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读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter 2, upper)

(2011-06-25 23:19:18)
标签:

剪纸

分类: 读书笔记

Chapter 2 Pattern and Style

图案与风格

 

The folk craft of papercutting is one of the many popular art forms...Walking through a northern village where each and every household shines with colourful window ornaments on the clean white paper covering the windows, one has the sense that this not merely a means of beautifying the peasants’ living environment, it is a window into their lives.

剪纸是很受欢迎的艺术形式之一。当你走在北方的村庄里,看着每家每户都贴着各种颜色的窗花,你就会发现剪纸不仅是美化家居环境的一种装饰,而且还深深地反映出农民日常生活的方方面面。

 

In any discussion of papercutting we cannot forget the great French artist Henri Matisse (1869-1954), who devoted the later years of his career to the art of papercuts, creating innumerable brightly coloured works. Matisse believed that a pair of scissors could be more adroit than a pencil, that cutting directly out of coloured paper was like being a sculptor carving directly into stone. Because the material for papercutting was cheap and easy to obtain, Matisse called this craft “the one-cent toy”, not at all disparagingly, for Matisse felt he had found the “supremely handy” method for painting in one connected movement. From this we can see that the value of a work of art is decided not by the price of the materials used or the intricacy of the workmanship, but by the feeling of life which a piece of work embodies.

当我们讨论剪纸艺术的时候,请别忘了法国画家亨利·马蒂斯,他晚年的时候相当痴迷于剪纸艺术,并创作出大量色彩鲜艳的作品。马蒂斯相信剪刀比铅笔更游刃自如,而剪纸的过程就如同雕塑家雕刻石头的感觉一样。由于剪纸的材料随处可见而且物美价廉,因此马蒂斯把这种工艺称之为“一分钱玩具”,这是一种无与伦比的、流畅的绘画方式。由此可见,艺术品的价值并不取决于材质的贵贱或者工艺的复杂程度,而是取决人们的生活经历和热情。

 

There are two possible ways to deal with the spaces in a papercut: the first is called “connected lines” and the second, “discreet lines”. We see here what is unique to papercuts. The former kind of line has also been called “positive cutting”, the latter, “negative cutting”. Needless to say, a single papercut can use either of these methods or both simultaneously.

剪纸有两种方式处理镂空的问题:一种是线线相连,另一种是线线相断。这就是剪纸独特的地方。前者称为阳刻,后者称为阴刻。在同一幅剪纸里面可以使用任意一种技法,也可以两种同时使用。

译者注:

1.阳刻:以线为主,把造型的线留住,其他部分剪去,并且线线相连,称为正形。(上图)

2.阴刻:以块为主,把图形的线剪去,线线相断,并且把形剪空,称为负形。(中图)

3.阴阳刻:阳刻与阴刻的结合。(下图)

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)

A large Variety of Design

Designs of papercuts can be devided into four categories:

剪纸的四大分类

 

1.The First category 第一类  室内装饰

The first includes those papercuts meant for decorative effect which are pasted directly on windows, walls, lanterns and paper sculptures, such as window ornaments, wall ornaments, ceiling ornaments, smoke vents, lantern ornaments and door hangings.

第一类是粘在特定物品上的,比如窗花、墙花、屋顶装饰、烟囱装饰、灯花和门签等等。

 

1.1   Window Ornament 窗花

The windows of peasant houses in the north of China are designed with vertical and horizontal strips of wood, making various geometric designs; on top of this is pasted a layer of “skin paper” (the paper is treated with tong oil which gives it the illusion of transparency and makes it last longer). Every Spring Festival each famialy changes the paper on their windows, and covers the new white paper with colourful papercuts. … There are no limits to the choice of theme or shape: animal, flowers or people, and sets of cuts telling story of a play or a folk tale are all common.

北方的窗户是由木方纵横组合而成的,有时会有些几何图案。木窗上贴一层桐油纸,既透明也耐用。每年春节家家户户都换上新的白纸和剪纸图案。题材和形状的选择没有多少限制,可以是动物、花朵或者人物,甚至连复杂的戏曲情节和民间传说都相当普遍。

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)
Butterfly – a window corner ornament   蝴蝶——窗角装饰

 

1.2   Wall Ornament 墙花

In general, there are two kinds of wall ornaments. The first is pasted on the walls closest to the bed, or in the north of China where the peasants sleep on kang (platform beds), pasted all around the kang. Sometimes they are pasted alongside folk woodblock New Year prints. A second type is pasted on the kichen stove, and called “stove ornaments”... The flowers pasted around a kang usually tell a story with a plot so that one can “read” it as one is lying on the kang. Stove ornaments usually are good-luck characters such as “May the harvest be plentiful” or “May you have more than enough every year”. The fishermen of the coastal towns of Fujian Province also cut the proverb “May the wind and the sea be with you”.

总体而言,墙花分两种。一种是贴在靠床的墙面上,或者说贴在北方的炕上,有时和春节的木版画贴在一起。第二种是贴在厨房的炉灶旁边,称为“灶花”。贴在炕上的剪纸通常都有故事情节,好让农民躺在床上的时候能够“阅读”它们。灶花则通常是纳福迎祥的语句,比如“丰衣足食”、“年年有余”。福建的渔民则会贴上“顺风顺水”等字样的剪纸。

 

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)

A round ceiling ornament   天花板团花装饰

 

1.3 Door Hangings 门签

Door hangings looks like a cut out silk flag, with a wide head, which is attached to the beams or over the door, and a row of tassels on the bottom. They usually follow neat geometric designs or good-luck patterns, and often incorporate good-luck characters into them like “Best wishes for fortune and long life”, “A model family”, “Work hard for the Four Modernizations” or “Farm scientifically”. These are either cut out of a single hanging, or made form four hangings put together, each with one character. Most hangings are red, although there is no limit to the possibilities for design and colour.

