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大木头比喻经

(2011-05-08 09:39:31)
标签:

佛经

尊者开示

分类: 翻译文章

Parable of the Log 大木头比喻经


                 Dhammar Talk by Venerable Chanmyay Sayadaw 恰宓尊者开示


Discourse  经文

Once the Omniscient Buddha was sitting under a tree on the bank of the river Ganga near the city of Kosambi.  Five hundred bhikkhus accompanied him.  The lord Buddha saw a very big log being carried down the river by the current.

有一天佛陀坐在高桑比(Kosambi)市附近的恒河边一颗大树下,有五百位比丘围绕着佛陀听佛陀说法。佛陀看见一段很大的木头,被恒河的水流带着向下流去。

He pointed to the log and said, “Oh Bhikkhus, do you see that big log which is being carried along by the current of the river?  The Bhikkhus replied, “Yes Venerable sir, we see it”.

祂就指着大木头对比丘说:“诸比丘,你们是否看见这一段大木头被恒河水带着向下流去?”诸比丘回答说:“是的,佛陀,我们看见了。”

The lord Buddha continued,

然后佛陀继续说:

“If that log is not caught on the near bank, it will reach the ocean.

“如果这段大木头不搁浅在此岸,它将到达大海。

If it is not caught on the far bank, it will reach the ocean.

如果它不搁浅在对岸,它将到达大海。

If it is not submerged under water, it will reach the ocean.

如果它不沉入水中,它将到达大海。

If it does not land on a small island in the middle of the river, it will reach the ocean.

如果它不搁浅在河中的沙洲,它将到达大海。

If it is not taken away be a human being, it will reach the ocean.

如果它不被人所取,它将到达大海。

If it is not taken away by a deity, it will reach the ocean.

如果它不被天人所取,它将到达大海。

If it does not sink into a whirlpool, it will reach the ocean.

如果它不沉入漩涡之中,它将到达大海。

If it does not become rotten, it will reach the ocean.”

如果它不腐烂,它将到达大海。”

Here, the Omniscient Buddha points out that if there is not any of these eight faults, the log will reach the ocean.  Then, the Buddha said, “Why will this log reach the ocean?  It’s because the current of the river inclines towards the ocean. It will therefore, reach the ocean if it has none of these eight faults.”

这里全知的佛陀指出,如果没有这八项错误发生,这段大木头一定会到达大海。接着佛陀说:为什么这段大木头会到达大海呢?因为河中的水流不断地流向大海,因此如果没有这八种错误发生,大木头必然会到达大海。

“In the same way, Bhikkhus, you will reach Nibanna if you have none of these eight faults.  Why?  Because Sammaditthi (Right Understanding) inclines towards Nibbana, the cessation of dukkha.  However, Bhikkhus, this is just a simile.”

“同样道理,诸比丘,你们一定能到达涅盘,假如你们没有这八项错误,为什么呢?因为正见趋向涅盘,即苦灭的境界。然而诸比丘,这只是一个比喻。”

Then, one of the monks requested the Lord Buddha to explain the simile, which the Buddha did it in this way.

接着就有一位比丘请求佛陀解释这个比喻。佛陀就详细加以解释。

The words near bank refer to the six sense doors – eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

此岸是指六种感官的门(六根门),即眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意。

The words far bank refer to the six sense objects – visible object, sound or voice, smell or scents, taste, tangible things, and mind objects. 

对岸是指六种感觉的对象,即可见的对象、声音、气味、味道、可触的东西以及心的所缘(即色、声、香、味、触、法这六尘)。

Submerged under the water means being attached to any sentient being or inanimate thing. 

沉入水中是指执着任何有生命的众生或者任何没有生命的事物。

Landing on a small island in the middle of the river means conceit, pride or haughtiness.

搁浅在河中的沙洲是指狂妄、傲慢或贡高我慢。

Taken away by a human being means that a Bhikkhu lives, mingling improperly with laity.

被人所取是指比丘不如法地跟俗人混在一起。

Taken away by a deity means doing good deeds for the purpose of being reborn in heaven – the realm of Devas or Brahmas.

被天人所取是指修行者积德修善的目的是为了生到天堂或梵天。

Sinking into a whirlpool means indulgence in five kinds of sensual pleasures.

沉到漩涡之中是指沉溺在五种感官欲乐中。

Becoming rotten means pretending to be virtuous when one is not actually virtuous.

腐烂是指不是真实持戒清净但是假装出持戒清净的样子。

 

The Exposition  说明

Although the Omniscient Buddha addressed this discourse to Bhikkhus, it is for all irrespective of race and religion. Anyone who has none of the eight faults can reach the ocean. When he has reached the ocean he has got free from the round of existence and got rid of suffering (Dukkha).

