there should be a very small source sending out the radio emission in the galactic center, and the characteristics of such radio emission should be same as the characteristics of the radiation observed in the synchrotron. Three years later, such source was discovered, which is Sagittarius A; Sagittarius A has very small size, equivalent to that of the common fixed star, and its radio emission strength is 2*10 (^34) erg/s. It is situated within 0.2 light year in the dynamic center of the Galaxy. Around Sagittarius A, there is the moving ionized gas with the speed up to 300km/s as well as very strong infrared radiation source. None of the known activities of all fixed star systems can explain the fantastic properties of Sagittarius A. Therefore, it seems that Sagittarius A is the best candidate for black hole with large mass.


Black hole: It is a celestial body with very strong gravitation, where even the light cannot escape. When Schwarzschild radius of the fixed star is small to certain extent, even the light emitted from vertical surface cannot escape; at this moment, the fixed star becomes black hole. The black hole has a boundary called event horizon, which just cannot be superimposed with the trajectory of the light rays escaping from black hole. Event horizon is an astronomical term, which means the boundary of black hole, and light cannot escape from this boundary.


2、Detailed calculation formula and process of argumentation

We firstly consider the elimination of the interference and influence from other galactic systems: the Galaxy is an entirely independent galactic system in the vast universe, 80 thousand light years from Sagittarius dwarf galaxy nearest to the Galaxy, about 160 thousand light years from Large Magellanic Cloud and about 190 thousand light years from Small Magllanic Cloud, and more remote from other galactic systems. Other galactic systems have quite small influence on the Galaxy and the fixed stars in the Galaxy. At the same time, because the Galaxy has the distance at least 80 thousand light years from the nearest galactic system, and all galactic systems have superior mass, and if the Galaxy is allowed to converge with other galactic systems, the galactic system will make the long-distance movement, which requires the energy of superior figure! Therefore, it is very difficult to make the Galaxy converge with other galactic systems and it is also very difficult to be realized. The fact has proven that: nearly 200 billion fixed stars within the governance of the Galaxy can rotate around the center of the Galaxy for all year round, which means that there exists a star with superior mass in the galactic center to attract and control these fixed stars all the time.


In addition, for the sun, other fixed stars in the Galaxy are also relatively remote from the sun; the Proxima Centauri nearest to the sun is also 40 trillion km from the sun. Since the fixed stars in the Galaxy are very remote, they seemingly are not influenced by gravitation between each other. Therefore, within the Galaxy, the gravitation between the fixed stars is also ignorable and eliminable. A huge amount of distance data has proven that the influencing function outside the Galaxy, and the influencing function of other fixed stars inside the Galaxy on the sun are very small (completely ignorable). Therefore, we can very simply establish two very simple and completely independent mass points for consideration between the sun and the stars in the galactic center. (Other fixed stars in the Galaxy also have completely independent point-to-point gravitational relations with the stars in the galactic center).


We consider the star (black hole body) in the galactic center as an independent “mass point”; and consider the sun as an independent “mass point”. We can completely calculate the gravitation according to the relatively simple equation of gravitational relations between two “mass points” in the space. The reference data are: distance from the sun to the galactic nucleus: 2.5×10^17 km (about 26,000 light years); mass of the sun: 1.9891×10^30 kg (for the convenience of calculation, taken as 2.0×10^30 kg); speed (on the orbit around the galactic center): 220km/s; gravitational constant G=6.67×10^-11. Formula of centripetal force: F direction =mv^2/R; formula of universal gravitation: F=GmM/r^2.


After the calculation in our formula: the gravitation of the stars in the galactic center to the sun is: F direction =mv^2/R =3.872×10^20 Newton (N). Then according to their relation of universal gravitation, we calculated the mass of the stars in the galactic center. We use the formula of universal gravitation to calculate the mass of another “mass point”: F=GmM/r^2, obtaining the mass of the star in the galactic center M=Fr^2/Gm=1.814×10^41 kg (or 1.814×10^38t). This mass is about 100 billion times that of the sun. Therefore we conclude: the mass in the galactic center is about 100 billion times that of the sun.


It is beyond our expectation that our calculation results are completely same as those of the scientists in some other countries (known after inquiry). According to the report of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the scientists of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences cooperated with Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy by using the data of big specimen of SDSS-II halo star for the first time to accurately determine the center mass of the Galaxy as that of about 100 billion suns. If the mass of 100 billion sons is accumulated and superimposed, it will generate the superior internal pressure, which can be stood by none of atom structures. Collapse of atom structure is an inevitable result. That is to say, any atom structure will be crushed and smashed by such superior internal pressure. The superior black hole with the mass equivalent to that of 100 billion suns can achieve this effect, which is undisputable. Then can the mass of the celestial bodies in the galactic center attract the light ray? What on earth are the data for “Event horizon”? We will let the data say.


Then we will continue the calculation of “event horizon” data in the black hole body in galactic center:


Our calculation is based on the simulation of the escape process of light ray or photons from the center of black hole at the velocity of 300 thousand km/s. During the escape of the photons at the light velocity, “photons” are all the time influenced by the superior gravitation of black hole body. The movement speed of photons will be constantly influenced by superior gravitation of the black hole. Since the black hole body has the superior gravitation to the photons, when the photons fly to “event horizon”, it will slowly reduce to “zero”velocity. When the photons reach the “event horizon” of black hole at zero velocity, it will start returning with high acceleration at “zero”velocity. When it returns the launching origin, the final velocity will be still the 300 thousand km/s (but the movement direction of photon will shift from escape to returning). After such meticulous simulation calculation, we obtained the “event horizon”data 2.68875×10^14m, or 268.875 billion km (about 0.028 light year).


