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[LOHAS Australia] Kids need a good night's sleep [LOHAS澳大利亚]译文:小孩子需要好睡眠

(2011-03-21 18:23:18)





分类: 关注健康/HealthandWellbeing
Sleep problems in kids don't just drive parents batty, they also affect children's health and development. What can be done?

[LOHAS <wbr>Australia] <wbr>Kids <wbr>need <wbr>a <wbr>good <wbr>night's <wbr>sleep <wbr>[LOHAS澳大利亚]译文:小孩子需要好睡眠

Get any group of parents together and before too long the conversation turns to sleep, or how many children don't seem to get enough.


It is hardly surprising that parents are concerned, given that some experts say up to 35 per cent of children experience some kind of sleep problem.


And there is a growing body of research suggesting these problems are affecting many aspects of our children's health and development, including academic performance, growth and even immunity.


Sleep researcher and psychologist Dr Sarah Blunden, from the Centre for Sleep Research at the University of South Australia, told a recent psychology conference in Melbourne that sleep problems – which can be medical or behavioural – can affect a child's memory, attention, thinking ability and behaviour.

来自澳大利亚南澳大学睡眠研究中心的研究员,心理学家Sarah Blunden博士,在近期墨尔本的心理学研讨会上说,睡眠问题,无论是在医学方面还是行为学方面,都能影响孩子的记忆力,注意力,思维能力和行为。

For children, the most common cause of medical sleep problems is obstructive sleep apnoea. But parasomnias (sleep walking or night terrors); periodic limb movement disorder or restless leg syndrome; and other conditions, such as asthma and eczema, can also affect a child's sleep. Behavioural sleep problems can include difficulty falling or staying asleep, resisting going to bed and getting out of bed during the night.

对于儿童,医学方面最常见的睡眠问题是阻塞性睡眠窒息症(obstructive sleep apnoea)。但是异睡症(梦游或者夜惊),周期性肢体运动障碍或者不安腿综合症,还有其它比如哮喘和湿疹,也会影响孩子的睡眠。行为学上的睡眠问题可以包括难以入睡或者嗜睡,抗拒睡觉和起夜。

Blunden's research has found snoring (which is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea) affects a child's intelligence and attention, while behavioural sleep problems are linked to certain memory and behavioural deficits.


These findings fit in with other studies that found poor sleepers sometimes show symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are consequently misdiagnosed.


Snoring and sleep


Another Australian study, presented at several sleep conferences earlier this year but yet to be published, extends the links between snoring and ADHD-type symptoms.


Sleep paediatrician Dr Margot Davey and a team of Monash University researchers looked at a group of children aged seven to 12 years old. They compared 140 snorers, who had obstructive sleep apnoea, with 35 non-snorers, who didn't have sleep apnoea. Snorers fared worse in academic performance, problem-solving, memory, concentration, attention, were more easily frustrated and were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.

儿科睡眠专家Margot Davey博士和莫那什大学的研究团对观察一组7到12岁的儿童。他们比较了140位患阻塞性睡眠窒息症的打鼾儿童和35位没有此病症的不打鼾的儿童。打鼾儿童在学习成绩,解决问题,记忆力,专注力,注意力等各方面都相对糟糕,并且更容易沮丧,也更容易被诊断为多动症。

Davey's research also found those with milder breathing problems had behavioural and academic problems too.


Sleep apnoea is a condition where the muscles in your throat and upper airway collapse repeatedly while you sleep, preventing you from breathing properly and partially rousing you from sleep many times during the night. Snoring is the main symptom but children with sleep apnoea can also experience restless sleep, mouth breathing, gasping, breathing pauses and bedwetting.


Respiratory and sleep physician at Melbourne's Royal Children's Hospital, Dr Mandie Griffiths, says while 15 to 20 per cent of children snore at some time, only 3 per cent have obstructive sleep apnoea.

墨尔本皇家儿童医院呼吸和睡眠主治医师 Mandie Griffiths博士说,15%至20%的儿童在一段时期有打鼾,只有3%患有阻塞性睡眠窒息症。

And while many parents will know if their child is snoring, or showing other showing signs of sleep apnoea, Griffiths says those parents who are heavy sleepers may miss these signs.


Griffiths says children who have been snoring for a prolonged period and have other symptoms should see a GP, who can refer them to a specialist or for a sleep study.


'It's extremely important to have it treated. Treatment can lead to a remarkable difference in the child's life,' she says.


'Untreated [sleep apnoea can cause] daytime sleepiness, behavioural and learning problems … and long term, sleep apnoea increases the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke.'


