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新概念二49课

(2012-07-05 19:31:24)

 Lesson 49  The end of a dream 美梦告终

--酸梅汤

New words and expressions生词和短语

★tired     adj. 厌烦的

        be/get tired of sth./doing sth.   讨厌做某事

◇I'm tired of doing homework. 我讨厌做作业

★real [ri:l] adj. 实际的;真实的;实在的  really  adv.真正地

        real   adj. 真正的 (强调东西不是假的)

        true  adj. 真挚, 真诚, 符合标准 (强调符合某个标准)

        real man 真人;   true man 男子汉,好汉,纯爷们儿,铁血真汉子

◇He who has never been to the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉。

★owner ['əunə] n. 所有者;物主

        shop owner 店主  business owner 企业主

★spring [spriŋ] n. 春天;弹簧;泉水

        hot spring 温泉

        美国口语]付账(spring for…): Everyone a cup, I'll spring for it.每人来一杯,我付账。

★fountain   [ˈfaʊntən]  n. 人工喷泉

 

★mattress ['mætris] n. 床垫;褥子;空气垫   [ 复数mattresses ]

        spring mattress 弹簧床垫

        air mattress 空气垫;橡胶气垫

        mat   n. 垫子 (如tablemat杯垫/碗盘垫,door mat门垫),    cushion  n. 坐垫

   

★gust [gʌst]    n. 一阵(阵)风

        a gust of anger   (一股)无名火

        breeze     n. 微风

        gale     n. 大风,(突发的)一阵风(风力比gust强)

        wind     n. 风的总称

★sweep [swi:p] (过去式swept[swept],过去分词swept[swept])   n. 扫刮

① vt. 扫,打扫

◇She sweeps the floor/the room every morning.她每天早上都打扫地板/房间。

② vt. (风)吹;刮

◇A huge wave swept over the deck一股巨浪从甲板上卷了过去。(huge [hjuːdʒ]adj. 巨大的)

        sweep sth. away    把……刮走

◇The newspaper has been swept away by the wind.报纸被风刮走了。

★courtyard ['kɔ:tjɑ:d] n. 庭院,院子;天井

        courtyard garden 庭院花园

        front courtyard/yard前院    backyard  n. 后院

★smash [smæʃ]    v. 碰碎, 摔碎

①     vt.&vi. 打碎,摔碎,(使)碎裂

◇The cup smashed on the floor.这个杯子摔碎在地板上了。

        smash sth. Into/to pieces      把……摔成碎片

        tear [tɛə] sth. into pieces      把……撕成碎片

◇The bed was smashed to pieces.床被摔成碎片了。

◇The letter was torn to pieces.信被撕成碎片了。

        crash [kræʃ]    v. 受挤压而变碎

◇The egg is easy to crash.鸡蛋很容易被挤碎。

        cut sth. into pieces      切碎, 剪碎

        break     v. 打碎

        crack [kræk]     v. 拟声词(咔擦)裂开不碎

②     vt.&vi. 重击,殴打,猛砸/撞

◇Why didn’t you smash the man with your fist?你怎么不给他一拳呢?

◇A car smashed into the wall.一辆车撞墙里去了。

★unhurt [ʌn'hə:t]    adj. 没有受伤的(un否定前缀,hurt受伤的)

◇Although the bed was smashed to pieces, the man was miraculously unhurt. 尽管床摔成了碎片,但年轻人却奇迹般地没有受伤。

        get hurt 受伤  feel hurt 感到不快

        to hurt someone's self-respect伤害某人的自尊心

★miraculously [mi'rækjuləsli] (miracle n.奇迹) 

adv. 奇迹般地;神奇地;出乎意料地

同义词:unexpectedly

◇The fever had miraculously disappeared, and the coughing had stopped.烧奇迹般地退了,也不咳嗽了。

★glance [ɡlɑ:ns]

        n. 一瞥;一滑;闪光

        v. 扫视;反光;瞥闪,瞥见

        glance at 匆匆地瞥一下 [强调“匆匆”和“瞥”的短暂]
glare at 怒视 [强调情绪是怒]
stare at 盯着看,凝视 (没有礼貌地看)
gaze at 盯住

   

glance,glare,staregaze填空

        1.She gaze at her beautiful new diamond ring.

