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[转载]强悍工作犬的构成要素

(2011-04-25 09:55:58)
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禀性内核:强悍工作犬的构成要素【原创翻译】

The Components of Strong Working Dog Temperament

Introduction

导言
There seems to be a very vague definition within our dog sport as to exactly what constitutes strong working dog temperament. Is it the dog who demonstrates incredible intensity in the holding? Is it the dog who, on the courage test, runs at the helper with great speed and strikes with tremendous power? Perhaps it is the dog who bites the helper with an extremely hard, crushing bite. We are of the opinion that all of these characteristics are important working dog attributes and can be of great value in assisting us towards achieving an excellent performance in the protection phase, but they are not necessarily all the critical components of a strong working dog. These are all examples of powerful instincts which are important and necessary components of working dog temperament.

确定什么是强悍工作犬的禀性构成,在我们运动竞技犬圈子里,依旧是个非常模糊的定义问题。它是指犬在止步禁足时,展示出的难以置信的强度吗?它是指犬在勇气测试时,以迅捷的速度扑向助训员,并以巨大的力量攻击吗?或许,它是指犬以极其强硬的粉碎性强力咬合而扑咬助训员?

我们认为,上述种种特征是工作犬禀性构成的重要元素。在护卫阶段帮助我们取得优异成绩,它们具有极大的价值。但上述种种,并非构成强悍工作犬的所有关键性的要素。而言,上述所有例证说明犬的强大本能,它们是工作犬禀性中的重要而必须的构成部分。

PART I. The Instincts of the Strong Working Dog

The following is a list of important instincts of the strong working dog:

A. Prey Instinct (Booty)

B. Active Aggression

C. Reactive Aggression

D. Social Aggression

E. Pack Instinct


Let us examine each instinct more carefully.

第一部分:强悍工作犬的本能

如下是强悍工作犬本能的构成要素:

一,猎捕本能(驱力)

二,主动攻击(驱力)

三,被动攻击(驱力)

四,社会攻击(驱力)

五,族群本能(驱力)

下面我们将审慎检查每种本能(驱力)。

A. Prey Instinct (Booty)

一,猎捕本能(驱力)【猎性】



Prey instinct (booty) is the genetically inherited desire in the dog to chase after and seize moving objects. This is the instinct most often understood and easily read. Prey instinct is one of the two most critical instincts necessary for excellent Schutzhund protection work. It motivates a dog to strike the helper with speed and power, and affords us as trainers a form of stress relief in all areas of training (tracking, obedience, protection).

猎捕本能(驱力)俗称猎性。猎性是指犬追逐、捕获移动物体的遗传性欲望。这很易理解并观察。对于的schutzhund防卫赛优秀犬,猎性是两个最关键的必要本能之一。猎性能激励狗,以其全速和全力扑向助训员。在各方面的训练(追踪、服从,护卫)中,训导员也能利用猎性纾缓犬的应激压力。

B. Active Aggression (Fighting Drive)

二,主动攻击(驱力)【斗性】



Active aggression is an offensive aggression commonly referred to as "fighting drive". It is the second critical instinct for excellent Schutzhund protection work. It is characterized by a dog which demonstrates explosive, rhythmic barking in the out and holding phase of the protection work. It enables the dog to be positively stimulated into the work by compulsion.

主动攻击(驱力)的俗称是斗性。这是schutzhund防卫赛优秀犬的第二个关键性本能。在护卫工作的放犬攻击及止步禁足阶段,斗性驱策下的犬,显示出爆炸性的有节奏的吠叫。它能使犬由正面刺激的强迫而进入工作状态。

三,被动攻击(驱力)【防御/自存】



被动攻击(驱力)俗称防御性。它完全不同于斗性。对于schutzhund训练,它不属于关键本能。防御性驱策下的犬,展示出一般性的防卫天性。它通常与领域性相关。防御性攻击通常称为“锐利”【铁马注:所谓利狗的两个特征是防御阈限低;反应强度大】。它是其他护卫性驱力(斗性、猎性、社会攻击)的催化剂。它适合于多种实际应用,例如警犬、私人护卫犬,以及警戒犬。



However, reactive aggression must be delicately balanced in the dog's temperament because it is comprised greatly of both fight and flight instincts. Reactive aggression is only desirable if it is based on the fighting aspect with little or no trace of flight instinct being present.

