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章振邦语法英语句子汉译:语篇修辞句式多样灵活交替

(2020-08-05 09:56:19)
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语篇修辞

句式多样

灵活交替

章振邦语法英语句子汉译:语篇修辞句式多样灵活交替


修辞的另一个要求是,言语要生动活泼,形式多样,最忌单调乏味,平淡无奇。避免单调可以通过各种不同的手段来实现 从语法角度看, 各种句式的灵活交替是达到生动活泼,避免单调的重要手法。写一篇文章,讲一段话,如果通篇用的都是简单句或者通篇用的都是很长很长的复杂句,往往会给人以句式单调的感觉。例如下面是关千19世纪英国浪漫派诗人约翰·济慈 (John Keats) 如何爱好希腊古典文学的一段话:
John Keats was fascinated by the art and literature of the ancient world. Just before his twenty-first birthday, he read George Chapman's translation of Homer. He wrote a famous sonnet on the subject. The next year, he visited the Elgin Marbles. The painter Benjamin Haydon accompanied him. This developed his enthusiasm still further. He wrote another notable poem after the visit. But his Greece was essentially a Greece of the imagination. It was the Greece of John Lempriere's Classical Dictionary. This he had read when young. He never visited Greece.
这一段话通篇用了十一个简单句,意思是明白的,但是平铺直叙,主要的意思不够突出,句子之间在意义上的逻辑联系也没有很好地表示出来,从而给人以松散、单调的感觉 。为了克服上述缺陷,我们可以通过主从结构把十一个简单句重新组织一下。
Although John Keats had been fascinated by the art and literature of the ancient world ever since he read George Chapman's translation of Homer (which produced a famous sonnet on the subject) just before his twenty-first birthday in October 1816, and had that enthusiasm further developed by his visit to the Elgin Marbles with the painter Benjamin Haydon the following year (which also produced a notable poem), his Greece was essentially a Greece of the imagination, inspired by his early reading of John Lempriere's Classical Dictionary: he never visited Greece
以上是通过并列 (coordination) 和从属 (subordination) 等语法手段把十一个简单句重新组织成为一个较长的复杂句。重新组合的结果,结构是紧凑了,主要次要的意思也分清了。但是句子过长、过于复杂,读起来非常吃力,与原来的十一个简单句相比,恰是走到另一极端。稳妥的办法看来还是着乎其中为宜。现在再把上面的复杂句适当简化,使句子长度适中,便千理解。

Although John Keats was fascinated by the art and literature of the ancient world, he never visited Greece. His Greece was essentially a Greece of the imagination, inspired by his early reading of John Lempriere's Classical Dictionary. Just before his twenty-first birthday, he read George Chapman's translation of Homer, an experience which inspired one of his most famous sonnets. His enthusiasm was further developed, in the following year, by a visit to the Elgin Marbles
with the painter Benjamin Haydon.
(尽管约翰 济慈对古代文学艺术饶有兴趣,可他并没有访问过希腊。他所了解的希腊仅是想象中的,那是他早期从阅读约翰·伦皮里埃所著《古典文学史》中得来的。在他21 岁生日的前一天,济慈阅读了乔治· 查普曼翻译的荷马史诗,这使他大开眼界,随即挥毫泼墨,写下一首最著名的十四行诗。第 二年济慈在画家本杰明.海顿的陪同下参观了厄尔全石刻,这又进一步激发了他对古代文学艺术的热情。)

这一段共有四句,每句长度适中,繁简有度,既突出了主要思想,又表达了次要意义,从而层次分明,便于阅读和理解。我们作这一番比较,并不是说简单句绝对地不可用,也不是说较长的复杂句绝对地不可取,而只是说句子的长度和复杂的程度要着乎其中,才便于理解,而不要走极端 。无论在什么语体中、在什么情况下,走极端总不是好主意。

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