In most cases, removing enlarged tonsils and adenoids usually cures the condition, Griffiths says. Although some children may need to use nasal spray or wear a continuous positive airway pressure mask (which delivers continuous pressure to airways and lungs, opening airways to allow normal breathing) at night.


Davey says that while follow-up shows improvement after treatment, some studies are starting to suggest improvement may not be as good as initially suggested. Her group is studying preschoolers to see if treating children when they are younger has better outcomes.


Certain groups, including children with ADHD, cerebral palsy, autism and developmental syndromes have higher rates of sleep disorders.


Behavioural sleep problems


In truth, behavioural sleep problems are far more common than medical ones.


'Children aren't born bad sleepers but they can be born a light sleeper which may be interpreted as a 'bad' sleeper,' Blunden explains. 'Sleep problems are hugely misunderstood and under diagnosed, yet manageable.'


Blunden says toddlers need 12 to 14 hours sleep daily and primary school kids 10 to12. Research suggests without this sleep, children don't function as well.


'They're more irritable, aggressive, hyperactive, fidgety, and can't concentrate or remember information, compromising learning. They get sick more and have an increased risk of accidents,' Blunden says.

“他们容易暴躁、好斗、过分活跃、烦躁以及不能专注或者健忘而影响学习。他们更容易生病,发生事故的风险随之提高。” Blunden说。

Any parent – or child who doesn't want to sleep – can tell you there are many reasons for behavioural sleep problems such as, a child:


  • not being able to fall asleep – because they don't know how, don't want to or are used to being put to sleep by parents
  • 孩子不能入睡,因为他们习惯于父母哄着入睡
  • being too excited or stimulated
  • 过度兴奋或者被刺激
  • not wanting to sleep alone
  • 不想一个人睡
  • being sick, scared, anxious,
  • 身体不适,受惊吓,紧张焦虑
  • feeling they are not spending enough time with their parents, which might be why they get up seeking attention.
  • 感觉缺少与父母在一起的时间导致可能他们寻求关注。

Sorting out sleep problems


A conversation between parents and their child is usually a good place to start sorting out these problems.


Also making sure your child has a regular bedtime routine will help. A regular routine that includes dinner, bath, quiet time and bed seems to help children wind down and relax before bed. Children will usually settle better in a quiet and comfortable room.


Sleep experts recommend the following tips:


  • Encourage your child to fall asleep on their own from age six months (put babies down when drowsy rather when already asleep)
  • 鼓励你的孩子在出生六个月起就独立睡觉(当婴儿犯困的时候就把他们放下而不是在他们入睡后)
  • Use reward systems (star charts culminating in a lucky dip or favourite outing) to motivate preschool and school-age kids, especially if they are getting out of bed or coming into your bed at night.
  • 利用奖励机制(贴小红花或者带他们出游)来激励学龄前和在校的小朋友,尤其是如果他们能按时起床和睡觉。
  • Before bed, do relaxation, breathing or visualisation exercises (imagine a happy place they like such as the beach or park and help them 'go there').
  • 睡觉前,做一些放松、呼吸或者想像练习(想像他们喜欢的一个地方,然后帮助他们“到那里去”)
  • Install a hall or night light if your child is scared of the dark.
  • 安装一个夜明灯,如果你的孩子怕黑的话。
  • Encourage relaxing activities such as reading, drawing, listening to quiet music in the hour before bed to help wind down.
  • 鼓励在睡觉前一个小时做一些舒缓的活动比如看书,画画,听一些柔和的音乐来让他们平息下来。
  • Turn off the television (keep TV out of the bedroom), computer, electronic games and other activities in the hour before bed.
  • 在睡觉前一小时关掉电视机(或者卧室不放电视机),关掉电脑,游戏机和停止其他任何活动。
  • Avoid strenuous exercise in the few hours before bed but make sure your child gets plenty of exercise during the day.
  • 在睡觉前几小时内避免体力活动,但要确保你的孩子在白天有足够的锻炼。
  • Ensure your child isn't consuming caffeine and limit spicy or salty food which can cause thirsty children to wake.
  • 确保你的孩子没有摄入咖啡因和过多辣的咸的食物,这些会让你的孩子因为口渴而醒来。
  • Get your child up at the same time every day.
  • 每天定时让你的孩子起床。

If none of these tricks work, you should probably see a GP who can refer you to a medical specialist, sleep physician or psychologist to investigate why your child struggles with sleep and help you find a solution.


Griffiths says children respond well to treatment and sometimes children with behavioural sleep problems won't listen to their parents but may listen to a professional.



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