        2.He glanced over the letter he had just received.

        3.I told my son to stop staring at that fat woman; it wasn't nice

(stop doing sth.停止做某事。stop to do sth.停下来去做某事。)

        4.The woman glared at the man after he shouted rudely at her

★promptly[prɔmptli]    

①adv. 迅速地

        promptly=at once, immediately立即

        prompt [prɔmpt]

①    adj. 迅速的;立刻的 v.促进;激起

        prompt payment即时付款

◇What prompted her to be so generous?是什么促使他如此慷慨大方?

Text Analysis课文解析

        BeingTired of sleeping on the floor, a young man in Teheran saved up for years to buy a real bed. 德黑兰的一个年轻人由于对睡地板感到厌倦,于是积蓄多年买了一张真正的床

tired引导的分词短语省略了开头的being,其作用相当于原因状语从句:As he was tired of…。be tired of sth/doing sth 厌倦做某事

(1)    sleeping为动名词,作介词of的宾语。

原因状语从句由从属连词because,as,since,now that,for…等引导。because表示“原因”语气最强,回答“why",as表原因时语气不如because强,引导的从句往往放在主句前面,表示较明显的原因;since表示已知悉的原因。

◇We work hard at English because we want to communicate with English-speaking people.

我们努力学英语是因为我们想和说地道英语的人更好的交流。

◇As the weather was fine, we decided to climb the mountain因为天气好,我们决定去爬山。

◇since he is busy,I won't trouble him.我清楚他很忙,所以我就不去麻烦他了。

2save up为固定短语,表示“储蓄”、“攒钱”,"up"起加强语气的作用:
Leon wants to get married in one or two years, so he’s trying to save(some money)up.
Leon想一两年之间内结婚,所以他在设法攒钱。

3to在这里用于表示目的,相当于in order to:
Stacey got up early to have a swim. 宅家为了去游泳起了个大早。
为了游泳我起了个大早。

        For the first time in his life, he became the proud owner of a bed which had springs and a mattress. 他平生第一次自豪地拥有了一张既有弹簧又带床垫的床

        Spring作名词我们知道有“春天”的意思。那句有名的西风颂(Ode to the West Wind written byPercy Bysshe Shelley)中的诗句:, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?(冬天来了,春天还远吗?)
Spring作名词时还有“发条、弹簧”的意思。课文中就是这种用法。

        for the first time in one‘s life   某人平生第一次

◇DaBai became a father for the first time in his life. 大白生平第一次当了父亲

        Be proud of=take pride in为…感到骄傲

◇Let your mother know that you love her and are proud of her. 让你的妈妈知道你是爱她的,并为她骄傲

        Because the weather was very hot, he carried the bed on to the roof of his house.由于天气很热,他便把床搬到了他的屋顶上

        on to(onto) 类似与 in to(into),用于表示动作方向而不用于表示静态的位置,不但有“去”的概念还有把它放到“on”(上面)的概念。onto/on to有时可用on代替,但表示位置的on不可用onto代替:

        I put the pen onto/on the table. 我把钢笔放到了桌子上。

        The pen is on the table. 笔在桌子上。(不可用onto/ on to)
Katherine jumped onto the stage. 凯瑟琳跳上了台上。
Katherine jumped on the stage. 凯瑟琳在台上跳了跳。

