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新概念英语第二册21到34课笔记

(2011-03-24 11:30:56)
标签:

读写

教育

分类: 英语

§ Lesson 21 Mad or not? 是不是疯了

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★mad  adj.  发疯

sb is mad.

mad 常用于 “为...而疯狂” (着迷)

① be mad about

I'm mad about English.

crazy 为……而疯狂的

② be crazy about

③ go insane (insane [in5sein] adj.患精神病的, 精神病患者的, 极愚蠢的)

‘right here waiting for you’ 歌词中

I slowly go insane./go crazy/go mad/go ?

go+adj. 变得...

They are going bananas. =go crazy=go mad (变疯了)与 “go” 相连

 

★reason  n. 原因

as+句子

because+句子

for this reason 由于这个理由、原因

For this reason,I was late.

 

★sum [sQm] n.量

a great many + 可数名词复数

a large ...

a great number of + 可数名词复数

plenty of 足够的

a sum of 一笔(加不可数名词) 注意连读

a large sum of 大量的 (large 指数量的大)

a large sum of money

 

★determined  adj. 坚定的, 下决心的

determine [di5tE:min] v.下定决心

make up one's mind

decide to do sth.

decision : make a decision :

make a decision to do sth.

be determined to do sth.下定决心做某事

【课文讲解】

Mad or not? = mad or not mad(省略)?

or not 在疑问词的后面, 表示是还不是, 选择概念

Why do people think the writer is mad?

drive sb. mad 逼某人发疯

drive v. 驾驶, 开车

You are driving me mad.

The teacher is slowly driving me mad.

night and day 日日夜夜 ([naItAndei] 注意连读)

passing planes 过往飞机; pass v.passing 作定语; 正在经过的(路过)

sleeping baby 正在睡觉的小孩

waiting car 正在等待的车

be built

years ago = many years ago

for some reason 由于某个理由

some + 可数名词单数 : some 表示某一个

some+不可数名词 : 一些 some water

some+可数名词复数 : 一些 some books

some+可数名词单数 : 某一 some book

however 用于句首, 句中, 用逗号隔开

come into use : into prep.; use n.投入使用; 主动概念, 没有被动式

be used 被动表示 被使用

use [ju:s] n. [ju:z] vt. 注意n 与vt 的读音不同

over a hundred ...一百多

must have done 过去发生, 推测

must have been done 被动

drive 逼

away from 从某地离开/away 离开某地

their homes 他们的家; house 房子/home 家

by the noise 被噪音

over a hundred people 主语

must have been done 谓语

away from 从某地离开; out of somewhere 从某地出来

one of ... 之一

left : leave 过去分词, 表示被留下来的

left作定语放在被修饰词的后面, 剩下的……东西

I have a bag left.

There is ten cents left in my pocket.  Cent [sent] n.(货币单位)分, 分币

will be done 被动语态的将来时态

knock down 撞到

offer [5RfE(r); C:fEr] : given, give sb. sth./give sth.to sb.双宾语

双宾语的被动语态 : 主语有两种可能; 以sb.做主语或以sth.做主语

被动语态的标志 be done

1、give sb. sth.

被动 sb. be given sth.

2、give sth. to sb.

被动 sth. be given to sb.

用离动词最近的宾语做主语

原文句型结构 sb. be offered sth.

to不定式表示目的

go away :leave

be determined to do sth.下定决心做某事

Everybody says...

从句 I must be mad

they are probably right.他们也许是对的

probably adv.很可能

 

文章重点

1. 复杂句型结构 : over a hundred people must have been driven away from their homes by the noise.

2. 双宾语的被动语态 : I have been offered a large sum of money to go away.(表目的)

3. drive sb.; away from somewhere;  drive sb. mad

4. passing plane; -ing作定语, 表示正在

 

【Special Difficulties】 难点

drive v. 开车, 驾驶 (drove, driven, driving)

drive to 开车去往某地

I drove to Tianjing yesterday

drive sb. mad 逼疯

drive sb. away from 把某人赶走

drive sb. out of 把某人赶出去

drive sb. back 撵回去

 

home & house

home 带有感情色彩的

house 就是房子

 

Exercise B

用 house(s) 或 home填空.

It was raining heavily and I was glad to get ______ .

The government plans to build thousands of ______ next year.

3  He is very rich. He owns a ______ in the country.

Most people like to spend their Christmas holidays at ______ .

1...get home 到家 ( home adv./house n. get to 表示到达)  2...of houses... 3...a house... 4...at home (at home 固定短语, 在家)

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

It couldn't be used then. It wasn't ______ to use it.

a.able b.allowed c.impossible d.possible

4.it 形式主语
it+be动词+形容词+to do

翻译时先译 “to” 后面的句子

D正确

be able to强调主语能够做某事, 主语必须是人

it+be动词+表语, be allowed 不能充当表语.

如将 “it” 改为 “people(人)” 就A,B都正确

 

Over a hundred people must have been driven away. ______ they were.

a.I think b.I'm sure c.Certain d.Of course

5.must have been done :

对过去的一种被动语态的推测

must have done : 对过去的一种推测

I'm sure 我肯定:I’m sure she is teacher. (sure [FuE] adj.对....有把握, 确信某事, 稳当的, 可靠的 adv.的确, 当然)

I think 我认为

Of course 当然  certain adj 词性不对, 句子前不应放形容词

 

I have been offered a large ______ of money.

a.amount b.number c.some d.piece

9.a large sum of money

  a large number of : 不能加不可数名词

A正确   

amount of

an amount of+不可数 : 一大笔

plenty of : 前面是不加 “a/an” , 切记!

 

10  I am determined to stay here. I ______ stay here.

a.am will to b.want to c.may d.am going to

10.be going to; 打算、计划

want to : 来自心里的一种想, 喜好

喜欢 I want to

 

 

 

§ Lesson 22 A glass envelope 玻璃信封

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★dream  v. 做梦, 梦想

have a dream

dream a dream

have a good dream

sweet

Have a good/sweat dream!祝你做个好梦!

She is daydreaming.白日梦

daydream : 思想开小差

dream of doing something : 梦想

think of : 想、考虑

dream of : 梦想

I dreamed of flying in the sky.

I dreamed of finding the gold. / I dream of be a good teacher.

dream on 继续做梦, 痴心妄想(做你的梦去吧!别痴心妄想了!)

dream boat : 梦中情人, 梦寐以求的(物, 人)

Do you have dream boat ? 你有梦中情人吗?

另 : dream that +从句

 

★age  n. 年龄

teengager : 十几岁的人

adolenscent [9AdEJ`lesEns] n.青春期(一般指成年以前由13至15的发育期)

 

★channel  n. 海峡

 

★throw  v. 扔, 抛

threw  thrown

throw away 扔掉

 

 

【课文讲解】

同位语 My daughter  Jane

of one's own age : He is boy of my own age.

with 放在名词后面做定语

I have a bag with books in it.(“in it” 不能省略)

with 放在句子后面做状语用

think of : 考虑   dream of : 梦想

write to : 给某人写信  write (a letter) to me

each other : 相互-往往强调两者之间的相互 ([i:tF 5QTE] 注意连读)

one another : 强调三或三者以上的相互

will cost     will travel

一旦用cost,主语一定是物

something cost somebody

more : 即可做形容词, 又可做代词 : give me more 再给我一点

文中的 “more” 为代词 = more money

a little 可以修饰比较级 : 稍微

much more : 多得多

It's a little hotter.  It's much hotter.

It's expensive.       That is more expensive.

That is a little more expensive.

That is much more expensive.

But they will certainly travel faster.

也可 : but they will certainly travel much faster.

much faster 快的多

 

【Key structures】 关键句型

Verbs followed by of, from, in and on 后面可跟of, from, in和on的动词

We can put of, from, in, or on after certain verbs:

of, from, in, on可以用在某些动词的后面 :

Jane never dreamed of receiving a letter…(11. 1-2)

She never thought of it again. (11. 4-5)

She received a letter from a girl in Holland. (11. 5-6)

Use this list for reference:

以下搭配表可供参考 :

OF: accuse, approve, assure, beware, boast(or about), complain(or about), consist, convince(or about), cure, despair, dream(or about), expect(or from), hear(or from), be/get rid, smell, suspect, think(or about), tired., warn (or against).

后接of的动词 : 控告; 赞成; 让……放心; 谨防; 夸耀; 埋怨; 由……组成; 使信服; 治愈; 丧失……希望; 幻想; 期望; 听到……消息; 摆脱; 闻到; 对……猜疑; 思考; 对……感到厌烦; 警告……有危险.

FROM: borrow, defend(or against), demand(or of), differ, dismiss, draw(SD 64), emerge, escape, excuse(or for), hinder, prevent, prohibit, protect(or against), receive, separate, suffer.

后接from的动词 : 从……借; 保护……使免于; 向……要求; 有别于; 解雇; 从……中得出(参见第64课难点); 从……出现; 从……逃出; 允许不……; 阻止; 妨碍; 不准许; 向……提抗议; 接到; 把……分开; 受难.

IN: believe, delight, employ(ed), encourage, engaged., experienced., fail, help(or with), include, indulge, instruct, interest(ed), invest, involved., persist, share.

后接in的动词 : 信仰; 喜欢; 从事; 鼓励; 正做; 在……有经验; 没有尽到; 帮助; 包括; 沉醉; 教导; 对……感兴趣; 投资; 卷入; 坚持; 分享.

ON: act, based., call(SD 34), comment, concentrate, congratulate, consult(or about), count, decide, depend, economize, embark, experiment, insist, lean(or against), live, operate, perform(or in), pride(oneself), rely, vote(on a motion; for someone), write(or about).

后接on的动词 : 遵守; 在……基础上; 拜访(参见第34课难点); 评论; 集中于; 祝贺; 商量; 依赖; 决定; 依靠; 节约; 从事; 尝试; 坚持; 倚靠于……; 靠……为生; 起作用; 扮演; 为……感到自豪; 依靠; 对……表决(投……的票); 写……的事.

 

Exercise 练习

 Supply the missing words(of, from, in or on)without referring to the above lists as far as possible:

用of, from, in或on填空, 尽可能不核对以上搭配表 :

I withdrew a lot of money ______ the bank yesterday.

I refuse to comment ______ his work.

The waiter's tip is included ______ the bill.

He congratulated me ______ having got engaged.

This warm coat will protect you ______ the cold.

Did anything emerge ______ your discussion?

I dreamt ______ you last night.

You can never rely ______ him to be punctual.

Nothing will prevent him ______ succeeding.

10  Are you interested ______ music?

11  I suppose I can count ______ you for help ______ this matter?

12  Beware ______ the dog.

13  He persisted ______ asking questions.

14  I insist ______ your telling me the truth.

15  It took me a long time to get rid ______ him.

16  Do you mean to say you have never heard ______ Beethoven?

17  I separated them ______ each other because they were fighting.

18  They can only cure him ______ his illness if they operate ______ him.

19  You can depend ______ me.

20  I haven't accused him ______ anything, but I suspect him ______ having taken it.

21  Whatever made you think ______ such a thing?

22  We expect a great deal ______ you, Smith.

23  My hands smell ______ soap.

24  They differ ______ each other so much.

25  He invested a lot of money ______ shipping.

26  The film was based ______ a novel by Dickens.

27  Don't lean ______ that shelf! You'll regret it.

28  She often suffers ______ colds.

29  We have embarked ______ a new scheme.

30  I believe ______ taking my time.

31  Jones was dismissed ______ the firm.

32  They began by experimenting ______ rats.

33  Please concentrate ______ what you are doing.

34  She prides herself ______ her clean house.

35  The climber failed ______ his attempt to reach the summit.

36  Many people escaped ______ prisons during the last five years.

37  We must economize ______ fuel.

38  He's never done any work. He lives ______ his mother.

39  He was employed ______ a factory before he joined the army.

40  And what does this horrible drink consist ______ ?

41  I shall certainly act ______ your advice.

42  Don't write ______ the desk!

43  You should not boast ______ your success.

44  You must encourage him ______ his efforts.

45  He should be instructed ______ his duties.

46  Two or three people were involved ______ the accident.

47  Children should be prohibited ______ smoking.

48  I can assure you ______ my support.

49  Do you approve ______ hunting?

50  I despair ______ ever teaching him anything!

51  Has this play ever been performed ______ the stage?

52  I warned him ______ the danger, but he wouldn't listen to me.

53  How much have you borrowed ______ me already?

54  He delights ______ annoying me.

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

Jane never dreamed ______ a letter.

a.to receive b.to receiving c.of receive d.that she would receive

3.dream of/dream that...