虽然佛陀讲这部经祂都称呼诸比丘,但是事实上是指一切修行佛法的人都包括在内,不管种族和信仰。任何修行人只要没有这八种错误都能达到大海,达到大海的意思就是他解脱了生死轮回、解脱了一切痛苦。


In some discourse of the Omniscient Buddha the ocean refers to the cycle of rebirths (Samsara) and in the others to Nibbana, the cessation of suffering. In this discourse what the Buddha refers to with the word “ocean” is Nibbana.

在某些经中佛陀祂将大海比喻作生死轮回这个苦海,但是某些经中佛陀将大海比喻作涅盘,也就是灭除一切痛苦的境界,在这部经中,佛陀是将大海比喻作涅盘。

 

Sense-doors and sense-objects 六根门和六尘

Then, what does the Buddha mean when he compares the near bank with six sense-doors and the far bank with six sense-objects?

然后佛陀所说的近岸是比喻作六根门、对岸比喻作六尘-这里面有什么意义呢?


Here I would like to say a few words about the word “mind”. In the psychology of Buddhism, “Citta” which knows the object, does not last even for the blinking of an eye. Herein the word “mind” is used in the sense of citta which knows the object and very instantly passes away. Cognition of the object does not last for even one millionth of a second. Occasionally we use the word “consciousness” which may be better than the word “mind”.

这里我首先必须先解释在佛学上“心”的意思,在佛法里面讲到“心”,它具有认知对象的作用,它非常快速地生灭,持续的时间非常短,甚至比眨眼的时间还要短。心认知对象的时间非常短,甚至不超过百万分之一秒。(最后一句是英文单词使用说明,故未译)


Consciousness or mind knows the object, but the eye does not know it. With the help of the eye, one of the six sense-doors, consciousness sees the object. For example, you see a brand new Rolls Royce car. In this case there is a visible object and there is the eye that makes the mind or consciousness see the object. If you see that Rolls Royce you may feel how good it would be to own one. If it is your own car it will give you much pleasure. You are attached to it because you see it and take it to be a very nice car of yours. You do not regard it as just a natural process of material phenomenon. Then, you are caught on the far bank, the car, and the near bank, the eye, because your attachment arises dependent on the car, the visible object and the eye, one of the six sense-doors.

我们的心能够认知对象,但是我们的眼睛不认识它。因为有六根门之一的眼帮助,识才能看到对象。例如,你看到一部名牌劳斯莱斯轿车,这个轿车它是一个可见的对象,眼睛帮助心看到这个对象。当你看到这部劳斯莱斯轿车,你会想:“如果能拥有这样一部车该多好呀!”如果是你自己的车,你会从中得到很大的快乐。因为你看见了它,而且把它当作一部属于你的非常好的轿车,于是你对它开始执着。你没有将它认定是一个物质现象的自然过程,这时候你就是搁浅在对岸,也就是这一部轿车,以及搁浅在此岸,就是你的眼睛,因为你这种执着的生起是因为外界的这一部轿车以及你的眼睛这两个因缘。


The eye is one of the six sense-doors. When the eye contacts the color or the form of the car, there arises consciousness that sees the car, but consciousness of seeing does not stop there. It goes further. It thinks, “Yes, it is my car, a very good car, a new car, I bought it yesterday, it cost a lost of money.” In this way, you become attached to that Rolls Royce. That means that you are attached to a non-living thing because of its color and form – a visible object – and because of the eye. So you are attached to the car.

眼睛是六根门之一。当眼睛接触车的颜色或形状时,就会产生一个能看到车的心,但这个心它不会只停留在看的阶段,它会继续想,“是的,这车是我的,是一部非常好的车,是一部新车,我昨天买了它,花了很多的钱。”于是,你开始执着这一部劳斯莱斯轿车,这表示你开始执着一个没有生命的东西,因为它的颜色和外形,即可见对象,还因为你的眼睛。于是,你就执着这部车。


Supposes you park it on the side of the road and a person carelessly drives his car past yours and scratches the door of your car. Then you feel angry because it is your car that is scratched. It means that you have attachment, Lobha and anger, Dosa. Do Lobha and Dosa bring you happiness? No, they bring you unhappiness, Dukkha. And why do you have this Dukkha? Your suffering and unhappiness arise because you yourself are stuck on the near bank as well as on the far bank. That attachment arises dependent on the visible object, the car, with the help of the eye, so you have that suffering because the eye consciousness keeps you stranded on the near bank. If you are attached to the car with the help of your eyes, you will not reach the ocean, Nibbana. You will be clinging to the far bank as well as the near bank; you won’t reach the ocean.