然而,在犬的禀性中,防御性必须取得微妙的平衡。防御性与战-逃本能相关。【防御性即战逃反应。】防御性只有建立于战斗本能,而非逃跑本能时,才是可取的。

D. Social Aggression

Social aggression is the dog's desire to establish pack hierarchy (alpha/leader). It is also another instinct which is not critical for Schutzhund protection training. However, it is an instinct which can give the dog an added strength because it is not reactive aggression (defense/self-preservation) and, therefore, it does not have the potential disadvantage of flight behavior. Since social aggression has no flight counterpart, the dog does not perform under the same level of stress as in reactive aggression.

四,社会攻击(驱力)

社会攻击(驱力)或称等级序列驱力。它是指犬建立集群等级序列(头狗/首领)的欲望。它同样是schutzhund防卫赛犬的非关键本能。然而,这是一种可以给予犬额外力量的本能。它并非被动攻击(防御/自存),因此不具备逃跑行为的潜在缺陷。由于社会攻击不具逃跑要素,故此也不会表现被动攻击那样的应激压力。

Social aggression is characterized by a dog that demonstrates a deep grumbling bark. This type of dog also generally expresses itself in a very dominant manner. Social aggression is almost exclusively a male characteristic. It can be the determining factor in a protection dog successfully facing a life threatening situation (i.e., police dog, personal protection dog, military dog, etc.).

社会攻击驱策下的犬,表现出深沉的低嚎。这种犬普遍表现出高度的统治性姿态。社会攻击几乎完全是雄犬的特征。当护卫犬面对生死威胁时(警犬,私人护卫犬、军犬等等),它会是个决定性的因素。

As breeders/trainers, we stress a mild level of social aggression because the potential drawback of an excessive level of social aggression is constant struggle for authority thereby hampering trainability.

身为繁育者/训导员,我们强调一种适度的社会攻击驱力水准。过度社会攻击驱力水准的潜在弊病在于:犬会不断挑战以争取自身的权威地位,从而阻碍了可训性。

E. Pack Instinct

Pack instinct is the genetically inherited trait in the dog to socially interact and closely bond to its pack members (i.e., handler, family). Pack instinct, although not critical for Schutzhund performance, is extremely advantageous, lending itself towards high trainability. When in combination with social aggression, the advantage of social aggression is utilized while still lending the dog to a high level of trainability.

五,族群本能(驱力)

族群本能(驱力)俗称恋群性。它是指犬求取社会**往,维系群内成员(包括训导员、家人)间密切联系的遗传性欲望。尽管并非schutzhund防卫赛出色表现的关键构成,族群性却具有非常有利的优点,从而能够导出高度的可训性。当族群性与社会攻击驱力结合时,可充分利用社会攻击的优势,同时还保持可训性的高水准。

Although highly important components of excellent performance temperament, the instincts described above are not the true determining factors for strong temperament. Parallel to the aesthetically beautiful house with attractive components such as a lovely landscape, excellent interior design, and modern conveniences, it is the inner core of the dog, much like the strong foundation on which the house is built, that give both the dog and the house their true strength and value.

上述种种本能,构成了具有高度重要性的优秀禀性的组成部分。但它们还不是强悍禀性的真正决定性要素。正如美轮美奂的漂亮房子具有吸引人的构成要素,诸如美妙的景观,优良的内部设计,现代化的便利等等。但最关键的是它建立于其上的坚固基础。正如房屋的地基一样,是犬的核心要素,构成了它坚固强悍的真实力量及价值的所在。

PART II. The Inner Core of The Strong Working Dog

The core of the strong working dog consists of these elements:

第二部分:构成强悍工作犬的核心要素

A. The Nervous System

B. Hardness

C. Irritability Threshold (Defense Threshold)

一:神经型

二:强硬度

三:激惹阈限(防御阈限)

We must consider each of these in turn in order to understand how they supply and maintain the essential foundation for strength in the working dog.