Our calculation process is: firstly, bring light velocity and the supposed light mass m into the corresponding calculation formula. When all formulas are written out, we simplified the formula (the supposed photon mass m is eliminated during the simplification); the final formula is obviously the world famous Schwarzschild radius calculation formula. Schwarzschild radius: Rs=2GM/c^2 (G is universal gravitational constant, M is the mass of celestial body, and c is light velocity). Data information: the mass of the star (black hole body) in the galactic center: M=1.814×10^41kg; light velocity: c=3×10^8m; gravitational constant G=6.67×10^-11; after the calculation for multiple times, the data have shown: “event horizon” of black hole body with superior mass in the galactic center; the distance from the central point of the black hole body in the Galaxy is about 2.68875×10^14m, or 268.875 billion km, that is, about 0.028 light year.


The calculation process is simulated with the process that the light rays and photons are emitted at the velocity of 300 thousand km/s from inside the black hole, and when it reaches “event horizon”, it will return. The emitted and passing light is relatively easier to be attracted by black hole! Therefore, the data of “event horizon” of the black hole body in the galactic center is expanded to 0.03 light year (for the convenience of memory). The data from scientific calculation have shown that: the stars in the galactic center can completely attract and control the light ray of black hole body. We can explicitly say that for the star with the mass of 100 billion sons in the galactic center, the superior internal pressure generated by substance superposition and accumulation can entirely achieve the capability of collapsing all atom structures. It can completely realize the “collapse” of atom structure and substance. This evidence is irrefutable. So this star in the galactic center with the mass of 100 billion suns is absolutely a “black hole body”, and also a black hole with superlarge mass. The mass of this superior black hole has reached the formidable mass of 100 billion sons, the “event horizon” of black hole body has reached the remote distance nearly 300 billion km, that is, about 0.03 light year from the center of the black hole.


Many other data from observation have also fully proven that in the central area of the Galaxy, there exists a black hole with large mass, where the activity of galactic nucleus is very fierce. The galactic nucleus emits very strong radio, infrared ray, X-ray and γ-ray; its natures are not clear yet, which probably contains a black hole. But since there has not been the conclusive evidence for the black hole with large mass, the astronomers prudently avoid the conclusive words to raise the black hole with large mass. In 1971, British astronomers Lynden Bell and Martinez analyzed the infrared observation and other characteristics in the central area of the Galaxy, pointing out that the energy in the center of the Galaxy is a black hole, and predicted that if their hypothesis was correct, there should be a very small source sending out the radio emission in the galactic center, and the characteristics of such radio emission should be same as the characteristics of the radiation observed in the synchrotron.


Three years later, such source was really discovered, which is Sagittarius A; Sagittarius A has very small size, equivalent to only that of the common fixed star, and its radio emission strength is 2*10 (^34) erg/s. It is situated within 0.2 light year in the dynamic center of the Galaxy (“event horizon” data calculated by us is 0.03 light year, and this data is obviously within 0.2 light year). Scientific discovery and data can change some individual definitions, and scientific development and some definitions shall proceed constantly. All phenomena and data can completely prove this conclusion: there absolutely exists a black hole with superlarge mass in the center of the Galaxy! Long-term observation and our calculation data can completely prove this final conclusion.


3、Conclusion

According to our astronomical observation, there are about 100-200 billion galactic systems like the Galaxy. And there are about 200 billion fixed stars in the Galaxy. There are many galactic systems larger than the Galaxy and having more fixed stars than those in the Galaxy. The galactic systems are very remote from each other in the universe; because of this, the influence between the galactic systems and their link and influence is relatively very minimal. If the Galaxy is allowed to converge with other galactic systems, the energy required for the movement of the whole galactic system will be unimaginably superior figure! Therefore, it is quite difficult to let the galactic systems converge and it is also very difficult to be realized.


In addition, because the situations in other galactic systems are basically same as that in the Galaxy, their internal and external situations are basically same as those in the Galaxy. So in the center of other galactic systems in the universe, there should be the black hole with superlarge mass. There are nearly 200 billion galactic systems in the universe, and every galactic system has nearly hundreds of billions of fixed stars (some galactic systems control even many more fixed stars than 200 billion ones by the Galaxy). If there isn’t the black hole with superlarge mass in the center of these galactic systems, nearly 200 billion fixed stars shall be uncontrolled. These nearly 200 billion fixed stars are unnecessary to rotate around its center for a long time. If there is no superior gravitation in their galactic system, huge eccentric force generated by circumferential movement of these fixed stars will be very easy to “throw” off these fixed stars. Therefore, in the center of every galactic system in the universe, there should be a black hole body with superlarge mass. There are nearly 200 billion galactic systems, and if there is a black hole with superlarge mass in the center of every galactic system, then in the universe there exist at least nearly 200 billion black holes with superlarge mass. Simultaneous existence of about 200 billion black holes with superlarge mass in the universe shall be a relatively formidable figure. These black holes with superlarge mass will probably truly exist and are possessed.


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