假设你将这部车子停在路边,有另外一个人他开车的时候不小心擦过你的车门,将你的车子划出一道痕迹,你会觉得非常生气,因为你的车子被划伤了。这代表你有贪心和瞋心。贪和瞋会带给你快乐吗?不会的,它们只会带给你痛苦。你为什么会有苦呢?你之所以受苦,因为你搁浅在此岸以及对岸。因为这个可见对象,即这部车,并藉由眼睛的帮助,生起了贪爱,所以你感到苦,因为眼识将你搁浅在了此岸的。如果你因为眼睛的帮助而执着这部车,你就到达不了大海,即涅盘。你将执着在对岸和此岸,你不会到达大海。


The log is compared with Khandhas or human being. Khandhas mean the five aggregates of mental and physical phenomena. Because you do not see the five aggregates as five aggregates of mentality and physicality, you take them to be a person, a being, a self or a soul, and as a result you are attached to them; so you won’t reach the ocean. If, however, you see the five aggregates as the five aggregates of mentality and physicality, you won’t take them for a person etc. Then you will not be attached to them, and so you will reach the ocean. That Rolls Royce you bought yesterday, which was so expensive, if you see it as a Rolls Royce, then you are attached to it; but if you see it as a material process of rupakkhandha – aggregate of materiality, you won’t be attached to it. Then you won’t be unhappy when it is scratched because you don’t take it as a valuable Rolls Royce of yours. You are caught on neither of the two banks.

大木头比喻五蕴或人。五蕴就是心理现象和身体现象的五种集合。因为你没有将五蕴看作是身体现象和心理现象的五种集合,所以你认为它是一个人、我、众生或者灵魂,于是你执着这五蕴;因此你就到达不了大海。但是,如果你将五蕴看作是身体现象和心理现象的五种集合,你不会认为它是一个人、我、众生,于是你不会执着这五蕴;因此你就会到达大海。你昨天买的这部昂贵的劳斯莱斯轿车,如果你将它看成是劳斯莱斯轿车,你就执着它;但如果你体悟到它只是物质现象,即一种色蕴,你就不会执着它。因此即使它被刮伤,你不会很难过,因为你不将它认定是有价值的劳斯莱斯,这时候你就没有搁浅在此岸和对岸。


Attachment and Conceit  贪爱和骄傲

What the Lord Buddha means by submerged under the water is attachment – desire, craving, lust, love. If you are attached to any living being or inanimate object, you won’t be able to reach the ocean.

沉入水中,是指贪爱,即渴望、欲望、爱。如果你执着一切有生命的众生或者没有生命的东西,你就到达不了大海,你就沉入了水中。


Then, Landing on a small island means conceit, pride or haughtiness. If you are proud of or conceited about your wealth, your rank or your success in your business, you are landing on a small island. That conceit delays you in your attainment of Nibbana. If you are conceited, you are unable to realize the mental and physical process in their true nature and your will take your bodily and mental process to be a person, a being, an Atta or a you. Then, there will arise many others defilement such as anger, lust, greed, hatred and so on. So, you, landing on a small island, won’t be able to reach the ocean because you are not able to realize natural process as natural process, or five aggregates as just a natural process.

接着,搁浅在河中的沙洲,是指傲慢、骄傲。如果你因为自己的财富、地位或生意上的成功而骄傲,你就搁浅在了河中的沙洲。这个骄傲会阻碍你修行证得涅盘。当你骄傲的时候,你就没办法看到身心的真实本质,因此你把你的身心现象看作是一个人、我、众生、是一个你,于是你生起很多其他的烦恼,如生气、欲望、贪婪以及瞋恨等。于是你搁浅在河中的沙洲,就不能到达大海,因为你不能认识到自然现象只是自然现象,或五蕴只是自然现象。

 

Improper Association  不如法的关系

If the log is taken away by a human being it won’t reach the ocean. This refers to Bhikkus. Supposing a Bhikkhu does not do his work of learning scriptures, practicing meditation, delivering sermons, leading his disciples on the right path and encouraging them to meditate for their emancipation; instead, he mixes with the laity in an improper way. Such a Bhikkhu is taken away by human beings. He will be unable to reach the ocean. He will be attached to these people whom he is improperly associating with. He will be so attached to worldly affairs that he won’t be able to realize the three characteristics of mental and physical phenomena, that is Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta – impermanence, suffering and no-soul, no-self or non-ego. If he is unable to realize these three basic facts of existence, he will be so strongly attached to worldly things that he won’t want to reach the ocean.