我们务必依次考量上述要素,以便理解它们是如何支撑并维护(犬只禀性)的重要基础。这一基础,正是工作犬力量的源泉。

A. The Nervous System

The nervous system is one of the two most critical components in the core of a truly strong working dog. It is the dog's ability to generally accept all aspects of its environment without exhibiting signs of nervousness, fear, or flight.

一:神经型

神经型是两个最关键的核心之一,以此构成真正强悍的工作犬。它是犬能够不表现出紧张不安、恐惧或逃避,广泛接受其情境中的所有方面的能力。

The general characteristics of a dog with a poor nervous system include the dog that shows signs of nervousness when exposed to loud sounds (i.e., gunfire, thunderstorms, etc.), and/or the dog which shows nervousness or fear upon entering a strange environment (i.e., after shipping, at a strange training field, in a crowded room, etc.). By contrast, the dog with a sound nervous system will accept all such and any other changes in its environment without negative effect.

弱神经型的犬,其普遍表现在于:暴露于强音(枪声、雷雨等)时,显示神经质症状;当进入陌生环境(上船,进入陌生训练场,处于拥挤房间等),显示神经质症状或恐惧。相比之下,拥有健全神经型的犬,能够不受任何负面影响,从而接受上述种种情境及其环境中的类似情况。

B. Hardness

Hardness is the dog's ability to recuperate from a disagreeable experience. Although the least critical of the three core traits, hardness is still a very desirable trait. Hardness allows the trainer to use the advantages of compulsion for precise competitive training without hindering the natural working spirit of the dog.

二:强硬度

硬度是指狗从负面压力经验中恢复的能力。尽管在三个核心要素中排名最末,它仍是十分理想的品质。强硬度能够让训导员在精准的竞赛训练中运用强制手段的优势,同时又不阻扰犬天性的工作精神。

C. Irritability Threshold (Defense Threshold)

The irritability threshold is the amount of psychological stress (not physical stress) the dog can withstand while in the state of reactive aggression (defense) before exhibiting signs of conflict or flight behavior.

三:激惹阈限(防御阈限)

激惹阈限是指犬在被动攻击(防御)中,直至显示出冲突或逃跑行为的征象前,所能经受的心理应激压力(并非肉体应激压力)。

Conflict is the crossover stage between fight and flight behavior. The ordinary signs of conflict include:

Raising of hackles

Low tail carriage

Obvious high pitch tone of bark indicating stress

Any signs of withdrawal or retreat on the part of the dog

冲突是指犬在“战逃反应”时的冲突行为。其通常的征象包括:

颈毛倒竖

低尾位

明显升高的吠叫,以此显示应激压力

Irritability threshold is the most critical and least understood aspects of the dog's temperament. It is very difficult to evaluate a dog's threshold and normally it requires a skilled eye to make the correct evaluation. For a correct evaluation, the dog's reactive aggression (defense) must be completely isolated, that is, no other instincts may be allowed to come into action (i.e., active aggression, prey).

激惹阈限是犬禀性中最关键而又最不被人理解的构成要素。很难评估犬的激惹阈限。通常这需要精熟的洞察力,以便作出正确评估。为能正确评估,务必完全孤立出犬狗的被动攻击(防御)行为。也就是说,不能允许由其他本能驱力(斗性【主动攻击】、猎性)所驱策的行为。

In order to correctly evaluate the irritability threshold, the following test must be performed in the very specific manner outlined.

为正确评估激惹阈限,必须履行下列所具体列举出的系列测试。

PART III. The Test For Determining The Irritability Threshold In The Working Dog

The following steps should be taken to evaluate the dog's irritability threshold.

第三部分:工作犬激惹阈限评估测试

下列步骤用以评估犬的激惹阈限

A. The dog shall be taken to an area totally unfamiliar to him. He should be tied to a sturdy object (tree, etc.) with a solid equipment that can withstand the dog's lunges and cause the dog no injury (i.e., chain, leather collar).

拴系测试

一:犬应置于完全陌生的场所。犬应拴系于坚固的物体(树木等)。拴犬装备要求能经受犬的扑咬跃进,同时不会对犬造成伤害。(犬链、皮革颈圈等)。

B. The dog shall be left alone in the test area for a minimum of fifteen minutes after which a strange helper shall test the dog in the following specific manner.