  (d)

 

We were travelling across the Channel. We went on a ______ across the Channel.

a.sail b.travel c.trip d.run

8. go on a trip 进行旅行

  (c)

 

Jane wrote her name and address on a ______ of paper.

a.lump b.bar c.tube d.sheet

9.(d)

a lump of paper : 一团纸

a tube of paper : 一桶(管)纸

a bar of : 一条, 一块

a piece of paper/a sheet of paper 一张纸

sheet ([Fi:t] n.(一)片, (一)张, 薄片, 被单, 被褥) 注意读音与 shit [Fit] 的区别

 

10  Both girls often write to each other now. They write ______ .

a.frequently b.occasionally c.sometimes d.now and again

10.(a)

often = frequently

occasionally(偶尔) = sometimes(有时) = now and again(时而, 不时)

The girls write ______ regularly now.

a.to one another b.the one to the other c.each to other d.to other

7.(a)

one another(三者) = each other(两者) 互相

They love each other.

 

 

 

§ Lesson 23 A new house 新居

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★complete  v. 完成 (喜欢与建筑工程连用)

finish

complete the building

finish/complete homework

finish/complete doing sth.某事做完了

I finish reading a book.

complete(adj.) : 完全的, 完整的

《鲁迅全集》中的 “全集” 就用 “complete”

 

★modern  adj. 新式的, 与以往不同的(真正会译为 : 现代的)

现代的  modern history/art : 现代史/ 现代艺术

modernization [7mCdEnai5zeiFEn] n.现代化

 

★strange  adj. 奇怪的, 陌生的(表示因为对一个东西不熟悉而觉得奇怪)

stranger : 陌生人 (注意[5streindVE] 应读成[5sdreindVE])

strange : 奇怪的, 陌生的

be strange to sth. 引申为 : 对……不习惯, 对……陌生

 

★district  n. 地区  行政划分的区域, 城市内的, 如北京的海淀区 : Haidian District

area 地段

region 地区 地带 ([5ri:dVEn] n.区域, 地方, (世界上某个特定的)地区, (艺术,科学等的)领域, (大气, 海水等的)层)

【课文讲解】

get a surprise : 感到惊奇

to one's surprise

shock : I get a shock.

a beautiful new house

离一个名词最近的词跟该词的关系最密切, 冠词肯定是放在最前面的

spare old cloth

Eg: a big red flag 大红旗 (flag [flA^] n.旗, 标记 v.标记)

work后面要加名词的话一定要加on

 

【Special Difficulties】 难点

Exercise(用it或there填空)

______ is a pity that he could not come.

______ is a bus that leaves in ten minutes.

______ were some men digging up the road outside my house.

Look at those clouds. I think ______ will be a thunderstorm.

______ is unusual for him to be late.

______ has been very cold this year.

______ has been no news of him.

I am sure ______ will be fine tomorrow.

After dinner ______ will be a long discussion on politics.

10  When will ______ be convenient for you to come?

 

1. It is a pity that...

2. there

3. there : There+be+sb.+doing+地点 : 某地有某人正在做某事(典型句型)

digging up: 挖出, 找出

4. there : 在表示天气的时候, 后面如果是动词或形容词, 用it, 如果是名词, 用there be.

It is raining(动词)/It is cold(形容词)

There be +名词 : There is a rain. 那儿有一场雨

thunderstorm [5WQndEstC:m] n.雷暴, 大雷雨

5. it 形式主语

6. it

7. there

8. it

9. there     on politics 关于政治 (politics [5pClitiks] n.政治, 政治学, 政纲, 政见)

10.it 

要求背诵 : When will it be convenient for you?  什么时候对你来说最方便?

 

 

 

§ Lesson 24 If could be worse 不幸中之万幸

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★manager  n. 经理(用能力, 办事的)

boss : 有钱

manager : 干事

head : 表示 ①重要, ②关系亲密的人物

 

★upset  adj. 不安(事发后)

nervous : (事发前)

 

★sympathetic [7simpE5Wetik] adj. 表示同情的

 

★complain  v. 抱怨

complain of/about to sb.(对某人/向某人抱怨)

I compianed of my salary to my boss.

 

★wicked  adj. 很坏的, 邪恶的

可用 “evil” 替代

 

★contain  v. 包含, 内装(强调用容器装)

container : 集装箱

contain : 用容器装 The cup contains water./ The bag contains books.

include :

 

★honesty  n. 诚实

honest(adj.)

honestly(adv.)

 

【课文讲解】

The hotel manger’s office

telephone number 电话号码, 名词可以修饰名词

the village fair : 乡村集市 (the fair of the village/the fair in the village)

feel+(adj.) : upset 不安(事发后); nervous : (事发前, 过程中)

not any=no

I could do nothing to help you. 我没有办法帮你, 我无能为力

I could do nothing for you.

Can you help me?

Sorry,I could do nothing for you.

Certainly.

Of couse.

It’s my pleasure.

用进行时态取代一般现在时, 在英文是一种修辞方法, 表示不满, 一种感情.

start to do/start doing : 两者无区别

a knock at the door (敲门声) / knock at the door (敲门, 指动作)

A girl came in and put an envelope on the desk.

A girl came in with an envelope and put it on the desk.

outside(prep.)(adv.) 文中为介词

gentleman [5dVentlmEn] n.阁下, 先生, 有身分的人, 绅士,男厕所, 男盥洗室

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

He could do nothing. He couldn't do ______ .

a.something b.nothing c.anything d.everything

4...c...

I can do nothing for you.

nothing=not any thing;  not any=no

something,肯定句

nothing和not不可能同时并存

everything

 

Where did she find the money? ______ the room.

a.Outside b.Out of c.Out d.Without

6.

outside adv&prep. He is outside./He is outside the school.

out of : 从...到外面去, 一定要和有实在意义的动词连用, get/go/come out of

out : 在...外面, adv 不会加名词

 

10  He lost his money. His money was ______ .

a.losing b.missing c.going away d.disappearing

10.

lose : 丢失; sb lose sth 人丢失东西

miss : 怀念, 错过, 丢失(missing adj.) My keys are lost/missing.

I lose my book/My book was lost/is missing./be missed.

人丢了只能用missing : My child is missing.

missing boy 失踪的孩子

go away 离开(人走), something was gone

go : 走

be gone:不见了, 《Gone with wind》 : 《飘》(随风而逝), My book is gone.我的书不见了

disappear:不见了(瞬间), 不及物动词, 没有被动语态, 也很少用进行时态

be disappearing 慢慢的不见了

His money disppeared.

lose sth./sth. be lost

sth is missing

sth is gone.

sth/sb. disappear/disappeared : “dispear” 是不及物动词, 无被动语态.

 

Unit 2

【Key structures】 关键句型

word order in compound statements 并列句的语序

a Do you remember the six parts of a simple statement?

b We can join simple statements together to make compound statements

and

but : 但是

so : 因此

yet : 然而, adv. Have you finished yet? (“yet” 原来的理解 : 放在句末或句中, 与否定句, 疑问句相连, 并且与现在完成时用得比较多)

yet=but 放在两个句子间, 起转折作用

or:或者, 否则, Hurry up ,you will be late/Hurry up,or you will be late.

both...and...不但...而且

either...or...要么...要么... ,either you or I

neither...nor..., neither you nor I

not only...but...as well : 不但...而且...(“as well” 可省略)

not only...but also...

 

 

 

§ Lesson 25 Do the English speak English? 英国人讲的是英语吗?

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★railway  n. 铁路

railroad : 铁路

railway/railroad station : 火车站

 

★porter  n. 搬运工

★several   几个

some:一些, 即可以修饰可数, 又可以修饰不可数

several:只能修饰可数=a number of(一些)

a great number of : 大量的

some time:一段时间 some time age 一段时间以前

sometime: 某时 : I will defeat you sometime. (总有一天我将打败你)

sometimes:有时, 偶尔

some times : (不存在这种说法)

several times : 许多次

 

★foreigner  n. 外国人
★wonder  v. 感到奇怪

wonder n. 奇观 : It's a wonder./seven wonders(七大奇观)

wonderful adj 极好的

wonder  ① wonder at sth.对...事情感奇怪: I wonder at this.

② want to know  想要知道: I wonder

间接引语的疑问句 : 一般疑问句用if/whether引导, 特殊疑问句用特殊疑问词引导

wonder+if : 是否: I wonder if you have any spare time.

wonder+特殊疑问词: I wonder what time it is.

所有的从句都用陈述句的句序, 陈述句句序 : 主语在动词前面

I wonder why you are late.

I wonder where you are going.

I wondered where you were going.

Could you tell me how to get to?

I wondered how to get there.

 

no wonder : 难怪

wonder n. : 奇观

wonderful : 极好的

wonder v.感到奇怪, wonder at

wonder : want to know : 想知道

I wonder if you have friend.

I wonder how many friends you have.

 

【Text】

【课文讲解】

arrive in : 到达, reach,get

When will you arrive?

arrive vi.不及物动词

reach vt.后面一定要加宾语

arrive at : 小地点, arrive in; 大地点

When will you reach(arrive in) BeiJing?

get to+宾语 : 到达

When will you get to BeiJing?

How can I get there?

get home:到家, get there : 到那

home/there都是副词, 副词跟动词连用的时候不需要加介词, “arrive” 也一样, 但一般不用“reach home/there” , 如一定要这样写则把 “home” 看作名词, “there” 当代词看, 不作副词看

I arrived at last.我终于到了

 

并列的表达方式中前面都是用逗号隔开, 最后两个用and连接

balck : 颜色(建筑物).The room is black.

dark : without light.没有光线 : It is dark.

the way to : 通往...路

Can you tell me the way to...

I don't know the way to...Can you tell me how to get there?

I don't know the way to the school and where is it?

I know the way.

know sth. well:很熟悉

I know the boy well.

so : 连词, 把并列句连到一起

如果有两个谓语动词, 加连词, 成为并列

not only...but...as well : 不但...而且...

并列连词, 什么东西并列连接什么

I can speak Chinese. I can speak English.

I can speak not only Chinese but English as well.

I not only sing but dance as well.

Not only you but also I will go there.主语并列(一般不这么用)

not only,喜欢放在动词的前面

一般遇到实义动词和非实义动词的时候, 习惯放在两者之间

I can not only speak Chinese but English as well.(更习惯的说法)

I not only like my mother but my father as well.

however,可以直接放在句首, 也可以放在句子中间

several times   不用some times

neither...nor... 即不...也不...

I speak neither Janpanese nor English.

like that: 作状语, 象那样

each other : 互相

soon,强调时间上的快

I wonder : 感到奇怪

each(every) person : 每个人

speak English not only very carefully but very clearly.

To learn English well is to study hard.

但在口语中 : To learn English well is study hard. (没to)

提高口语和听力的方式 :

1. 在读书的时候不能very clearly,注意读音规则

2. carefully随遇而安, 以understand为准, 学会重复

3. 多听多说

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

He didn't speak slowly and he didn't speak clearly ______ .

a.neither b.either c.too d.nor

5. ... b

not和neither不会连用

一句话中不允许出现两个否定句

too是跟肯定句连的、either是跟否定句连的

 

I repeated my question several times. I repeated it ______ times.

a.much b.a number of c.only a few d.three

8. ...b

several = some = a number of

much后面不加可数名词

没有only a few这个短语

quite a few 相当多的

 

At last he understood. He understood ______ .

a.in the end b.at least c.lastly d.at the finish

9. ...a

at last 最后、最终

in the end

lastly 最新的、最近的一段时间

at least至少

 

【Key structures】 关键句型

Exercises C   join these sentences with the words in brackets

用括号中的斜体字连接以下句子 :

I knocked at the door. He did not open it. (but)

He went on holiday. I went on holiday. (Both...and)

He must be mad. He must be very wise. (either...or)

 

1.I knocked at the door,but he did not open it.