如果大木头被人所取,它不会到达大海。意思说比丘他不做他本分内的工作,即研究经典、修行佛法、讲法、引导其弟子走在正路上,并鼓励他们修行,以便达到解脱,他反而不如法地跟俗人混在一起。这个比丘就是被人所取,他没办法到达大海,因为他执着这些他不如法交往的人。他太贪爱俗事,于是他不能体悟身心现象的三个特征,即无常、苦、无我。如果他不能体悟存在的三个基本事实,他就不能到达大海,因为他太贪爱俗事。

 

Desire for Better Existence  期望更好的来世

If the log is taken away by a deva, it won’t reach the ocean. This means that if you perform any wholesome or meritorious deeds such as giving or charity (dana), observing moral precepts (sila) and meditation (bhavana) with a view to rebirth in the realm of Devas or Brahmas, then you will be taken away by them to their realm. If this happens you won’t reach the ocean. You may achieve your aim of a better rebirth because of the good you have done. You will be reborn as shining one, deva but you won’t be able to reach the ocean.

如果大木头被天人所取,它就不会到达大海。意思就是如果你做善事,如做慈善、持守戒律和禅修,其目的是为了来世要生到天堂或者梵天,那么你死后就会被天人带到天上去。如果这样,你就不会到达大海。因为你曾经做的善行,你可以实现你的目的,即更好的来世,你会生为闪闪发光的天人,但你不能到达大海。


Deva means a deity, one who shines. If you become a deva, you will be very attached to yourself because you are shiny and very beautiful. Then, you won’t be able to reach the ocean.

如果你成为天人,你就会很执着自己的身体,因为放光、很漂亮,所以不能到达大海。 

 

Sensual Pleasure  感官欲乐

If the log sinks into a whirlpool, it won’t reach the ocean. This means, if you are indulging in sensual pleasure, you won’t reach the ocean. This is attachment. If you are attached to what you see, what you hear, what you smell, what you taste, what you touch, and what you think about, then you become caught in a very big whirlpool. You won’t be able to reach the ocean. Because the doctrine of the Buddha is so very rational, logical and natural, I am sure that you agree with him on this point.

如果大木头沉入漩涡当中,它就不会到达大海。这是指如果你沉溺在感官欲乐上,你不会到达大海。如果你贪爱你所看到的、所听到的、所嗅到的、所尝到的、所接触到的以及所想的,那么你就被卷入一个非常大的漩涡,你就不能到达大海。


The attachment to any sensual pleasure leads you to repeated rebirth in the cycle of existence; it does not lead you to Nibbana, the ocean.

对任何感官欲乐的贪爱会导致不断地轮回,不会引导你到达涅槃大海。


Dishonesty  不诚实

Then the last one, becoming rotten. If the log becomes rotten, it won’t reach the ocean. That means that if you pretend to be a very virtuous person when you are actually not, you become rotten and will not reach the ocean. You won’t reach Nibbana.

最后是大木头腐烂。如果大木头腐烂,它就不会到达大海。意思是指修行者并非持戒清净,但是他却装着持戒清净,他变得腐烂,无法到达大海,无法证得涅盘。

 

The Way out of Suffering  离苦之道

The Omniscient Buddha said, “If you have none of these eight kinds of faults, you are certain to reach the ocean because you will be carried there by the Middle Current of the river.” The Middle Current is the Noble Eightfold Path. If you develop the Noble Eightfold Path, you are not kept on the near bank or the far bank, you are not submerged under the water, you won’t land on a small island, you won’t be taken away by humans or devas, you won’t be caught in a whirlpool, you won’t become rotten. Then you are certain to reach the ocean of Nibbana.

佛陀说,“假如没有这八项错误,你必然能够到达大海,因为你被河中的水流、这个中流而携带。这个中流就是指八正道。修行八正道,你就不会搁浅在此岸和对岸,不会沉入水中,不会搁浅在河中的沙洲,不会被天人所取,不会被人类所取,不会沉入漩涡中,也不会腐烂。因此你必然能够到达涅盘大海。


You must strive to develop the Noble Eightfold Path so that you do not have any of these eightfold faults. What you should do to develop this Noble Eightfold Path? Sila (morality) is the foundation, the basic requirement. Samadhi (concentration) is built on the foundation of Sila. Panna (insight and enlightenment) comes with the proper application of concentration. It is very easy to develop this Noble Eightfold Path which consists of Sila, Samadhi and Panna. Observe yourself or just observe your bodily and mental processes as they really are. That is all.