        He slept very well for the first two nights, but on the third night, a storm blew up. 头两天晚上,他睡得非常好但第三天晚上起了风暴了。

        for the first two nights       头两天晚上

◇I study hard for the first three nights.头三天晚上我学习很用功。

        for the last three nights   后三天晚上

        blow up <adv.>   风越刮越大(程度在加深),(指暴风雨)出现并加剧;刮起

        speak up   大声点

        A gust of wind swept the bed off the roof and sent it crashing into the courtyard below.一阵大风把床从屋顶上刮了下来,把它摔碎在下面的院子里

        gust表示“一阵强风,一阵狂风”,既可单独使用,也可用a gust of wind形式:A gust (of wind) blew my hat off.一阵风把我帽子吹跑了。

        off = down/away from

        below  直接放在被修饰词之后作定语

        crashing into the courtyard below是现在分词短语,作宾语补足语。crash (不及物动词)直接用主动形式,
一个句子中不能出现两个动词,如果出现了两个动词,要用and或but连接;或者把其中一个作为非谓语动词to do(表目的),-ed(表被动),-ing(表主动)。

        The young man did not wake up until the bed had struck the ground.那年轻人直到床撞到地上才醒了过来

        Until后面动词使用了过去完成时,表明一种动作的前后性。

        not…until表示“直到……才”,until前面没有not时,与表示一段时间的“持续动词”连用;有not时,常用表示某一时间点的动词(或瞬间动词)连用:

◇I’ll stay here until Monday.   我要在这儿呆到星期一。

◇I won’t leave until Monday.   我要到星期一才离开。

        Although the bed was smashed to pieces, the man was miraculously unhurt. 尽管床摔成了碎片,但年轻人却奇迹般地没有受伤

        Piece是“一张、一片”的意思,比如“a piece of paper”(一张纸)。

        smash v. 砸,粉碎, 经常与up, into/to pieces 连用:
◇The plate dripped on the floor and smashed into little pieces. 盘子掉到了地上,砸成了小碎片。

        Miraculously来自于名词miracle(奇迹)。Miraculously是副词,表示“奇迹般地”。

miraculous是形容词

        When he woke up, he was still on the mattress. 他醒来时,仍然躺在床垫上

        时间状语从句由从属连词when,while,after,before,as soon as,since,till,whenever引导。

◇It was raining when we arrived.我们到达的时候正在下雨。(两个动作同时发生)

◇when I pressed the button the radio stopped当我按下按钮后收音机就停止了。(动作一前一后)

◇She came up as he was working.他正在工作的时候她走过来了。(动作同时发生)

◇While you were away,two persons came to see you. 你不在的时候,两个人来找你了。

 (while表同时)

        Glancing at the bits of wood and metal that lay around him, the man sadly picked up the mattress and carried it into his house.年轻人看了一眼周围的碎木片和碎金属片,伤心地捡起了床垫,把它拿进了屋

(1)glancing为现在分词,引导的短语相当于一个时间状语从句after he glanced at…。动词的ing形式一定强调某一个名词之间的主动关系(he--glance)。

        bits = pieces碎片

(2)动词glance的主要含义为“看一眼”、“扫视”:

◇John glanced at his watch and left the room. 约翰看了一眼手表,然后离开了房间。 

(3)that引导的关系从句修饰the bits of wood and metal,作定语

        lie (lay,lain)  不及物动词,后一定加“around”,不能“lay him”

        Lay这里是lie的过去式。再次来复习lie和lay的区别:
①lie作“躺,卧、处于(位置)”解 时,过去式为:lay,过去分词为:lain;
②lie作“撒谎”解时,过去式为:lied,过去分词为:lied
③lay可作“放,摆,搁;产卵”解,其过去式和过去分词均为:laid。

         After he had put it on the floor, he promptly went to sleep again. 他把床垫往地板上一放,很快又睡着了