一定要加 “but” , 一句话只能有一个主语和谓语, 要有两个就必须要有连词

2.go on holiday去度假

Both he and I went on holiday.

3.He must be either mad or very wise.

wise [waiz]  adj.英明的, 明智的, 慎虑的, 聪明的, 博学的, 明白的, 贤明的, 狡猾的

vi.知道 vt.告诉, 劝导

n.方法, 方式

 

【Composition】作文

用括号中的词连接下列句子 :

My sister went shopping. I went shopping. (Both...and)

We got very tired. We got very hungry. (not only...but...as well)

It was three o'clock. We could not get lunch. We had a cup of tea. (and...so)

 

1.Both my sister and I went shopping.

go shoping 购物

2.We not only got very tired, but very hungry as well.

3.It was three o'clock and we couldn't get lunch,so we had a cup of tea.

It was......that 强调结构, 这句话是强调时间

 

【语法精粹】P5

1.They _______ the trip until the rain stopped.

    A. continued         B. didn't continue √

    C. hadn't continued  D. would continue

    until是前面和后面用一般过去是和过去完成时都对

  但是我们在一般情况下两个都用一般过去时

 

2.The local peasants gave the solders clothes and food without which they __A___ of hunger and cold.(without 在这里表示条件, 你知道吗?)

A. would die   B. will die   C. would be dead   D. would have died

这是关于虚拟语气的题

 

3.It was not until then that I came to know that the earth ____around the sun.

A. moved   B. has moved   C.  will move    D. moves.√

只要是真理都用一般现在时

It was that 是强调结构, 首先将 “It was...that” 去掉, 再将 “not” 移到 “that” 后面的句子中.

分析句子时后半句改为 : I didn't come to know that the earth around the sun until then.

until then 是在那个时候之前

His father did not leave until he returned home.

变成强调句形式 : It was not until he returned home that his father left.

I don't get up until lunch time.

变成强调句形式 : It is not until lunch time that I get up.

 

4. When all those present(到场者)____he begin his lecture.

   (重点题)

A. sit  B. set  C. seated  D. were seated √

   seat 做动词的时候两种情况

1.seat sb  2. somebody be seated

somebody sit down

sit vi.

seat vt.

 

5.If I had had time, I would have written to you. But in fact I___not.

A. have   B.would have   C. had   D. had had

这是虚拟语气题       √

 

not only...but...as well 不但...而且...

并列句的连词

neither...nor... 既不...也不...

either ...or...  或者...或者...

both...and...    两者都

 

Ⅱ 复数主语 :

1.当主语由and或both...and连接, 通常采用复数谓语动词.

Both the girl and the boy are his friends.

Both you and I are good students.

 

Ⅲ 单, 复数的灵活运用 :

1.当主语由 neither...nor,either...or,not only...but also 或or 连接时, 谓语动词与nor,or,but also后面的词一致, 在英语语法中, 这被称之为 “就近原则”

      离动词最近的名词是单数, 整个主语就视为单数

      离动词最近的名词是复数, 整个主语就视为复数

Neither you nor I am a good student.

Neither he nor I am going to the airport.

Both he and I are going to the airport.

Not only Mary but also her parents have jgone abroad.

 

【Key structures】 关键句型

He finished lunch and went into the garden.

and 连接的是两个谓语动词

however 用在句号的后面, 单独成句, 于前边的句子只有意思上的承接, 没有语法上的承接, 语法上的承接表转折只能用 but

Both he and I teach English.

He teaches both English and French.

Either you or I must tell him.

Neither he nor I speak English.

Not only wash the dishes but sweep the floor as well.

 

【Letter Writing】书信写作

St.是 Steet的缩略

逗号在地址里表示前者属于后者

grade one一年级 class one一班

I am in class 1,Grade 1.

在日期里, 月和日之间不需要逗号, 但在年代之前要有逗号

日期是以序数词出现的

月份一定要是英语字母

February the fourth

the fourth of February

 

Haidian District,(海淀区)

BeiJing,

China.(最后一个地点要打上句号)

 

【Summary Writing】摘要写作

1. You can write the answer in three whole sentences.

第二单元重点就是把句子用连词连成并列的部分

 

I arrived at the railway station in London,and I asked the porter the

way to my hotel, but He didn't understand me.

 

 

 

§ Lesson 26 The best art critics 最佳艺术评论家

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

两个同样的音连在一起时, 前面的音声去不读. 如 : upside down.

★art  n. 艺术

art student 艺术系的学生

English student 学英语的学生

student of England : 英国学生

artist [5B:tist] 艺术家

artiste [B:5tist] 艺人   注意读音的不同

art gallery 艺术画廊 (gallery [5^AlErI] n.长廊, 游廊; 画廊)

black art 巫术 ([blAkB:t] 注意连读)

 

★critic  n. 评论家

criticise v. 批评, 批判(主要指批判, 但不完全是责备的意思)

criticism [5kritisiz(E)m] n.批评, 批判

critical  adj. 挑剔的

critically adv. 爱挑剔的

He criticised my painting.

You are critical.

 

★paint  v. 画

draw a picture 用线条画

paint a picture 强调油画

painting

oil painting 油画

Chinese painting 中国国画

Beijing opera 国戏, 京剧

 

★pretend  v. 假装

pretend to do something

When his mother came in,the baby pretended to go to sleep.

pretend that...

★pattern  n. 图案

pattern drills

pattern 模式, 典范

 

★curtain  n. 窗帘, 幕布

★material  n. 材料

listening material 听力材料

 

★appreciate  v. 鉴赏 = understand and enjoy

enjoy 欣赏

enjoy the music

  I like poems.

  I love...

  I enjoy...得到乐趣

  I appreciate... 程度一个比一个深

  appreciate something

    appreciate doing sth  我很喜欢做某事

    I appreciate your help. 我很感激你的帮助

 

★notice  v. 注意到

pay attention to 思想上的注意

notice : 细节上的注意, 往往是别人没注意的东西, 你注意到了, 细节上的东西

I notice the boy.

I notice the beauty spot.(美人痣)

 

★whether  conj. 是否

If 在表示 “是否” 的时候可以被whether所取代

If在表示 “如果” 的时候不可以用whether取代

If it will rain...(不是条件状语从句, 故可以用将来时will)

Whether it will rain...

Whether it will rain or not...(可以加 “not” )

I wondered if it will rain.(不加 “not” )

Whether he is mad or not. / whether his mad.

 

★hang  v. 悬挂, 吊

hang  hanged  hanged  绞死, 吊死

hang  hung    hung   悬挂

The thief was hanged.

The coat was hung.

 

★critically  adv. 批评地

★upside down 上下颠倒地  两个同样的发音连在一起时, 前边的音省去不读

 

【课文讲解】

I am an art student [aiiAmAnB:t] 注意连读, 增加了[i] 的音

They always tell you what a picture is about.

tell you 后是what 引导的宾语从句

just 仅仅, 表强调

We like them...

them 指 pictures

pretty curtain material 漂亮的窗帘布

In the same way that

In a way 以某种方式

The son walked in the same way that his father walked.

I love you in the same way that I love my father.

I love you just in the same way that I love money.

make an appointment ([E5pCintEmEnt] n)

change an appointment

When will it be conveniet for you?

I like something.

I like something very much.

I like something better.

I like something best.

I like water best.

I like water better.

I like water very much.

else ① 跟在anyone,anything 等不定代词的后面 ② 疑问代词如 who else,what else

They can appreciate modern arts best.

better than anyone else 比其他任何人(表示最高级的含义)

The teacher is the tallest.

The teacher is taller than anyone else. (“else” 不能少, 把主语从 “anyone” 中排除, 比中文更严密)

The book is more expensive than anything else.

They notice more.

Whether ...or not= if

The windows in the wall /picture on the wall 注意介词的不同

Isn’t it upside down? =It’s upside down. 是否定疑问句, 没有否定的意思, 起强调作用, 表达一种情绪

It isn't a fine day.

It is bad weather.

Is it bad weather?

Isn't it bad weather?

作用Aren't you lucky? 你真幸运

否定疑问句起肯定

Isn't it a boy?

 

【Composition】作文

Rewrite these sentences using the correct verbs and joining words:

改写以下句子, 选用正确的动词和连词 :

I (looked at) (watched) the picture (but) (and) I could not (understand) (realize) it. It was in black and white and was (called) (named)‘Trees and snow’. I could see (neither) (not only) trees (or) (nor) snow.

 

I looked at the picture. 不用watch是因为它不是移动的

call是称之为;  name是给它取一个名字

It was in black and white. 黑白色

 

【Letter writing】书信写作

信头上是没有名字的

门牌号码应该放在最前边

 

【Key structures】关键句型

appear的反义词disappear

resemble相似, 类似

和人的情绪相连, 跟人的状态相连, 跟人的思维活动相连的动词都不用进行时态.

Appear,appreciate,believe,feel,forget,hear,like,look,like,notice,remember,resemble,see,    think(that),  understand 等等

 

【Speech marks】 引号

引号在英文当中第一次出现是单引号, 第二次出现是双引号, 英文当中的书名号用

引号来替代

注意事项 :

a The speech marks are above the line. They go outside all other marks like commas(, ) full stops(. )and question marks (?).

引号位于一行之上, 它们应在句尾其他标点符号—如逗号、句号、问号—之外.

b The speaker's first word begins with a capital letter.

引语的第一个词以大写字母开头.

c Words like‘said’ and‘asked’ are followed by a comma. We put a full stop after them only when they come at the end of a sentence.

在said, asked等词后面用逗号, 只有当它们位于句尾时, 才在它们的后面用句号.

d When words like‘said’or‘asked’interrupt the speaker, the second half of the sentence begins with a small letter.

当said, asked等词置于引语之间时, 句子的后半部分以小写字母开始.

e We begin a new paragraph each time a new speaker is introduced.

当一个新的说话人开始讲话时, 要另起一个段落.

 

【Summary writing】摘要写作

5. Do young children appreciate modern paintings better than others or not? Do they notice more or not?(not only...but)

 

Young children appreciate modern paintings better than others.

They notice more.

not only ...but ...as well.

as well 放在句子结尾, 且可以省略

Young children是共同的部分

Young children not only appreciate modern paintings better than others,

but notice more.

not only...but...

连接的是两组谓语动词

 

7. Had he hung it upside down, or had he hung it the right way up? Did she notice this immediately or not?(and)

or 否则, 或者

upside down 与the right way up 意思相反

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

What is it about? Tell me ______ .

a.what is it about b.what it is about c.what about it is d.what about is it

考特殊疑问句的间接引语是什么

陈述句的间接引语以that引导

What time is it?

How old are you?

变成以 He asked me . 形式

He asked me what time it was.

He asked me how old I was.

疑问句的直接引语变间接引语要注意

⑴ 特殊疑问句由特殊疑问词引导

⑵ 时态.

  主句的谓语动词是过去时时, 其从句的谓语动词应为相对应的时态.

⑶ 疑问句变成间接引语时, 要变成陈述句语序.

 陈述句语序 : 主语在动词前边.

⑷ 人称的变化

Is it nine o'clock? /He asked me.

if/whether 是否

He asked me if/whether it was nine o'clock.

tell me 要求间接引语

Tell me what it is about.

注意使用陈述句语序.

What about 中about 是介词, 后接名词或动词的ing形式, 不接句子

What about it?