你必须努力修行八正道,这样你就不会有这八项错误。要修行八正道该怎么做呢?戒是基础,是基本要求。定建立在戒的基础之上。恰当地运用定,就能生出智慧。八正道由戒、定、慧组成,修行八正道非常容易。观察你自己或如实观察你的身心现象。就这样。


Watch any action or movement of your body and mind as it occurs without analyzing it, without thinking about it. Just pay bare attention to what is happening to your body and mind as it really is. That is all. If you use any intellectual knowledge or preconceptions in this awareness of your bodily and mental processes, then you go astray and your mind is not well concentrated, you will not be able to realize bodily and mental phenomena as they really are.

按照它发生时的样子注视你身心的一切动作或移动,不分析,不思维。只是单纯地、如实地注意你的身心正在发生什么。就这样。如果你在觉知身心现象的过程中运用任何学术知识或先入之见,你就走入了歧途,你的心就不会很专注,你就不能如实地体悟身心现象。

 

Purification of Mind  心清净

When you observe any activity of body and mind as it really occurs, then gradually your mind becomes concentrated on any process that is observed. Then the concentration becomes deeper and stronger. Your mind is purified from Nivarana (hindrances) such as Kamacchanda, Vyapada, Thina-Middha, Uddhacca-Kukkucca and Vicikiccha.

当你按照本来的样子观察身心的任何活动,你的心就能逐渐专注在任何你观察的过程,于是你定力越来越深、越来越强,你的心就从五盖当中清净出来,五盖就是五种障碍,即贪欲、瞋恚、掉悔、昏沉和疑惑。

Kamacchanda means sensual desire. Vyapada means ill-will. Thina-Middha means sloth and torpor. Uddhacca-Kukkucca means restless and worry or remorse. Vicikiccha means skeptical doubt. (此段为巴利文词汇说明,故未译,合并到上段)

If you have one of these five hindrances in your mind, your mind is defiled. It is not pure. When your mind is not pure, your insight is not penetrating. Only when the mind is purified of these five hindrances, can your insight knowledge become penetrating. When it is penetrating, you will be able to realize bodily and metal processes first in their specific characteristics and second in their general or common characteristics.

如果你有这五盖当中的任何一项,你的心就是被染污的,于是你的心不清净,你的内观没有穿透力。唯有你从五盖当中清净出来,你的观智才能有穿透力,你才能首先体悟身心现象的个性,然后体悟它们的一般性质或共性。

Realization at these two levels is called Right Understanding (Sammaditthi) in the course of Vipassana meditation. When it has reached its climax you attain to Nibbana, the cessation of suffering, through the first Enlightenment (Sotapattinana) which realizes the Four Noble Truths. You have reached the ocean.

体证个性和共性这两个层次在修观禅的过程中被称为正见。当观智到达顶点时,经由证悟初果须陀洹,你就证得涅盘,即灭苦的境界。当你证得初果时,你就体悟了四圣谛。你已经到达了大海。


However, it is only through deep concentration, when you are mindful of bodily and mental phenomena, that you are able to realize them with the three levels of Right Understanding.

但是,当你观照身心现象的时候,只能通过深的定力,你才能经由正见的三个层次体证得这些。


Right Understanding  正见

The first level of Right Understanding is realization of the specific characteristics of materiality and mentality. The second is realization of general or common characteristics of materiality and mentality. The third is realization of the four Nobile Truths – Dukkha, the origin of Dukkha, the cessation of Dukkha, and the way leading to the cessation of Dukkha.

第一个层次的正见就是体悟一切身心现象的个性,第二个层次的正见是体悟身心的共性,第三个层次的正见是体悟四圣谛,即苦、集、灭、道。


So, to purity the mind we need the Noble Eightfold Path. To realize mental and physical processes in their specific and general characteristics, we need the Noble Eightfold Path. To realize the FourNoble Truth we need the Noble Eightfold Path. This is the middle current of the river.

因此,要清净我们的心,我们需要修行八正道;要体悟身心现象的个性和共性,我们需要修行八正道;要体悟四圣谛,我们需要修行八正道,因为八正道是河的中流。


The Way to Freedom  通往自由之路

On the night when the Omniscient Buddha was about to pass away, he was reclining on a bed prepared for him in Kusinara Park. In the first watch of the night Subhadda, a mendicant, came to him and said, “Venerable Gotama Buddha, I followed various doctrines taught to me by various teachers. They all say that they know all and that they are Arahants. Is what they say true?”

在佛陀即将要入涅盘那天晚上,在库西那拉(Kusinara)公园,佛陀躺在为祂铺好的床铺上。在初夜时分,有个外道叫须拔陀罗来求见佛陀,并说道,“尊敬的苟答马佛陀,我有很多老师,他们教了我很多教法。这些老师都说他们无所不知,他们是阿罗汉。这些老师所说的是真的吗?”