二:犬应被单独留置于测试区至少十五分钟。随后陌生助训员对犬执行如下具体测试。

c. The helper shall wear no protective equipment as this would give false reading of the defense threshold because the dog's other instincts (i.e., active aggression, prey) have been conditioned upon the visual sighting of the equipment.

三:助训员不得身着防护服,这会对防御阈限造成误判。因为犬的其他本能(斗性、猎性等)已经被犬注视到防护装备所条件化了。

D. The helper shall walk slowly and directly towards the dog making and keeping direct eye contact with the dog. The object is to psychologically present a challenge to the dog without making any movements other than the direct frontal approach toward the dog. It is critical that the helper make no other movement (especially quick) of his arms or any other parts of his body since this would likely bring other instincts into drive. The helper must make no attacking or retreating gestures at all, but only proceed in a slow, steady approach directly towards the dog, keeping eye contact and ignoring the dog's behavior.

四:助训员应慢慢正面接近犬,与犬保持直接的视觉接触。其目的是对犬造成心理上的挑战。除了慢慢正面接近,助训员不应做任何其他动作,特别是快速挥动手臂或身体的其他部分。因为这会导入其他的本能驱力。助训员务必不得表现攻击或退却的姿态,只能以缓慢而稳健的方式,正面接近犬,保持目光接触,忽略犬的行为。

E. The object of the test is to evaluate the dog's determination in his defense instinct when it is not being reinforced. As the helper gets closer to the dog, he will probably notice some signs of conflict (stress) in the dog's behavior (i.e., raising hackles, high pitched bark, retreat).

五:此测试的目的,是评估狗发挥其防御本能的限度,尤其当防御性未被强化时的〖限度〗。当助训员逐渐接近犬,他可能会在犬的行为中,注意某些冲突的征象(即,如上所述的颈毛倒竖、明显升高的吠叫,撤退等等)。

(又想战斗又想逃跑的矛盾行为,类似的征象表明存在应激压力)。

F. The dog which shows little or no signs of conflict throughout the test during the helper's slow, deliberate approach is the dog with a strong threshold.

六:在整个测试过程中,当助训员缓慢而从容地接近犬,那些很少或根本没有表现出冲突征象的犬,具有强大阈限。

It should be remembered, however, that very few dogs show absolutely no signs of stress when a test of this nature is correctly applied. Most dogs fall somewhere between the ideal and terrible, and the helper must be careful never to push the dog completely into flight since this would be detrimental to training goals.

务必牢记,当这一测试被正确执行时,几乎没有犬能够完全不表现出应激压力的征象。大多数犬介于完美与极糟之间。助训员务必小心谨慎,万万不得将犬完全推向逃跑状态,这将不利于训练目标的达成

CONCLUSION

Overall, remember that instincts are a very important aspect of the dog's character, but only when supported by a strong inner core.

结论:

总之牢记:上述种种本能是犬性格构成的极其重要的方面,但只有被一个强大内核所驱策下,【铁马补:各种本能才能发挥其应有的作用】。

From our experience as breeders and trainers, we have painstakingly discovered that it is the deep inner core of the dog which holds the most genetic as well as training value.

从我们作为繁育者和训导员的经验中,我们终于千辛万苦地发现:正是犬那深层次的内核,对于犬的遗传及训练,具有主导性的价值。

If in breeding a compromise must be made (as often it must since there are few perfect dogs), far better that one should compromise on the instincts as opposed to the core of the dog. Like the house with an excellent foundation, it can be easily redecorated and made "like new", so too, the dog with an excellent core can be genetically enhanced by breeding to more highly instinct animals, provided they also have a good core, thereby producing versatile, all around strong working dogs.

如果在繁育中必须妥协,(通常这很必须,毕竟只有少数完美的犬),那么最好是在那些与犬的内核相异的本能中,进行折衷。正如地基牢固的房子,很容易重新装修得“焕然一新”一样,拥有出色内核的犬,可由育种工作而强化其遗传性,从而繁育出更多的高本能后代。这些后代同样具有优良内核,它们能够成为万能型,通用型的强悍工作犬。

 

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