Tell me后要求陈述句语序

 

She tells me ______ my pictures are good or not.

a.weather b.that c.if d.unless

5.没有一个答案是对的

主句为一般现在时, 从句可以为任意形式

or not是否, that表示肯定

直接引语变间接引语的连接词有3种 :

⑴陈述句中的that;

⑵一般疑问句中的if/whether;

⑶特殊疑问句中的特殊疑问词

if不可以与or not 连用

unless conj 除外, 如果不(不能用于间接引语连接)

You will fail unless you work harder.你如果不更加努力工作, 你将失败.

 

Do you like my picture? It's ______ .

a.a new b.one new c.new one d.a new one

6.D

A 缺名词

B 缺名词或位置错误

C 缺冠词

one 可以作代词, 还可以作数词

 

10  Young children often appreciate modern pictures. They ______ them.

a.estimate b.esteem c.value d.understand and enjoy

根据句子意思, 选D.

 

This curtain material is very good ______ .

a.clothes b.cloth c.substance d.matter

9. B

clothes 衣服 读音省略[W] 的音

cloth 布

 

11  They notice more. They ______ more.

a.remark b.observe c.say d.take care

11.

在此句中, notice=observe

 

12  It's upside down. It isn't ______ .

up b.down c.the right way down d.the right way up

12. D

not the right way down = the right way up

 

 

 

§ Lesson 27 A wet night 雨夜

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★tent  n. 帐篷

★field  n. 田地, 田野

airfield 飞机场(介词用on)

in the field 在田野里

in one's field 在...领域

He is an expert in his field. (expert [5eksp\:t])

football field 足球场地

 

★smell  v. (smelled or smelt) 闻起来

smell 作半联系动词, 接表语, 接形容词

The food smelt good. (不能说成 “smell well” , “well” 是副词, 身体好才用 “well” )

感官动词

You look fine.

You look better.

You look beautiful.

taste [teist] 尝起来

The food smelt good,and it tasted better.

sound 听起来

look taste sound smell feel

feel; ⑴感到 I feel ill. (心理感到)

      ⑵用手的感受, The blackbroad felt cold.

 

★wonderful  adj. 极好的

口语中用得更多的是 : Great ! (与物相连)

Excellent ! (与人相连)    [5eksElEnt] adj.卓越的, 极好的

She is an excellent teacher.

Outstanding !(人) 好得站了出来

Brilliant!   ([5briljEnt] adj.灿烂的, 闪耀的, 有才气的)

Fantastic!

 

★campfire  n. 营火, 篝火

fire 可数也不可数 (一堆堆的火—可数, 炉子里的火—不可数)

 

★creep  v. (crept;crept) 爬行 (蹑手蹑脚的) 也是平行的爬

climb the tree.  climb up or down (上下爬)

crawl : The baby is crawling on the floor.(平行地爬)

creep out 蹑手蹑脚(别人不注意, 偷偷摸摸的)

climb / crawl / creep

 

★sleeping bag  睡袋

passing plane 正在路过的飞机

动词加ing 变成形容词作定语有二个意思 :

⑴ 正在... : sleeping dog

⑵ 用来做... : sleeping bag

listening material

walking stick 拐杖

 

★comfortable  adj. 舒适的, 安逸的

★soundly  adv. 香甜地

sleep soundly 睡得很甜

go to bed 上床/go to sleep 睡觉/fall asleep坠入梦乡/sleep well睡得很好/sleep deeply 睡得很沉

fall 为半联系动词

fast : fall fast asleep 睡得好香 “fast asleep” 熟睡

 

★leap  v. 跳跃, 跳起

jump : jump up and down原地跳跃

leap : 跳跃, 有距离(如从沟的这边跳到另一边, 位置变化)

skip : 课文行的跳过去, 单词, 文章 : Let us skip it?

Look before you leap.三思而后行

leap year/month 闰年/月

 

★heavily  adv. 大量地

rain/snow heavily 一般与雨雪连用

smoke heavily 烟瘾重

He smokes heavily.

 

★stream  n. 小溪

★form  v. 形成

★wind [waind] v. 蜿蜒 (wound;wound)

wind one's way 蜿蜒而行

The road winds its way.

注意与名词wind[wInd](风)的读音不同.

★right  adv. 正好

强调作用

right 做副词时强调后边的形容词, 副词, 介词短语, 不强调动词

可用just来替换

just like 正好/just as 正如

后边加代词时只能用just. 如 : just you 就是你了. 不能用 “right” 代替

Right here.就在这儿

“Right here waiting for you” : 《在此等候》―歌名

I found my lost watch right in the graden.我就在花园里找到了我丢失的手表

 

【课文讲解】

注意句型 : 在...之后

wet 发义词是 dry

汉语与英文只有意义的对等, 没有字的对等

wet.... 湿淋淋的

My idea is the same as yours.我的想法与你一样的

I agree with you.(口语)

I think so.(口语)

You are wet.

英文中表示 “湿” 的词 :

wet/damp不舒服/moist (湿的程度减少)

moist : 稍湿(给人感觉舒服, 如湿润) : moist cake 松软的蛋糕 (moist [mCist] adj.潮湿的 n.潮湿)

damp : 让人感觉不太舒服

dreamy eyes:梦幻般的眼睛

moist eyes 水灵灵的眼睛

humid 指气候比较潮湿

a rainy night...多雨的夜晚

(My idea is the same as yours./I’m agree with you./I think so.)

late in the afternoon.傍晚

early in the morning  清早

put up 搭建/强调搭 如搭个草棚等

build 建/强调精心设计并且建造

make a desk

build a car (一般不用 “make a car” )

in the middle of 在...中间  (相对两边)

in the center of 在...中心 (相对四面)腹地

in the middle of the river 河中心

midnight  午夜

the mid-autumn day 中秋节

在陆地的腹地用 “center”

as soon as  一...就... /当...

open fire  在野外生的火, 篝火

over 垂直的上面

cook a meal 做一顿饭

表示 “在...之后” 的句式

after+从句/doing

with a bag 带着包

in sweater 穿着毛衣  (sweater [5swetE] n.厚运动衫, 毛线衫)

After I arrived => After my arrival

When the plane arrived => after the arrival of the plane (P37 summary writing)

After his arrival, we have a party.

After the arrival of the flowers,I took them and went to my girlfriend's

tell story 讲故事

by 在...旁边  near/beside/at/by

① at the door 门边, (紧挨着的)

sit at the table 桌边

② by the river 河边 (不会紧挨着的, 但也不会很远)

③ next to

He sits next to me./who is the next? 表示紧邻着的

④ beside = next to

the next door to my house

⑤ near 在附近

beside/next to 与...相邻

at the door 紧挨着

near the village

next to /beside the village

at the table

by the river

next door 在隔壁

some time later 一段时间之后

some time ago 一段时间以前

a few hours earlier j几小时前

some time earlier.

put out 人为的熄灭火

be out 火自动熄灭

I put out the fire.

The fire is out.

crept into

in the middle of the night=midnight

at midnight 在午夜

wake up 醒来  主语自己醒

wake sb up 唤醒

begin doing/start doing/begin to do/start to do

leap out of 跳出来

如果强调某东西自动形成, 则可以用主动态, 如果强调某东西是人为的, 用被动态

When I'm getting close to the door,the door opened.(自动门)

The door opened. 强调门自动开

The door was opened.门被打开, 强调人为的

river formed 河流是自动形成

The bus stopped 自动的

The bus was stopped 人为的

wound one's way 蜿蜒而行

flow 流淌

flow/flowed/flowed

fly/flew/flown

grow/grew/grown

blow/blew/blown

right 正好, 恰好, 强调后边的介词短语

 

【Letter writing】书信写作

先写最小单位

给国外的人写信是才写国名

 

【Composition】作文

用正确的动词和连词改写以下句子 :

I am very tall(so)(but)I must be careful. Doorways are often low(and)(but)I usually(beat)(knock)my head against them. My head always(hurts)(pains). I have never(met)(recognized)a tall architect. Have you?

 

Doorways 门栏

so/and/knock/hurts/met

knock/beat

knock 大声地撞

beet 持续的撞击/打

against (prep)相对作用的力 (在政治上叫 “反对” )

hurt/pain

身体的某一部位+hurts 某一部疼痛 my hand hurts.

Pain 表示疼痛的名词

I have a pain.

My hand hurts.

I have a pain in my hand.

Meet 遇见 / recognize 认出 (原来熟悉再次认出的概念)

 

【Special Difficulties】 难点

动词加介词或副词起改变put的含义的作用

put up with 容忍
put up  ① 搭建 ② 安排住宿

put out...扑灭

put on 穿上

put away 把...收好

Your room is untidy,put your things away.

put off 推延

put down / write down 记下

 

Exercise(选用正确的带put的动词短语)

Mrs. Bowers told her children to ______ their toys ______ and go to bed.

You can stay here tonight. We can ______ you ______ in the spare room.

I'm not ready yet. I haven't ______ my shoes ______ .

‘Open your exercise books and ______ the following, ’ the teacher said.

Father is ______ the fire he lit in the garden.

When they have ______ that new building, it will spoil the view.

I have ______ my trip to Japan until next month.

I am getting a divorce. I can't ______ him any longer.

 

1.put...away

2.put...up 安排住宿

3.put...on

4.put...down记下 = write down

5.putting...out

6.put up 搭建  spoil 毁坏

7.put off推延

8.put up with    get a divorce 离婚

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

They sang songs by the campfire. They sang songs ______ the campfire.

a.close b.near c.besides d.at

6.b

beside  在...旁边

besides 除...之外

my closest friends

close to 表示离...很近(必须要有 “to” )

close to me 离我很近

at the door; at the window; at the table

 

The boys had put out the campfire. The fire wasn't ______ .

a.switched on b.on fire c.on d.alight

9.d

be on 上演, 亮着的(一般指灯亮着的)

What's on in the cinema today?

The lights were on last night.

switch n.开关

    v.用开关 The light was switched on. 强调通过开关打开的

on fire 起火 : The house is on fire .房子起火了

alight : 以a开头的形容词为表语形容词

The fire was out.火熄灭了

 

 

 

§ Lesson 28 No parking 禁止停车

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★rare  adj. 罕见的

rare animal 稀有动物 (animal [5AnimEl] n.动物)

rare bird  珍稀鸟类

rare illness 疑难杂症

scarce [skeEs] adj :少有的,表示某个时间段或某个地方少有 : Watermelon is scarce in winter.

scarce [skeEs] adj. 缺乏的, 不足的, 稀有的, 不充足的/ watermelon [5wC:tEmelEn] n.西瓜

rare : 指世界上都少有

coconut [5kEukEnQt] n.椰子

steak [steik] n.(供煎, 烤等的)肉, 鱼, 肉片, 鱼片, 肉排, 牛排

well done : 全熟

medium : 半生半熟的 (medium [5mi:djEm] n.媒体, 方法, 媒介 adj.中间的, 中等的, 半生熟的)

rare : 几乎是生的

 

★ancient  adj. 古代的, 古老的

ancient Egypt 古埃及 ([5eInFEnt] [5i:dVIpt])

antique 古代的, 古玩, 古董, 古老而有价值的 : antique furniture 古董家具

 

★myth  n. 神话故事

fairy 神仙故事

 

★effect  n. 结果, 效果

have an effect 有效果

have no effect 没有效果

have effect on 对...有效果

The advice has no effect on me.

 

★trouble  n. 麻烦

woman/man troubles 女人/男人真麻烦

child troubles 孩子真麻烦

never trouble troubles until troubles trouble you. 永远不要自寻烦恼

Let sleeping dog lie. 不要自找麻烦 (let sb do)

ask for trouble 

He is asking for trouble.

I'm sorry to put you in trouble. 我很抱歉给你带来麻烦(口语)

have trouble in doing sth

I have trouble (in) parking the car.

I have a lot of trouble parking the car.