The Omniscient Buddha left the questions unanswered and admonished Subhadda; “Subhadda, whether they know all or not does not matter; it is not concerned with your deliverance; so I won’t answer this question.

佛陀没有回答这个问题,对须拔陀罗说,“你的这些老师是不是无所不知、是不是阿罗汉这与你没有关系,因此我并不回答你这个问题。


My time is approaching. I will teach you what is important for your emancipation. Listen to me attentively.”

我的时间不多了,我要教你与你的解脱有关系的正法。专心听。”

 

 The Criterion 判断正法的标准

Then the Buddha said, “Subhadda, in any doctrine in which the Noble Eightfold Path is not found, there will not be any Samana.” Here Samana means one who has calmed and destroyed all defilements. It means that if there is no Noble Eightfold Path in a doctrine, then there is no one who has destroyed all defilement by following it.

然后,佛陀说,“须拔陀罗,在任何教法当中,如果没有教导修行八正道,那么在这个教法当中就没有沙门。”这里沙门是指灭除一切烦恼的人。如果教法中没有八正道,遵循该教法的人就不能灭除一切烦恼。


If there is Noble Eightfold Path in a doctrine, there will be someone who has destroyed the defilement by following it and got rid of suffering. So, if you follow any doctrine in which you do not have to develop the Noble Eightfold Path you are certain not to destroy defilement and get rid of suffering.

如果教法中有八正道,遵循该教法的人就能灭除烦恼,并解脱痛苦。因此,如果你遵循的教法中不需要修行八正道,你肯定不能灭除烦恼,并解脱痛苦。


Here, the Omniscient Buddha points out the criterion of the true Dhamma.

这里,佛陀指出了判断正法的标准。


The Lord Buddha said, “Subhadda, only in my doctrine or in my sasana is there the Noble Eightfold Path to develop. Therefore, there is samana only in my doctrine.” This Discourse expounded by the Omniscient Buddha to Subhadda fits in with “The Parable of the Log” because a person who does not develop the Noble Eightfold Path is sure not reach the ocean of Nibbana. If he develops the Noble Eightfold Path, he is certain to reach the ocean of Nibbana as he will not be kept on the far bank or the near bank etc. The Omniscient Buddha taught us the way to develop this Noble Eightfold Path. That is the technique of Mindfulness meditation.

佛陀说,“须拔陀罗,只有在我的教法当中有八正道,因此只有在我的教法当中有沙门。”佛陀对须拔陀罗所开示的这部经正好符合我们现在讲的这部大木头比喻经,因为如果不修行八正道,就不可能到达涅槃大海。如果修行八正道,就肯定能到达涅槃大海,因为不会搁浅在此岸或对岸等。佛陀教导我们修行八正道的方法,即正念修习的方法。

 

Mindfulness Meditation 正念修习

The Omniscient Buddha taught us the way of mindfulness when he expounded the Discourse on the Four Foundations of Mindfulness (Mahasatipatthana Sutta). He teaches us to be mindful of bodily process, sensation, consciousness and mind-object as they really occur. So, the principle of mindfulness meditation is to observe, to be mindful, to be aware of whatever arises in our body and mind as it really occurs. Even unpleasant sensation of pain, aching, stiffening, itching and the like must be mindful of as they really are.

佛陀在开示《四念处经》(大念住经)时教导了修行正念的方法,也就是如实地观察身体、感受、意念以及心的所缘。因此,正念修习的原则就是,如实地去观察、留心、觉知任何在我们身心中生起的现象。即使是不愉快的感受,如痛、僵硬以及痒等,都必须如实地观察。


When you feel pain in your back or in your knee, you must observe it as it really is. You must not try to make it go away. You must not make it disappear because the pain will help you attain Nibbana. In other words, pain is the key to the door of Nibbana. So, if you feel a painful sensation you are very lucky. It will lead you to the cessation of suffering because it is one of the five aggregates to be thoroughly realized.

当你感到后背痛或膝盖痛时,你必须如实地观察。你不得想让痛离开或让痛消失,因为疼痛是开启涅盘大门的钥匙。所以,当你感觉疼痛的时候,你是非常幸运的!疼痛能引导你解脱痛苦,因为它是待充分认识的五蕴当中的一种。


It is an aggregate of sensation, which is the truth of suffering and must be thoroughly understood. If we realize this painful sensation in its true nature – in its specific as well as in its general characteristics – we see it as just a natural process arising and passing away from moment to moment. It does not last for even a second. And through the realization of this pain or aggregate of sensation, you can attain to the Enlightenment by which you can destroy defilement and get rid of suffering. That is why I say that if you feel a painful sensation, then you are very lucky. Why? Because you have a mental process together with the physical process to watch, to observe and to realize. That pain gives you a very good opportunity to realize its true nature and so lead you to the cessation of Dukkha, Nibbana.