这里went to sleep也就相当于fell asleep(同样用的是过去式)。

Grammar in use语法知识

从句子结构上来说,句子有三种:简单句、并列句和复合句。简单句有一个主语或多个主语和一个谓语;一个主语和多个谓语。并列句是由并列连词连接的两个或多个简单句。复合句指的是含有两个或更多的主谓结构的句子,其中有一个(或更多)主谓结构充当句子的某一(些)成分,如主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、同位语等。主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句都属于复合句。

       状语从句:

状语从句  Adverbial Clause,从句用作状语称为状语从句,可修饰主句中的动词、形容词和副词等。根据用途,状语从句可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、方式、让步、结果、目的等状语从句。

        I. 时间状语从句

 时间状语从句表示时间,常用的关联词有when, until, as, after, before, once, since, as long as, whenever等等。

按照引导词分类:

        When, while, as:当……时,在……的同时

When/As/While he was eating his breakfast, he heard the door bell.

        Since:自……以来

It has been two years since I came to Beijing.

辨析:when / while / as

        从句动词为非延续性动词:when

◇The boy cried when he saw his mother.那个男孩看到他妈妈的时候哭了。

        从句动词为延续性动词:while, as , when均可

        while强调“在……的同时”

        as强调“伴随”的状态

◇Tom fell asleep while Jerry was giving a lecture.汤姆在杰瑞讲课的时候睡着了

        II. 地点状语从句

地点状语从句表示地点,常用的关联词有where, wherever, anywhere等。

◇ Put it where you found it.在那找到的就放哪儿去。

◇ Sit down wherever you like.你爱坐哪儿就坐哪儿。

◇ Anywhere she goes, he goes too.她去哪儿,他就去哪儿。

        III.  原因状语从句

原因状语从句表示原因/理由,常用关联词because, as, since

 

◇The days are short,for it is now December.白天短了,因为现在是12月份了。

 

        IV. 条件状语从句

条件状语从句表示真实的或现实的条件,引导从句所用的关联词有if, unless, suppose, in case(that), in the event (that), as (so) long as等等。

◇ If it snows tomorrow, we will build a snowman.如果明儿下雪了,我们会堆个雪人儿。

◇ Suppose we are late, what will he say? (suppose从句必须放在主句之前)

        V.  让步状语从句

让步状语从句表示“虽然、尽管、即使”等概念,使句子具有对比的因素。常用的关联词有although, though, even if, even though, not that(=although…not)等,置于主语之前或后。

◇Though he has lived for years in London, he writes in French.尽管他已经在伦敦居住几年了,他还是用法语写作。

◇ We intend to go U.S., even if air fares are expensive.尽管机票费很贵,我们还是打算去美国。

        VI.  结果状语从句      

结果状语从句表示结果, 常由连词so…that, such(a/an)…that, so that, such that等引导,置于主语之后。

 

        so...that句型归纳:

        so + adj./adv. + that

◇She was so frightened about the dog that she cried.她是如此的害怕狗狗所以她就哭了。

        so + adj. (+ a/an) + n. + that

◇There is so rapid an increase in market supply that the price starts to fall.市场供给猛增以至于价格开始下降了。

        such...that句型归纳:

        such (+ a/an) (+adj.) + n. +that

◇He is such a wonderful joker that you can't help laughing.他这人太逗了让你忍不住想笑。

◇SuanMeitang is such a beautiful girl that I can't help loving her.酸梅汤真是个太漂亮的姑娘了,让我无法不爱她。

 

        VII.  目的状语从句 

目的状语从句表示目的,回答what for或 for what purpose的问题,常用关联词so that, in order that等引导,一般置于主语之后。目的状语从句中的谓语动词常由“情态动词+动词原形”构成。

◇Ships carry lifeboats so that people can escape if the ship sinks.游轮上携带救生船是为了以便船下沉时用来逃生。

◇They risk their lives so that/in order that they may support their kids.为了支持孩子们他们冒着生命危险。

 

 

Thanks for your attention!J

 

 

 

私助:Jamie咸鱼()

2012.7.4

 

 

 

 

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