 

★Medusa  n. 美杜莎(古希腊神话中3位蛇发女怪这一)

 

★Gorgon  n. (古希腊神话中的)3位蛇发女怪这一(凡见其貌者都会变成石头)

 

【Text】

【课文讲解】

one of 其中之一

one of the students

believe in 信任; 信仰 (并不只是相信的意思,有任何时候都 “相信” 彻彻底底的相信即信任)

关系代词 : who,whom,which,that

关系代词后面要加从句

先行词是主句和从句共同有的一个词

I have a book that/which he likes.( “book” 为先行词 “that/which” 为关系代词)

关系代词有两个功能 : 一是承上, 一是启下(如上句中的 “book” 作从句的宾语)

The boy is my brother.

The boy is standing at the door.

The boy who is standing at the door is my brother.

I can do anything I can to help you.

I can do anything that I can do. 我愿意做我力所能及的事情来帮助你

Jasper White is one of those rare people who believe in ancient myths.

who 在这是关系词, 起承上启下的作用

believe 用在people之后应该用复数对待

who 在从句中指代的是单数, 就用单数对待, 在从句中指代的是复数就用复数对待

如果在定语从句中出现了one of作为先行词, 它后边的关系代词指代的是后面的复数名词

如果在one of前面还有一修饰词 (the) only,那么后边的关系代词将指代one这个词, 才作单数看

He is the only one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths.

one of 直接作主语的时候, 它是做单数看待的

One of the answers is ture.

One of those people is good.

ever since=since

have trouble doing 做...有麻烦

have trouble with sb. 和某人相处有麻烦

I have trouble with my roommate.

in the morning 每天早晨

in the afternoon 每天下午

at night 每天晚上

park a car 停车

because of 由于

because 的后面加句子

because of 的后面加词或动词 “-ing”

be able to 的主语一般都是人, 表示有能力去做

get his car into his garage.

I drove the car into the wall.

I drove the car into the tree.

drive the car into 把车子撞上某地

get sth into 把...弄进

even once : 甚至一次,even 起强调

put up 张贴
put up the pictures on the wall 在墙上贴画

not any = no

on 接触在上面

over 悬挂在上面

one of后面加可数名词的复数

I have ever seen 做定语从句, 修饰前边的faces

如果关系词在从句中做宾语, 关系词可以省略, 所以 I 前的which被省略

This is the most difficult thing I have ever done.

This is the most terrible news I have ever heard.

有两个结构一定是最高级

1.of+范围 (of all the students)

2.in+地点

He is the tallest in the room.

3.I have ever 从句

hope 的后面加that从句

turn sth to 把前者变成后者

turn the prince to a frog (prince [prins] n.王子 frog [frC^] n.青蛙 vi.捕蛙)

He was turned to a frog

turn cars and their owners to stone

none of,neither of做主语时做单数看待

先行词 : 放在定语从句前面, 而且是两句话共同含有的词, 还是被定语从句修饰的词

定语从句 : 句子做定语, 一般放在被修饰词后面

四个关系代词 :

who;whom;which;that

who 在从句当中做主语或做宾语

whom 只能在从句当中做宾语

which 指物, 即可以做主语, 又可以做宾语

that 即可以指物, 又可以指人, 即可以做主语, 又可以做宾语

 

【Special Difficulties】 难点

whose 后面一定要加一个名词, 然后这个部分共同做主语或宾语

The boy whose sister is standing at the door is my brother. 妹妹站在门口的男孩是我弟弟

The pilot whose plane landed in a field was not hurt.把飞机降落在田里的飞行员没有受伤

land 着陆

He is the right person I am looking for.

Pilot [5pailEt] n.飞行员, 领航员, 引水员 vt.驾驶(飞机等), 领航, 引水 v.驾驶

 

【Structure】(58页)

 

3. Our neighbour, _____name is Charles Alison,will sail tomorrow.

(a) whose  √ (b) whose his   (c) his   (d) of whom

whose 在这儿等于his

his是物主代词, whose是关系代词

关系代词可以引导定语从句, 物主代词不可以引导定语从句

做主语, 宾语的关系代词有 who, whom,which,that

只有whose做定语

 

5.His boat,_____is Topsail, is famouse.

(a) whose the name  (b) the whose name  (c) of whom the name  (d) the name of which √

冠词和形容词性物主代词不能并存

不会说of sth the name

而会说the name of sth

介词后边加的是介词宾语

that不能直接出现在介词后边

whose name 也对

 

复习28课的语法

定语从句

关系代词可以有四个概念 :

1.代人的, 做主语或宾语who

          只做宾语的whom

2.代物的, 做主语或宾语  which

3.代人的也可以代物的  做主语或宾语 that

4.whose其代表的东西由其在句子中的成分决定(不一定指人)

The boat whose name is...

翻译练习 :

我有一个房子, 房子的窗户都破了.

I have a house whose windows are broken.

 

介词后不可以用that

I have a book I am interested in.

I have a book that I am interested in.

 

Exersise(在需要的地方填上who, which, that或whose)

1 The only games ______ I play are football and tennis.

2 He is the only student ______ understands English well.

3 He is a writer ______ books are seldom read.

4 This is the hotel at ______ we are staying.

5 Is this the money ______ you lost?

6 That is the horse ______ won the race.

7 He is the sort of person ______ everyone admires.

 

The only game...I play are football and tennis.

1.不填   如果要填只能是that, 在从句中作宾语可省略

先行词如果用only, 序数词, 形容词最高级修饰, 其后边的关系词只用that

2.He is the only student...understand English well.

 that

3.He is writer...books are seldom read.

  whose

4.This is the hotel at...we are staying

  which   句中的 “at” 原来在 “staying” 的后边

This is the hotel which we are staying at.

介词后加物的话, 只加which,加人的话, 用whom, 都不可用that,who也不能

She is the gril. I stayed with her.

She is the girl who/whom/that I stayed with. (句中 “who/whom/that” 可省略)

She is the girl with whom I stayed.

That is the house.I live in the house.

That is the house in which I live.

5.Is this the money...you lost? 不填

6.That is the horse...won the race.

从句中少主语: which

选which , 不能用that

句子中用词避免重复, 句首已有了一个 “that” , 故选 “which” 而不是 “that”

谁是那个正在帮助你的人?

Who is the man that is helping you? 不用 “who” , 避免重复

7. He is the sort of person...everyone admires.他就是每个人都很羡慕的那种人

person 是先行词, 在从句中做宾语

不填

admire [Ed5maiE] v.赞美, 钦佩, 羡慕

 

总结 :

在做翻译或阅读时, 先找句子的主干, 剩下的是各修饰成分

考定语从句时, 备选答案更加难以选出, 要仔细分辨, 再复习一下这七道题

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

6.It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. I've never seen ______

a.an ugly one b.an ugliest one c.the ugliest one d.an uglier one

这是我所见过的最干净的街道了.

This is the cleanest street I have ever seen.

答案 : D 

此句是用比较级来表达最高级的概念

better than anything else 最好

The teacher is the tallest in the room.

The teacher is taller than anyone else in the room.

I have never seen a taller one.

I have never bought a more expensive one.

 

______ of them has been turned to stone.

a.No one b.Not one c.No d.Even one

课文中为 none of

No 是形容词, 后加名词

no one =nobody (“nobody” 指的是人, 它将 “cars” 排除了是不对的)

不定代词后不用of

可以用的有 : neither of/none of/both of/all of

none of =not one of

 

He is a rare person. You ______ meet such people.

a.often b.never c.seldom d.sometimes

9. C

rarely=seldom 几乎不

rarely [5reElI] adv.很少地, 罕有地 / seldom [5seldEm] adv.很少, 不常

 

10  Not all car owners are good ______ .

a.guides b.conductors c.leaders d.drivers

选 D.

not all 不是所有的

Not all students are good.

Not all children are naughty.

部分否定概念

 

12  The signs haven't had any effect. They haven't ______ anyone.

a.affected b.effected c.resulted in d.imposed

12. A

have effect 有效果

影响    effect  .n.

affect  .v.

 

【Composition】作文

My wife (drives) (leads) a car. She has (driven) (ridden) a car for many years (and) (but) she says that women drivers (do not deserve) (are not worth) their bad reputation. Yet, on the road, she often (criticizes) (judges) other women drivers.

 

drives/driven/and/do not deserve/criticizes

reputation [7repju(:)5teiFEn] n.名誉, 名声

judge [dVQdV] n.法官, 审判员, 裁判员, 鉴赏家, 鉴定人, (J-)最高的审判者 vt.审理, 鉴定, 判断, 判决, 断定, 认为 vi.下判断, 作评价

 

 

 

§ Lesson 29 Taxi! 出租汽车

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★taxi  n. 出租汽车

taxi driver 出租车司机

take a taxi/take a bus/take a lift

Whose plane landed in the field

 

★Pilatus Porter 

★land  v. 着陆 (不及物)

whose plane landed in the field.

 

★plough  v. 耕地

plough  .n. 梨

farm  农田

plough [plau] n.犁 v.耕, 犁, 犁耕, 费力穿过, 艰苦前进, 在考试中淘汰

 

★lonely  adj. 偏僻的, 人迹罕见的(地方)

lonely (人)  孤独的, 孤僻的/cold fish

She felt lonely 感到, 主观

She is alone.  事实, 客观   

alone [E5lEun] adj.单独的, 独一无二的, 孤独的, 独自的 adv.独自地

‘Home alone’ : 《独自在家》――小鬼当家中的一部

 

★Welsh  adj.

★roof  n. 楼顶  (从外面看)

ceiling  天花板   (从里面看)

raise the roof  v. 喧闹, 大声抱怨

hit the ceiling  [美口语] 勃然大怒, 暴跳如雷, 怒发冲冠

 

★block  n. 块, 一座大楼

★flat  n. 公寓房

a block of flats  公寓楼 (英国)

office block 办公楼 写字楼

apartment 公寓(美国)

a block of apartments

 

★desert [dI5z\:t] v. 废弃

desert the house = let the room empty

desert [5dezEt] .n.  沙漠, 不毛之地, 注意名词和动词的读音不同

 

【Text】

【课文讲解】

read the text

captain  船长/机长

called

call sb sth

The instrument was called a clavichord.

be called  被称为

called 在此句中为过去分词

过去分词做定语时是作为被动状态来翻译的, ing表示正在

I have an instrument. The instrument is called a clavichord.

I have an instrument called a clavichord.

I have a cat called Lucy.

-ing; -ed 是非谓语动词

a ploughed field  被耕过的田

a deserted car park  被废弃的车场

Written English  书面语

spoken English  口语

(colloquialism [kE5lEJkwIElIz(E)m] n.俗话,白话, 口语 colloquial language 口语)

短语做定语是要后置

a race across the Atlantic

单个的词做定语时可放前边

however 可放在句子前边

that 从句在此处是表语从句

1.宾语从句中的that省略

2.定语从句中的关系词在从句中做宾语时可以省略.

句型 : The most surprising thing is that...

To my surprise,...

surprising 可以由其它词替换

The most exciting thing is that...

The most exciting thing is that we can win the football match.

The happiest thing is that I can visit/see/(stay with) mother during the Spring Festival.(春节)

(Festival [5festEvEl] n.节日, 喜庆日, 音乐节, 戏剧节, 喜庆, 欢宴, 欢乐 adj.节日的, 快乐的)

Captain Fawcett’s first passenger... (the first ... : the 不能和所有格及形容词物主代词并存)

from ... to ... 从. . 到. .

since then/so far/up to now

since then 强调起点

so far/up to now 强调终点

fly sb to... 开飞机送某人去

My friend drove me to Tianjin.

drive sb to ...开车送某人去

once 一次

on another occasion 还有一次

Once I met him on the street and on another occasion I met him in the library.

once...and on another occasion. 一次......还有一次

request from 来自某人的请求

request for sth. 要求得到

take sb to school 送某人上学

too 在副词或形容词前表示否定含义

very 强调程度深

too 强调程度大到了人们不愿去做

You are very kind.

very expensive 买得起

too expensive 买不起

dangerous [5deindVrEs] adj.危险的

 

【Composition】作文

The plane (not only) (neither) (flew) (threw) close to the river, (but) (or) also flew under a bridge. (Then) (However) it (climbed) (ran) into the air. The people on the bridge (waved) (shook) to the pilot (and) (yet) he did not (notice) (look after) them.