痛是受蕴,是苦谛,必须被充分了解。如果我们认识疼痛的真实本质,即它的个性和共性,我们明白它只是刹那至刹那生起和灭去的自然现象。它持续非常短,甚至都没有一秒钟。通过认识疼痛或受蕴,你就能觉悟,由此你可灭除烦恼,解脱痛苦。这就是我为什么说如果你感到疼痛,你就非常幸运。为什么呢?因为你有一个心的现象和身体的现象可以看、观察并去认识它,你就有机会去认识疼痛的真实本质,并引导至苦灭的境界,即涅盘。


Specific and General Characteristics 个性和共性
It is here needed to explain the specific characteristics of mentality and physicality and their general or common characteristics.

这里需要解释身心现象的个性和一般性质或共性。


Every mental or physical process has its own distinctive features which have nothing in common with any other mental or physical process. You know lobha (greed, craving, desire, lust and attachment are all encompassed). Lobha has its own characteristics which does not belong to any other mental or physical process. If you have love or desire for that Rolls Royce you will become proud, possessive or covetous. You become attached to it. So the specific characteristics of Lobha is clinging.

每一个身心现象有它独特的、和别的身心现象不共有的特征。比如贪爱(包括所有的贪婪、渴望、欲望和贪爱),贪爱有其自己区别于其他身心现象的性质。如果你对那部劳斯莱斯生起喜爱或渴望,你就会感到骄傲、有很强的占有欲或变得贪婪。你就贪爱这部车。因此,贪爱的个性就是执着。


Dosa (anger) is different. It has the characteristics of rudeness. Whereas Lobha draws things towards it, Dosa is aversion; it repels.

而瞋恚则不同,它的个性是粗鲁。贪爱执取外物,而瞋恚则排斥外物。


The Six Elements 六大元素
Physical and mental processes which constitute a so-called “person” are pathavidhatu, apodhatu, tejodhatu, vayodhatu, akasadhatu, and vinnanadhatu. These six elements are those of earth, water, fire, air, space and consciousness.

构成所谓的“人”的身心现象是六种元素,即地、水、火、风、空、识。


Pathavidhatu, the element of earth, has hardness and softness as its characteristics. This characteristics belongs only to the earth element and to no other elements; it is, therefore, the specific characteristics of the earth element, while apodhatu, water element, has fluidity and cohesion as its specific characteristics, heat and cold are the specific characteristics of tejodhatu, fire element, or temperature.

地大的个性是坚硬和柔软,这种性质只有地大有,其它元素没有。水大的个性是流动性和黏稠性,火大的个性是冷和热。


When a meditator has gained deep concentration of mind, his mind is purified. Then he begins to realize the specific characteristics of mental and physical processes. When you observe your abdomen rise and fall, a physical process, and your concentration becomes deep enough, you begin to realize the rising and falling movements very clearly in their true nature. Movement or motion is the specific characteristics of the wind or air element. When you rightly understand the true nature of the rising or falling movement very clearly, you are not aware of the form of your body or abdomen. What you are realizing at that moment, is just the movement – outward movement and inward movement. Then you begin to realize the specific characteristics of the air element (vayodhatu).

当修行者获得较深的定力时,他的心变得清净。然后,他开始体悟身心现象的个性。当你观察腹部上下,即身体现象,并且当你的定力够深的时候,你就能清楚地看到上升和下降运动的真实本质。移动或运动是风大的个性。当你正确地、清楚地理解腹部上下运动的真实本质,你就感觉不到你身体或腹部的形状。在那刹那你所体会的只有运动—向外的运动和向内的运动。这样,你就开始体悟风大的个性。


The general characteristics of material and mental phenomena are Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta – impermanence, suffering and no-soul, no-self nature. Every mental state, emotional state and physical process has these three characteristics in common. They are called common characteristics because they belong to every mental and emotional state and physical process.

身心现象的一般性质是无常、苦、无我。任何心理状态、情感状态和身体过程都有这三个性质。它们被称为共性,因为它们属于每个心理状态、情感状态和身体过程。


After you have passed two stages of insight knowledge – knowledge of differentiating between materiality and mentality and that knowledge of cause and effect – you come to realize these three general characteristics of psychophysical phenomena. This insight knowledge is known as knowledge of comprehension, which comprehends all these general characteristics of material and mental phenomena.

