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章振邦语法英语句子汉译:语篇修辞句式多样灵活交替2

(2020-08-05 10:09:32)
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语篇修辞

灵活交替

句式多样

章振邦语法英语句子汉译:语篇修辞句式多样灵活交替2


,句子的长短和繁简也是相对的 。关于这一点,不同的语体有不同的要求,但无论在哪一种语体中,特别是在记叙文和论说文中,长短句需配合使用,各种不同的句式需灵活交替,这样才能使文章生动活泼,取得较好的修辞效果。下面,我们分析一段文字,看一看长短句和各种不同的句式是如何交替使用的。这是从巴克利 (Buckley) 所著《科学的仙境》 (The Fairy-Land of Science) 一文中选录的一段:
Watch a shower of rain. Where do the drops come from? And why are they round, or rather slightly oval? Later on we shall see that the little particles of water of which the raindrops are made were held apart and invisible in the air by heat, one of the most wonderful of our forces or fairies, till the cold wind passed by and chilled the air. Then when there was no longer so much heat, another invisible force, cohesion, which is always ready and waiting, seized on the tiny particles
at once, and locked them together in a drop, the closest form in which they could lie. Then as the drops became larger and larger they fell into the grasp of another invisible force, gravitation, which dragged them down to the earth, drop by drop, till they made a shower of rain. Pause for a moment and think. You have surely heard of gravitation, by which the sun holds the earth and the planets, and keeps them moving round him in regular order? Well, it is this same gravitation which is at work also whenever a shower of rain falls to the earth. Who can say that he is not a great invisible giant, always silently and invisibly toiling in great things and small, whether we wake or sleep?
(看看下雨是怎么一回事.雨点是从哪里来的呢?为什么雨点呈圆形或者更确切地说呈椭圆形 呢?以后我们就会知道,那构成雨点的水的微粒由于一种名叫“热力”的神奇力量的作用通常处于分离状态。它们是悬浮空中目不可见,直到冷风吹过使空气冷却为止。当空中没有足够热力时,另一种无所不在的无形力量,即凝聚力,便开始起作用,它把水的微粒凝聚起来,结成水珠,水珠越滚越大,并受另一种无形力量,即地心吸力的作用,便点点滴滴落到地面。这就是下而。你现在想一想。你曾听说过地心吸力吗?正是通过这种力量,太阳才能维系住地球及其他行星,使之按照一定的轨道环绕自己运行。同样也是地心吸力的作用才使雨点落到地面。谁能说造化不是一位伟大的无形巨人,他对天地万物,不论巨细,无时无刻不在默默地、不露形迹地作用着?)

通过分析,我们可以看到,这一段话总共不过十句,但是,就句子长度来说,短句和长句交替使用,给人以生动有力之感;就句式来说,简单祈使句出现两次,简单疑问句两次,较长的复杂疑间句两次,较长的复杂陈述句三次,分裂句一次 可以说是句式灵活多变,长短参差有致,所以这段文字读起来给人以生动活泼、铨锐有力的感受 。这就是使用中的语法,也就是语法和修辞的统一。

下面引用一篇记叙文,这篇文字分两个段落,共 17句,其中不完全句 1个;简单句 4个;复杂句4 个(其中包括一个长句);并列句 2个;并列复杂句 2个;修辞疑问句 2个;复杂疑问句 1个;分裂句 1句式多样,长短搭配,生动活泼,饶有韵味:
So, once more, the year has come full circle. And how quickly; alas, how quickly! Can it be a whole twelvemonth since the last spring? Because I am so content with life, must life slip away, as though it grudged me my happiness? Time was when a year its slow length of toil and anxiety and ever frustrated waiting. Further away, the year of childhood seemed endless. It is familiarity with life that makes time speed quickly. When every day is a step in the unknown, as for children, the days long with gathering of experience; the week gone by is already far in retrospect of things learnt, and that to come, especially if it foretell some joy, lingers in remoteness. Past life, one learns little and expects little. Today is like unto yesterday, and to that which shall be the morrow. Only torment of mind body serves to delay the indistinguishable hours. Enjoy the day, and, behold, it shrinks to a moment.
       I could wish for many another year; yet, if I knew that not one more awaited me, I should not grumble. When I was ill at ease in the world, it would have been hard to die; had I lived to no purpose, that I could discover; the end would have seemed abrupt and meaningless. Now, my life is rounded; it began with the natural irreflective happiness of childhood, it will close in the reasoned tranquility of the mature mind. How many a time, after long labour on some piece of writing, brought at length to its conclusion, have I laid down the pen with a sigh of thankfulness; the work was full of faults, but I had wrought sincerely, had done what time and circumstance and my own nature permitted. Even so may it be with me in my last hour. May I look back on life as a long task dulcompleted a piece of biography; faulty enough, but good as I could make it - and, with no thought but one of contentment, welcome the repose to follow when I have breathed the word "Finis" . Gissing
(这样 一年又到头了 多么快呀,唉 多么快呀!从上个春天到现在,难道又过了整整12 个月了吗?由于我的日子过得恨意,难道生活故意要从我身边溜走 不想让我高兴高兴吗?曾经有一个时我终年劳苦焦虑,走投无路 那时间真是难以消磨 更早些时候 那儿童时代的一年真是长得过不到头 。在熟悉了生活以后,时间就过得快些了,像在那儿童时代 ,每天都在积累知识,每天都在迈向未知的世界。一周刚过,在已学知识的回顾中,好像业已远去。而那即将到来的一周,特别是那预期会有乐事的一周,却又娜娜来迟 。人过中年,学得少了,期盼也少了。 今天和昨天一样,明天又像今天,只有当身心受到折磨,才会感到那不易分辨的钟点很难熬过。只要你享受一会儿,瞧吧,那时间便缩成了片刻。
        我可能有望再活儿年。不过即使我知道剩下的时间不到一年了,我也没有怨言。当我在这个世界上过得不自在时,死将是难受的 。假如我是毫无目标地混了一生,这种结局也未免太突 然, 太无意义。现在 ,我的一生是圆满的。它曾以童年的无忧无虑的幸福开始 ,又将以成熟的心灵和理性的宁静而告终。当我经过多年的努力把一本著作终于写完时,我曾多次搁下笔来,欣慰地叹息一声:这本书有不少缺点,但是,我已是认真地写了。 我已尽了我的时间、精力、天赋所允许的一切可能,终于完成了它 。但愿它能伴随我到生命的最后一刻。但愿回顾我的一生,像是一部长期的适时完成的作品一一 一本自传 错误不少,但这是我尽力写出来的一----- 但愿我说出“完结”这个字时,我心中只有满足,别无他念。高高兴兴地迎接那继之而来的安息。)

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