 

not only/flew/but/Then/climbed(ran也对, 但没有climb表达更确切)/waved/yet/notice

 

【Special Difficulties】 难点

1、 refuse to do sth  拒绝做某事

deny doing  否认做某事 / deny that +从句

2、 bring 离说话人越来越近

bring sth here.

take 离说话人越来越远

take there.

fetch 去了再来(双向动作)

fetch the ball

 

Exercise (选择正确的词)

1.When you go to the kitchen, please (fetch) (bring) me a glass of water.

2.The ball went over the fence and the football player asked a boy to (fetch)(bring) it.

3.When I asked him he (refused) (denied) to tell me.

4.Do you (deny) (refuse) that you have told me a lie?

5.How are you? (Too) (Very) well, thank you.

 

1.bring / 2.fetch / 3.refused / 4.deny. / 5.very

 

总结 :

①  The most surprising thing is that

The most exciting thing about it is that

②  Once......on another occasion

③  过去分词, 短语作定语

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

3. The‘taxi’is a small Swiss aeroplane ______ called a‘Pilatus Porter’.

a.who is  b.whom is c.which is d.whose is

3. 动词的ing形式有主动含义, ed形式有被动含义

(c)

A passing plane = a plane which is passing

 

This is the most surprising thing about it. It is ______ than anything.

a.most surprising b.more surprising c.more surprised d.most surprised

4.   (b)

用比较级表达最高级

本句应表达为 : It is more surprising than anything else.

“else” 不能省略, 句子才严密

 

He flew a doctor to a Welsh village. ______ he has flown to many unusual places.

a.From then b.By then c.By that time d.Since that time

5.  from then: 从... 起 (没有终点), 一般都是 “from....to....”

since then: 从. . 起(到现在为止)

by then: 到... 止

by that time

from then on = since then

(d)

 

The ploughed field is ready for ______ .

a.sewing b.sowing c.seeding d.growing

(b)

be ready for/to.... 为....作准备

“seed”  只与播种子相联系, 一般作名词, 强调把种子种下去, 而sow只说明把...种下去, 并不一定是 “种子”

 

11  Captain Fawcett has flown passengers to many unusual ______ .

a.parts b.pieces c.spots d.sections

11. (c)

    spot=place (点, 地点)

    part :部分

a piece of = a sheet of 一张 / a piece of = a bit of 一块

 

 

 

§ Lesson 30 Football or polo? 足球还是水球?

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★polo  n. 水球

★Wayle  n. 威尔(河名)

★cut  v. 穿过

cut oneself

No pains,no gains.

cut one's hair 理发 have a hair cut

cut the tree 砍树/ cut down the tree 砍倒树 / cut the tree down砍倒树

cut the head off砍脑袋 (off = away from)

cut off electricity 切断电源

cut sth into pieces把... 切成小片(碎)

cut across 直着穿过

cut a corner走捷径

when you learn english, never cut a corner

 

★row  v. 划(船)

go boating 去划船, 强调玩

my brother is rowing.   row强调动作

 

★kick  v. 踢

kick me : 踢我一脚

kickback : 回扣, 佣金

I get a kickback of 2000 yuan.

kick upstairs : 明升暗降: He was kicked upstairs.

well to go (美语) = well done (英语) 做得不错

 

★towards  prep. 朝, 向

★nearly  adv. 几乎

★sight  n. 眼界, 视域

catch sight of 看见

catch sight of the bird看见那只鸟

out of sight在视线之外

in sight在视线之内

the bird is in sight

out of sight, out of mind眼不见心不烦

long sighted眼光长远, 远视眼

somebody is long sighted

short sighted目光短浅, 近视

 

【Text】

【课文讲解】

by the river

like to do 一次性的   I like to drink tea.

like doing习惯性的   I like drinking water.

afternoon+s表示每逢

as usual : 和往常一样

there be+sb.+doing

towards: 强调离目标越来越近的概念

call out大声喊

call out to

so .... that.... : 如此....以致于.... (that 引导的结果状语从句)

so的后面跟副词或形容词, 如后跟名词时要用such.(....such +n +that+...)

the teacher speaks so fast that I can't catch the word.

my brother walks so slowly that he can't catch up with me. (赶不上)

the English is so easy that I can learn it well.

there weren't any in sight.

there were not anything in sight.

there was something in sight.

Throw .... back to .... : 把....扔回到....

 

【Composition】作文

The wind(threw)(blew)his hat into the river. He(put)(took)out his hand (and) (but)tried to (reach)(catch)it(so)(but) he could not(so) (but) he(jumped) (fell) into the river(and)(but) got it.

blew 吹 / take out 拿出 put out 扑灭 / catch 接住 抓住 reach够得着 / but / so / jump 自己跳 (fall 掉进去)/ and

 

【Summary writing 】摘要写作

4.The man in the boat neither saw the ball nor heard people shouting.

6.However,the man was not angry and he threw the ball back to the bank.

but连接两个句子, 中间可用逗号隔开

however只是副词, 只表示意思上得转折, 它可以放在句首也可以放在句中, 只是用一个逗号把它和其他的词隔开就可以

 

【Key structures】 关键句型

A, The, Some and Any(KS6)(参见第6课关键句型)

Some and Any. (对比第9课难点)

Note the use of some and any in these sentences:

注意以下句子中some和any的用法 :

Is there any milk in the bottle? 瓶子里有牛奶吗?

There isn't any milk in the bottle, but there is some in this jug. 瓶子里没有一点儿奶, 但是罐子里有一些.

Is there any soap in the bathroom? 卫生间里有肥皂吗?

There isn't any soap in the bathroom, but there's some in the cupboard. 卫生间里没有肥皂, 但橱里有一些.

Are there any nails in that tin? 那个罐头盒子里有钉子吗?

There aren't any in the tin, but there are some in this box. 罐头盒子里没有, 但这个盒子里有一些.

Names. 姓名

We cannot put a or the in front of names. (KS 6c)

在人名和地名前面不加冠词a或the. (参见第6课关键句型c)

John lives in England. He has a house in London. 约翰住在英国. 他在伦敦有座房子.

But we must put the in front of the names of oceans, seas, rivers, mountain ranges and certain countries:但在海洋、河流、山脉和部分国名前, 一定要用定冠词the :

Who was the first person to sail across the Pacific? 谁是第一个横渡太平洋的人?

It can get very rough in the Mediterranean. 地中海中可能会非常不平静.

Many great cities are built on rivers. Paris is on the Seine, London is on the Thames and Rome is on the Tiber. 许多大城市都建在河岸上. 巴黎在塞纳河上, 伦敦在泰晤士河上, 罗马在第伯尔河上.

I know a man who has been on climbing expeditions in many parts of the world. He has climbed in the Alps, the Himalayas, and the Rocky Mountains. 我认识一个参加过世界各地登山探险的人. 他曾攀登过阿尔卑斯山、喜马拉雅山和洛矶山.

Instead of saying:

We can say:

除了这种表述方法外 :

还可以说 :

I went to America last year.

I went to the United States of America last year.

Would you like to go to China?

Would you like to go to the People's Republic of China?

 

some 和 any

some在表示邀请的语气中或知道你会肯定回答时取代any

Do you want some? / Would you want something?

Do you want any drink?你想要喝点什么吗?(不愿意给别人喝)

would you want some to drink?

 

Exercises D (在必要的地方填上冠词a或the)

______ refrigerators are necessary in ______ hot countries.

Which river is ______ longest, ______ Nile, ______ Amazon, or ______ Mississippi?

Heyerdahl crossed ______ Pacific on ______ raft.

Why is ______ Britain sometimes called ______ United Kingdom?

We sailed up ______ Red Sea and then went through ______ Suez Canal.

 

1.不填

refrigerator 冰箱 / necessary 必要的

in hot countries: 指的是炎热的那类国家, 故不用 the

2. the the the the

Nile 尼罗河  Amazon 亚马逊河  Missisippi 密西西比河

3.the a

the Atlantic 大西洋

raft 木筏子 / 如用 “by” 则不用加任何修饰 “by raft” , 用 “on, in” 一般都要加 “the, a/an”

这里指的是这一类, 没特指, 故加 “a”

4. \ the

如果以单个的词作为国家, 基本上不加the,比方说China,America,Britain,一旦这个词成为缩略形式, 前面就要加the

5.the  the

横渡海峡用 “across”

和运河相连介词用through. 不用 “across”

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

4. It cuts across the park. It goes ______ it.

a.through b.over c.round d.along

4. a

round围绕 along 沿着

across the grass, across 用于从... 的表面穿过

through the tree, trough 用于从... 的内部穿过, 如穿墙而过用 through.

over在... 上方, 与下面没接触

over the bridge, over the mountains, over the hill

over 在用于穿越讲时, 表示穿过弧形

go through the market 穿过市场

 

7. There weren't any in sight. They ______ .

a.couldn't see b.hadn't seen c.couldn't be seen d.weren't seen

7. C

see 为及物动词, 一般后面一定要加宾语. look 为不及物动词

 

10  The man in the boat didn't ______ anyone shouting.

a.hear b.listen to c.mind d.take care of

10. a

hear sb doing 听见某人正在做某事

I heard my sister singing.

I heard two boys talking.

 

 

 

§ Lesson 31 Success story 成功者的故事

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★retire v. 退休
He is getting old, He is going to retire. 他越来越老, 他打算退休了

retire=stop working=stop doing this

I'm going to retire next year.

我明年会退出影坛或歌坛

I'm so tired that I'm going to retire now. (retire = go to bed)

 

★company n. 公司

firm 商行

corporation 责任公司

limited corporation 有限责任公司  缩略形式 : Ltd.Co

He works in my business.

他在我的公司工作

 

★bicycle n. 自行车

★save v. 积蓄
save 挽救
save one's life
He saved my life 他挽救我的生命
save one's face 挽会面子
save money 存钱
西方人不喜欢提钱, 所以用 save up 表示存钱

I have saved up for many years: 我已经存了好几年的钱

save it for a rainy day: 未雨绸缪, 为将来需要而做好准备

 

★workshop n. 车间
workhouse 感化院, 强迫劳动的地方

workshop 工作并且可以拿出来卖, 译为 “车间”

 

★helper n. 帮手, 助手
assistant 助理

 

★employ v. 雇佣
employee: 雇员
employer: 雇主
trainer 教练
trainee 接受训练的人

grandson n. 孙子

 

【课文讲解】

He worked in a factory.他曾经在一个车间里工作

He used to work in a small workshop. 他过去在一个车间工作

used to do 过去常常, 但是现在不做

My teacher used to live there. 我的老师过去住在那(现在不住了)

He lived there. 他过去住在那(不知道现在是否住在那)

She worked as a teacher.

work...as...作为...工作

He used to worked as a teacher.

I used to study in this school.

as a boy = as he was a boy

as 在这儿是当...的时候
as a young man 当他年轻的时候

in his twenties, in one's thirties/forties/fifties/nineties

in one's -ies 在某人几十岁的时候

in my fifties 在我五十多岁的时候

In his fifties,he learned the second language.

in the 1980s 在二十世纪八十年代

I worked/(began the job) in the 1990s.

a head of 老板
at that time=just then=at that moment

of one's own某人自己的

my own book  (own 起强调作用, 自己的)

用of one's own 或 one's own 由被修饰词的位置决定, 如果被修饰名词在前边, 用of one's own, 如果被修饰名词在后边, 用one's own

has become 成长为

in a few years在一些年之后

....factory which employed... : 工厂雇佣....(除了人可以雇佣外, 工厂, 公司也可以这样表达)

hard early years 早年的艰辛

long road to success 通往成功的长路

remember记得, 回忆起

memory n 记忆 memorize v.

there is a long way to go

my wife came in when i was smiling 强调我妻子进来

I was smiling when my wife came in 强调我微笑(when 不能放在强调的前面)

want sb to do sth 想让某人做某事

main idea: his experiences as a youny man

success 不但表示 “成功” , 还可以表示 “成功者” 的概念

success [sEk5ses] n 成功; 胜利 / 好结果 / 成功之人; 成功的事

 

【Letter writing】书信写作

以下的哪一个信头是正确的?