当你经过第一、第二这两个观智,即名色分别智和缘摄受智,你就体悟这些身心现象的共性。这种观智称为思惟智,它领会了身心现象的所有共性。


When a meditator’s insight knowledge becomes mature on account of diligent practice with continuous and constant mindfulness for the whole day and deeper concentration growing naturally, he is certain to pass through all the stages of insight within his personal experience of them. His bodily and mental processes – the bodily process which is noted and the mental process which notes it – cease to exist. Then, he attains to Nibbana, the cessation of compounded things (Sankhara).

当禅修者由于勤勉的修行、一整天保持持续稳定的正念、定力自然逐步加深而观智变得更成熟时,他必定以其个人的经验经历所有阶次的观智。他的身心现象,即被观察的身体现象和观察身体现象的心理现象,将停止存在。于是他就证得涅盘,即诸行寂灭。

 

And End of Suffering  苦的结束
Therefore, at the moment he gets into the state of the cessation of all Sankhara (compounded things) he has abandoned attachment, the cause of suffering, because he has rightly and perfectly understood Dukkha. So, the Truth of Suffering has been perfectly understood. The cause of Suffering is abandoned at that moment. The Truth of the way leading to the cessation of Suffering (The Noble Eightfold Path) has been developed. You have reached the cessation of compounded things (Sankhara). Here he has attained the third level of right understanding, that is, the Enlightenment, by realizing the Four Noble Truths. Then he reaches the ocean because he has been carried away by the middle current, the Noble Eightfold Path. He is not kept on the near bank or the far bank. He is not submerged under the water. He is not stranded on the island. So, he has reached the ocean.

因此,因为他已正确并完全地理解了苦,当他进入诸行寂灭的境界时,他已没有任何贪爱,即苦的因。因此,他已完全理解苦谛,在那刹那根除了苦的因,他已经在修行道谛(八正道),他已经到达诸行寂灭的境界。这里,通过实证四圣谛,他到达正见的第三层次,即觉悟。然后,因为他顺着中流--八正道,他到达了大海。他既没有搁浅在此岸,也没有搁浅在对岸;既没有沉入水中,也没有搁浅在河中的沙洲。因此,他到达了大海。


The Lord Buddha, sitting under a tree on the bank of the river Ganga, delivered this discourse. A cowherd named Nanda, who listened to the discourse, was so much inspired by it that he wanted to be carried away by middle current. So he approached the Lord Buddha and requested ordination as a Bhikkhu. “Venerable sir, I am afraid of being caught on the near bank or the far bank or submerged into the river. I want to be carried away by the middle current and reach the ocean. Please ordain me a Bhikkhu so that I can develop the Noble Eightfold Path.”

佛陀坐在恒河边的树下讲完这部经。有一位牧童叫作难陀,他听了这部经的开示受到很大的激励,也想被中流带到大海。于是他靠近佛陀,请求受戒成为比丘。他说,“尊者,我担心被搁浅在此岸或对岸或沉入水中。我想顺着中流到达大海。请给我授戒让我成为比丘,这样我就能够修行八正道。”


The Omniscient Buddha said, “Boy, you are a cowherd. First you have a duty to drive your cows back home. You should entrust them to their owner. Unless you do that, I cannot ordain you.”
佛陀说,“孩子,你是一个牧童。首先你有责任将牛群赶回家,将它们交给主人,只有这样,我才能给你授戒。”

So the cowherd did as the Omniscient Buddha urged. Then he returned to be ordained a bhikkhu. Bhikkhu Nanda went into the forest to a secluded place and developed the Noble Eightfold Path by being aware of all mental and physical phenomena that were arising from moment to moment. Because he was willing to be carried away by the middle current, he meditated diligently. In a very short time, he was carried away by the middle current and reached the ocean of Nibbana because he had none of those eightfold faults and was carried away by the middle current of the Noble Eightfold Path that runs towards the ocean.

于是牧童照着佛陀说的做了,回来后,他被授戒成为比丘。比丘难陀进入森林,找到一个偏僻的地方,修行八正道,正念观察每一瞬间生起的每个身心现象。因为他愿意被中流带到大海,他非常勤奋地修行。在很短的时间内,他就顺着中流,到达了涅盘大海。他能到达涅盘大海是因为他没有这八项错误,他被流向大海的八正道这个中流带到了大海。


The Lord Buddha repeatedly said: “Be mindful of what is happening at this moment as it really is, or be aware of whatever arises in your body and mind as it really is.” Then all of you will be carried away by the middle current and attain Nibbana,the ocean.

佛陀反复说,“如实地正念观察当下发生的每个现象,或如实地觉知你身心中生起的任何现象”。那么你们都能顺着中流,到达涅盘大海。

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