Mr. Bill Howard,      14 Duke St.,          Duke St. 214,

214 Duke St.,        Perth,                 14th May, 19__,

Perth,                 Western Australia.    Perth,

Western Australia.    14th May,19 _        Western Australia.

 

1.F 2.T 3.F

 

【Key structures】 关键句型

He used to work fourteen hours a day.

Do you remember these sentences? (KS7)

你记得过去进行时和一般过去时吗?(参见第7课关键句型)

When I was watering the garden, it began to rain.

As I was getting on the bus, I slipped and hurt my foot.

Now compare them with these sentences:

used to do 与过去进行时, 一般过去时 :

I used to go to work by bus. Now I go by car. 我过去常乘公共汽车上班, 现在开小车去.

He used to be a postman a long time ago.  He's a taxi driver now. 很久以前他曾是个邮递员, 现在他是个出租车司机.

I have given up smoking.  I used to smoke very heavily. 我已经戒烟了, 过去我吸烟很厉害.

I used to collect stamps when I was a boy. 当我还是个小男孩时, 我常搜集邮票.

My uncle used to live in New Zealand but he's now living in Australia. 我叔叔过去住在新西兰, 但他现在住在澳大利亚.

 

过去进行时出现在 1.一个故事的背景
                 2.和另外一件事同时发生

Exercises C:

While my wife ____(work) in the kitchen, I ____ (sit) in the garden. I ____ (look) at cars which ____ (pass) in the street, when a small car ____ (stop) outside my gate and a man ____ (get)out. I was most surprised to see that the man was Ted Hale. We ____ (be) at the same school years ago. In those days, Ted ____ (come)to our house nearly every day and we often ____ (go)out together. We ____ (be)great friends, but one day we ____ (quarrel) and I never ____ (see) him again. As he ____ (get) out of his car, I ____ (call) my wife and we both ____ (hurry) out to greet an old friend.

 

was working   was sitting  looked(was looking)  were passing  stopped  got  were(used to be)  used to come(came)  went(used to go)  were(used to be)  quarrelled  saw  got (was getting)  called  hurried

be surprised to do 非常惊讶地做某事

quarrel [5kwCrEl] n.吵架, 反目, 怨言, 争吵的原因 vi.吵架, 争论, 挑剔

 

【Special Difficulties】 难点

a. experience 经历(可数名词) 经验(不可数名词) experienced 有经验的

b. save save one's life / save one's face / save money / save it for a rainy day 未雨绸缪

c. work and job 1、work 可做动词, job 不可以作名词

                 2、job 是可数名词, work 不可数

Exercise

He is a very(experience)(experienced)doctor.

My father enjoys doing (jobs)(works) about the house.

I am looking for a new(work)(job).

The government is trying to persuade people to(economize) (save) money.

 

1、experienced 2、jobs 3、job 4、save

economize [i(:)5kCnEmaiz] v经济, 节省(能不用的就不用,有 “节衣缩食” 的概念)

save 存钱(多余的钱)

experience [iks5piEriEns] n.vt.经验, 体验, 经历, 阅历

 

【Composition】作文

Frank (not only) (neither) (repaired) (made)his grandson's bicycle, (but)(also)went for a ride on it(as well)(both). He (said)(told)me later:‘I(make)(do)aeroplanes, (and) (but) I prefer bicycles.’

 

not only / repaired / but /as well / told /make

go for a ride/go for a walk 骑车出去/出去散步

ride a car/bicycle/horse

go for a ride on sth (对自行车只能用 “on” )

prefer [pri5fE:] vt.更喜欢, 宁愿

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

1  When he was a young man, Frank ____.

a.  owned a small shop  b.made spare parts for aeroplanes

c.made spare parts for bicycles  d.worked hard and saved his money

1. d

(a)(b)选项是作为 “he was a youny man” 中的一个部分

 

3  Frank used to work in a small shop. He ______.

a.doesn't anymore b.still does c.is now  d.has never done anything else

3. a

not anymore 不再

I will not make the mistake anymore.

 

4  He used to work fourteen hours a day. He did this ______ day.

a.one b.some c.each d.a

4. c

one day 有一天 / some day 某一天 / a 作为计量单位的一部分

I will beat you some day.总有一天我会打败你

every day / each day 每天

 

8  Frank is the ______ of a business company.

a.director b.headmaster c.superior d.leader

8. a

leader 起带头作用的人

headmaster [hed5mB:stE(r)] 校长

direction [di5rekFEn, dai5rekFEn] 方向

director 管理公司或单位整个事务的人

(director [di5rektE, dai5rektE] n.主任, 主管, 导演, (机关)首长, (团体)理事, (公司)董事, 指挥仪, 控制器)

Frank is a director of a business company

superior 监理

(superior [sju:5piEriE] n.长者, 高手, 上级 adj.较高的, 上级的, 上好的, 出众的, 高傲的)

 

12  He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife ______.

a.went in b.entered in c.entered d.entered into

12. c

into 后面一定要加地点

enter 既是及物动词, 也是不及物动词

enter=go in/come in  如 return=go back

go in 与 come in 都可以用enter代替, 但go in(离说话人越来越远) 与 come in(离说话人越来越近) 方向不一样,文中强调的是 “进去” 而非 “进来”

 

 

 

§ Lesson 32 Shopping made easy 购物变得很方便

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★once adj 曾经, 以前

① long long ago = once 很久以前 ② once 一次

I visited my mother once a month. (一次)

③ once 连接从句, 表示 “一旦”

Once you leave my company, you must return the house.

 

★temptation n 诱惑

temptation to+动词原形

temptation to do sth 什么什么的诱惑

temptation to steal

resist the temptation to do抵抗不了什么的诱惑  (resist [ri5zist] vt.抵抗, 反抗, 抗, 忍得住)

I can't resist the temptation to laugh.

 

★article n 物品, 东西

article 文章 : this is a good article

article/thing 不可相互取代

article强调的是商店里的一个一个的东西, 是可数名词, 单独的东西, 独立的个体

thing 指任何的东西

cargo [5kB:^Eu] n.船货, (车、船、飞机等运输的)货物

goods 货物, 商店里的货物的总称

 

★wrap v 包裹

Please wrap them (up) for me请替我把他们包好

wrap sth up

pack : 指为了携带, 运输的方便而打包

I will take/get/have it. please wrap them for me / please pack them for me.

 

★simply adv 仅仅

simply : only/just

 

★arrest v 逮捕

arrest the criminal

criminal [5kriminl] n.罪犯, 犯罪者 adj.犯罪的, 犯法的, 罪恶的

arrest one's attention吸引某人的注意

the criminal was arrested.

Sb. be under arrest 某人被逮捕

control/under control控制/被控制

 

shopping made easy

make : 1、制造

2、使....怎么样

make the room clean (clean adj 宾补)

make shopping easy

Shopping be made easy(句子)

Made 为过去分词, 有 “被” 的意思

标题不用句子, 所以标题省略be

 

【课文讲解】

not so...as/not as...as 表示比较, 不如

as...as...和什么一样

as+adj/adv+as+比较对象

as quickly as possible尽可能快

He is as tall as I.

This case is as light as that one. (轻)

It is as heavy as that one. 这个东西和那个东西一样重

as...as...的否定形式是not so...as...,/not as ... as...

It is not as heavy as that one. 这个东西不如那个东西重

I am not as tall as you.

I am taller than you/you are not as tall as I.

less + 原级=not as...as...=not so...as... 译为 “不如”

not as + 原级 +as / less + 原级+than 意思一样, 区别 : 一个用 “as” , 一个 “than”

I am not so lucky as those fisherman.

they are 与 they were 在用不同时态比

you are beautiful.  you were beautiful

you are more beautiful than you were. 你比过去漂亮多了

you look better than you were. (省略句 : You look better.)

It was my car. / Is this your car? 注意它们的区别

I think 想 / I thought 原以为

you were worse表示you are better : 你过去更差劲, 表示现在比以前更好了

要表现现在与过去的比较, 有两种方式 :

1、they are 与 they were 或 it is /it was等在用不同时态比

2、用短语than ever before

People are not so honest as before = people are not so honest as they once were.

specially [5speFElI] adv.特别地, 临时地

impulsion [Im5pQlF(E)n] n.冲动

adventure [Ed5ventFE] n.冒险, 冒险的经历 v.冒险

watch : 观察, 监视; 当心(口语中)

watch the enemy (enemy [5enimi] n.敌人, 仇敌, [集合名词]敌军, [喻]大敌 adj.敌人的, 敌方的)

watch sth 当心 : watch your head (威胁)

well-done

well+动词的过去分词

design [di5zain] n.设计, 图案, 花样, 企图, 图谋, (小说等的)构思, 纲要 v.设计, 计划, 谋划, 构思

well-designed 设计得不错

well-educated 有教养的 (educated [5edju:keItId] adj.受过教育的, 有教养的)

as usual 象平常

than usual 比平常

be动词+形容词+for sb to do sth

so it was easier for the detective to watch her. (句中用 “easier” 有潜在的比较含义)

it 是形式主语, for sb.中的sb是逻辑主语

The teacher bought a lot of dresses to make her more beautiful.(更漂亮, 不用 “more” 时会让人产生误会)

用more是表示对别人的尊重

out of politeness 出于礼貌 (politeness n.有礼, 优雅)

after a little time过了一会儿

choose [tFu:z] vt. (chose [tFEuz]; chosen[5tFEuzn])

hand...to...递给(比较有权威的人) pass to一个一个的传递(更常用)

hand in 上交

wrap sth up for sb

as quickly as possible.尽可能的快

She +chose+最高级+and+(并列结构)+handed it to +宾语+定语从句.

handed it to an assistant [hand it tu: En E`sIstEnt] 注意 : 前一个以 “o” 结尾, 后一个以 “元音” 开头的, 读时需再在它们之间加一个[w]音, 又如 : my heart go on. [ ^EuwRn]

find out发现

find/find out

find sth. (sth 是看得见, 模得着的, 具体的)

I find the pen. (pen是具体的)

find out 后跟的宾语一般是抽象的

find out the truth 发现真相

free 免费的

fee 交费 : fee parking 收费的停车场

课文读十遍

 

【special difficulties】难点

a强调的是后面的名词; one强调的是 “一个” 的意思

Excise: Put in a/an or one: 用a/an或one填空 :

______ day I received ______ postcard from Harry. He invited me to go on ______ excursion. As he was setting out that afternoon, there was only ______ thing to do. I had to send ______ fax. I went to my desk and picked up ______ form. I wrote ______ fax of ______ word: NO.

one/a/an/one/a/a/a/one

 

【composition】作文

I(came)(arrived at)the office late as usual(so)(but) Mr. Blake(saw)(understood)me(and)(or)

he  was very angry.‘This is your last day here, Jones,’he said.‘You can(neither)(either) (stay)(sit)here(or)(nor)go home!’

arrive at /so/saw/and/stay/either/or/

come to 一定要介词+地点

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

4  There were fewer people in the shop than usual. There were ______.

a.  as many as usual  b.not as many as usual  c.as few as usual  d.more than usual

answer:B

many     not (as) so.....as

 

7  It was one of the most expensive dresses ______ the shop.

a.in  b.of  c.from  d.to

most expensive  ①+地点 用in

②+范围表示所有的人或(书)当中, 用of

③I have ever seen/done/heard. (定语从句) 我所看过的, 做过的, 听过的

 

8  A detective recently watched a well-dressed woman. He ______ her.

a.looked  b.looked for  c.looked after  d.looked at

watch : look at

 

The woman first bought a few small articles. She bought some small ______.

a.things b.pieces c.bits  d.parts

article

 

10  The assistant wrapped it. She ______ it.

a.papered  b.turned  c.enveloped  d.made a parcel of

answer: D

wrapped: 包裹   envelope: 信封

made a parcel of : 制作一个包裹

 

12  The dress was free. It ______.

a.was priceless  b.was worthless  c.cost nothing  d.was grateful

priceless [5praislis] adj.无价的, 极贵重的

free,   worthless: 不值钱的.   Something cost money.

I pay nothing.

grateful [5^reitful] adj.感激的, 感谢的

 

 

 

§ Lesson 33 Out of the darkness 冲出黑暗

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★darkness n 黑暗

in the darkness 在黑暗中(在没有光线的情况下)

 

★explain v 解释, 叙述

explanation [7eksplE5neiFEn] n 解释 注意与 “explain [iks5plein]” 的读音不同

Could you give me an explanation能给我一个解释吗?

Interpret [in5tE:prit] v 解释, (强调翻译)语言之间的解释

interpreter [in5tE:pritE] n.解释程序, 解释者, 口译人员, 翻译员, 讲解员, 注释器

interpretation [in7tE:pri5teiFEn] n.解释, 阐明, 口译, 通译

interpretress [In`t\:prItrIs] n.女翻译员

 

★coast n 海岸

bank 河岸, (两边比水面高), 坝, 堤

coast 地理意义上的海岸, 海岸线等, 感觉旁边是岩石, 很陡峭

seashore 海岸, (跟游玩有关系, 为了游玩的)

seaside : 海边

seashore/ seaside 给人的感觉--旁边是沙滩, 可以进行日光浴的感觉

 

★storm n 暴风雨 (只解释为 “风暴” )

snowstorm 暴风雪

thunderstorm [5WQndEstC:m] n.[气]雷暴

rain heavily 表示雨下得很大

pour [pC:, pCE] v.灌注, 倾泻, 涌入, 流, 倾盆大雨

the rain is pouring. 倾盆大雨

It's raining cats and dogs. 滂沱大雨

 

★towards prep 向, 朝, 接近

towards 强调nearer and nearer  强调越来越近

 

★rock n 岩石, 礁石

rock 表示huge stone

huge [hju:dV] adj 巨大的, 极大的, 无限的

 

★shore n 海岸

★light n 灯光

★ahead adv 在前面

asleep, awake, alive, ahead......  a开头的往往是表语形容词, 不管是作表语形容词(如 : alight 点着的, 电亮的), 还是副词, 都放在名词的后面, 一般形容词放在名词的前面

pretty flowers / light ahead 前方的灯光

ahead 的用法 :

1、放在被修饰词的后面作定语, 定语后置

2、ahead of在什么前面 : he went ahead of me. 他走在我前面

3、go ahead ①朝前走 ②请随便(回答请求时用)

--Would you mind my using your telephone? or Can I use your telephone?

--Ok,go ahead.

--Can I smoke here?

--go ahead.

--sorry+一个原因(可能是事实, 可能是个借口), 不让别人做(哪怕是一个借口)

 

★cliff n 悬崖, 峭壁

★struggle v 挣扎

★hospital v 医院

类似于 school

1、前面不加the, 和它的功能有关系  go to hospital 看病

2、一旦+the, 只表示地点

I am in the hospital.

in hospital 住院 / in the hospital在医院

如要去医院看老师  go to the hospital / 自己肚子疼go to hospital (看病)

 

【Text】

happen:不及物 sth.  happen to sb

What happened to

nearly 将近 nearly a week 快一个星期了

句型 : ① sometime later...

Three days later, my mother returned强调某人做某事(简单句)

② ...passed and then...

Three days passed and then my mother returned. (came back) 并列句, 既强调某人做某事, 又强调时间(有多久)

③ Three days passed before my mother returned强调时间(这么久的时间, 时间状语从句, 后面是从句)

be able to强调有能力, 且能够成功(还强调成功)

can 只表示能力

I can swim across the river我能游过这条河, (但没有游过, 不知道能不能成功)

I was able to swim across the river.

.....explain what..... what引导的宾语从句

set out : set off = begin a journey

be caught in+灾难

I was caught in a rain我遇上了一场雨

As soon as he left, it began to rain

he was caught in a rain when he left他刚一离开, 就下雨了

遇上人用meet, 遇上灾难用be caught in a earthquake (earthquake [5E:Wkweik] n  地震)

towards evening 天越来越晚

struck强调的往往是猛烈的撞击 struck hard

to : 强调朝那个方向去, 但没有强调越来越近

towards : 表面也翻为朝那个方向去, 但强调距离越来越近

spend sometime +地点

cover a distance of ......

the red army covered a distance of 25000...  两万五千里长征

light ahead 前方的灯光  ahead 放在被修饰词的后面

high up on the cliff    adv+adv+介词短语

on doing=as soon as=the moment

as soon as=the moment后面要加句子

on 后面一定要加动词ing, 承认动词是由主句主语做的

......up the cliff towards the ......用两个介词起到动词的作用    up : 往上(prep)  

that's all she remembered.  all作为先行词, she remember 修饰 all 作定语从句, 省略 that

That was all I wanted to say那就是我想说的全部

That was all I can do for you=I can do nothing else for you

find +宾语+宾补 : find the books tidy 发现书摆放得整齐, found the room clean

宾补可以由形容词或介词短语充当   

I found the books in order. / when I woke up, I found myself in bed.

总结 :

① time passed before

...a day later...

time passed and then

② was caught in a storm (习惯用被动)

③ cover the distance of

④ 介词后面+ing , after doing, on ding

重点单词 : ahead; hospital

 

【Key structures】 关键句型

和时间相连的介词 : in, at, on, from...to...,until,after,before

和地点相连的介词 : from...to...

 

into : 进、入 tell him go into my house (离房子近用 “in” , 离房子远用 “into” )

只强调到哪里, 不一定强调到里面去, go to

out of : 从...出来, 离开away from

 

leave for : 动身到某地, yesterday my father left for Tianjin

head for/to : 前往

leave for 强调leave, head for 强调去

set out for动身到某地

 

towards强调越来越近

at : 含有一种瞄准的概念, aim at, fire at(瞄准开火), throw at ; threw to the bank

to 强调目标; towards 强调越来越近 the ball was coming towards me.; at 瞄准, 方向性

 

【Special difficulties】难点

pass / past 词性的区别

词与词的区别 : 1、意思上的区别2、词性上的区别3、细节上的区别

pass只有动词的概念, 其他由past承担(余下的词性都用past)

I pass the garden. / I go past the garden. / I go and pass the garden

 

Next / other

next day 第二天;  the other day = few days ago (几天前)

the other day 出现一定是过去时

next day有可能是过去式, 有可能是将来式

 

Exercise 练习

Choose the correct expressions in the following:选择正确的表达方式 :

1 I tried to telephone you(the other day)(the next day). You must have been out.

2 Have you(past)(passed)your driving test?

3 On the first day all went well. But on the(next) (other)day there was a storm.

4 The crowd cheered as the soldiers marched(past)(passed).

 

1. the other day    2. passed  (have done) 

3. next   on the first day all went well, 第一天都不错 4. past  (march:行军;long march:长征)

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

5 How ______ was the shore? Eight miles.

a.away far  b.far from  c.far away  d.long

far from +(必须)地点

how far away...? (away可省略)

what's the distance...?

 

6 That was all she remembered. She couldn't remember ______.

a.some more  b.anymore  c.no more  d.none more

not any more = not any longer = not any further  不再

no ;  none 不会和 more 连用, some不会出现在否定句中

 

12 That was all she remembered. She couldn't ______ very much

a.remind  b.memorise  c.recollect  d.mindSentence

remind 提醒 / memorise [`memLraIz] 记住 / recollect [7rekE5lekt] 回忆 / mind介意

 

4 She swam to the shore______ the night in the water.

a.having spent  b.having spending  c.when spending  d.had spent

4、(a)

只有谓语动词才有时态

句子中如果没有连词, 但有两个动词, 要把其中一个动词变成非谓语动词

从语法上讲 a, c 都对

when 是连词的标志

when +doing : 1、主语要跟主句的相同, 2、谓语动词含有be doing 结构 (两个条件必须满足)

when standing there I found the book very interesting.

when standing there.......(省略了I was)

She swam to the shore after spending the whole night in the water.

 

 

 

§ Lesson 34 Quick work 破案 神速

 

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★station n (警察)局 (一定是与军方, 警方有关系的)

post office 邮局 / police office 警局

bureau [bjuE5rEu, 5bjuErEu] 局 :

communication bureau 交通局 (communication [kE7mju:ni5keiFn])

I went to the police 我去警察局

 

★most adv 相当, 非常

只有加 “the” 时译为 “最” , 加 “a” 或什么也不加时译为 “非常” , “相当” (“very” 的概念)

a most interesting / I was most surprised.

 

【Text】

【课文讲解】

quick: 动作的快; fast: 速度的快; soon: 时间快

have a quick meal / quick freeze速冻

all week 用现在完成时

local new 当地新闻 / local police 当地警察局

local color 当地色彩, 地方色彩 / local people 当地人

native [5neitiv] n土著人adj 土生土长的

local call 市话

call at(some place) 拜访某地 / call on 拜访某人

ask/tell/expect/want/allow/request/order sb to do sth 请求某人做某事

you was wanted to do sth.

he was told that/to do (被动) / someone told him that... (主动)

sb. was told: 某人被告知; 有人告诉sb : I was told that yesterday you did sth wrong.

not......any more = no more 不再, 再也不

I don’t talk to you any more.我不再会对你谈话了

I will talk to you no more.

I walked no more .我不再走了

five miles away这一类结构可以直接做定语, 放在被修饰词后面

home前一旦加修饰词(如 “this” ), 则其为名词

the school is five miles away.学校在五里外 / The school five miles away...五里外的学校

I live in a house which is five miles away. = I live in a house five miles away.

His home : home 前一旦加修饰词(如文中的his), 则其为名词

......expected the bicycle to be found. 被动语态

I want my mother to wish clothes. / I want the clothes to be wished.(不关心谁洗, 被洗)

 

【letter writting】书信写作

In the address we usually write‘St.’for‘Street’;‘Rd.’for‘Road’;‘Sq.’for‘Square’;‘Ave.’for‘Avenue’;‘Pl.’for ‘Place’. We write words like‘Lane’and‘Drive’in full.

在地址中我们通常使用缩略形式, 如 : “St.” (Street); “Rd.” (Road); “Sq.” (Square); “Ave.” (Avenue); “Pl.” (Place),而有些词则不用缩略形式, 如 “Lane” 和 “Drive” .

 

pics. [piks] : pictures / secs. [sek; sZk]:seconds     wait secs 等几秒钟

td.co.  wto

 

【Special difficulties】难点

call on拜访

call (sb) up给某人打电话

一旦一个词可以省略而意思不改, 这个词可能是副词, 如 “up” 是副词

如果宾语是代词, 后面的词组由动词和副词组成, 代词一定会放在中间

call on you/call you up

go to the pictures 去看电影

call off 取消 / call out 大声喊 / call at 去了某地+地点 / call in 召集

 

Exercise 练习   用恰当的词填空 :

1  I called______ you five times yesterday. Were you out?

It's too late to go to the pictures. Why don't we call the whole thing ______?

We called ______to him but he could not hear us.

I called ______ the post office on my way to work.

 

1、on   call you up 不能说成 call up you / on (prep)    call on you

2、go to the pictures 去看电影  call the whole thing off

3 、call out

4、call out  去了邮局, 不一定译成 “拜访邮局”

 

【Multiple choice questions】多项选择题

1 Dan was worried because ______.

a. he received a letter               b. the police wanted him

c. he went to the station yesterday  d. he didn't know why the police wanted him

answer: d

 

8 All the police at the station are ______ men.

a. topical  b. local  c. native  d. neighbourly

answer: b

local: 当地的; native: 自己在这里(祖祖辈辈都在这里)

topical adj : 时事问题的; 热门话题的; 题目的 / neighbourly: 邻居的

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