门签的样子有点像方形的旗,上方贴在门梁上,下方有流苏。主题通常都是简洁的几何形或者吉祥话语,比如“多福多寿”、“模范家庭”、“为四个现代化奋斗”或者“科学种田”等等。这些门签可以是一张写一个字的,也可以一张写一句话的。虽然对于颜色和图案都没有限制,但是一般而言,门签都是红色的。

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)

Door hangings门签

 

1.4   Lantern Ornaments灯花

Before the widespread use of electric lights the traditional forms of household lighting were the candle lantern and the oil lantern. The cage of the lantern blocks the wind, and enables the lantern to be carried in the hand. There are two types of these lanterns: the first kind is square in shape covered with gauze, or shaped like a basket or like two tile pieces joined together commonly used in daily life and for weddings and other celebrations; the other kind is used for traditional holidays, and come in every size and variety – geometrically shaped or as flowers or animals. According to the traditional lunar calendar, the fifteenth of the first month is called the Lantern Festival. On that night, every family hangs its lanterns out in front of its door, while larger lanterns are displayed in the square or public gathering place. Each child carries a small lantern in his or her hands and the holidays become a combination of an exhibition and a competition.

在电灯普及之前,人们一般使用蜡烛和油来点灯。灯笼能够起到挡风的作用。灯笼有两种:一种是方形的纱灯,用于日常生活和结婚喜庆;另一种主要用于传统节日,形状多姿多彩,可以是几何形,或者花和动物。根据中国传统,正月十五元宵节又称“灯笼节”,那天晚上家家户户都把灯笼挂在门前,而广场上则挂更大的彩灯。孩子们提着小灯笼,于是这个节日就像是一场灯笼竞赛和展览。

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)

There are two outstanding forms of papercuts used to decorate these lanterns. The first is called “walking horse” lantern and the second is called “gauze lanterns”. The “walking horse” lantern works on the principle of a gas turbine, and appeared as early as the Song Dynasty. The cut figures are attached to a sort of vane which is moved by the rising hot air currents caused by the flame. “Gauze” lanterns are made by placing a papercut in between two pieces of gauze which make up the covering for the lantern cage.

有两种剪纸用于装饰灯笼。一种叫做“走马灯”,而另一种叫做“纱灯”。走马灯上方装有叶片,可以通过热气的升腾来带动叶片和轴承的转动。轴承连有剪纸,烛光将剪纸的影子投在灯笼四壁上,剪纸不断走动,形成了灯笼四壁上投影的不断前进,从而产生动画的现象。纱灯是将剪纸夹在两层薄纱中间做成的。

 

2. The Second Category 第二类  礼品花

The second includes those papercuts designed to line and decorate gifts, doweries and sacrificial offerings, such as happiness ornaments, gift ornaments, candlestick ornaments, incense burner ornaments and the Double Ninth flags for the festival on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month.

第二类为礼品花,贴在嫁妆、祭品等物件上,如喜花、礼品花、烛台装饰、香炉装饰,以及重阳旗的图案。

 

2.1 Offering Ornaments 祭神剪纸

In old China when people adhered to the traditions and ceremonies honouring the gods and ancestors, these papercuts were used to decorate ceremonial offerings. ..The most characteristic of thses offering ornaments are what are called “pig’s head” ornaments. The outline is in the shape of a pig’s head, and inside various patterns of good luck are designed in the pig’s eyes and nose.

在古代,中国人很重视祭神和他们的祖先,而有一类剪纸就是专门为祭祀礼仪而准备的。其中最有特色的叫做“猪头”剪纸。它的轮廓就是猪头的形状,里面点缀了各种吉祥图案。

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)

An offering ornament in the shape of a pig’s head   剪纸祭品:猪头与双喜


 

2.2 Gift Ornaments 礼品花

In the countryside, wherever an old person has a birthday, a new couple has a baby, or a friend or relative comes to visit, people always bring gifts, people always bring gifts such as cake, “long-life” noodles, or eggs, and usually these gifts are decorated with some sort of papercut. In the Chaozhou area of Guangzhou, these are called “cake ornament”…Up to 1950s the peasants in Fujian Province still preserved an ancient tradition which said that when giving gifts one should use the shapes of a tortoise to symbolize long life; tortoise-shaped cakes decorated with tortoise-shaped papercut.

在农村,每当一位老寿星过生日,新婚夫妇生了孩子,或者亲友间相互往来的时候,人们通常都会带些蛋糕、长寿面或者鸡蛋作为礼物,而剪纸就是首选的礼品包装。在潮州地区这种装饰叫做“蛋糕花饰”。直到1950年代,福建农民还是保留着古老的传统,即以乌龟象征长寿,于是蛋糕和蛋糕花饰都做成乌龟形的。

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper) 蛋糕花饰

 

2.3 Double Ninth Flags 九九重阳旗

In folk traditions, the ninth day of the ninth lunar month, is a festival day. The weather is cool and crisp, and people all go out to walk in the autumn air and climb to the top of hills or mountains. To celebrate the festival there is a kind of triangular coloured streamer which children can play. These “Double Ninth Flags” are often cut out or dyed with the patterns of dragons or tigers.

重阳节天清气爽,适宜登高。人们剪一种三角形的彩旗,让孩子拿在手里玩。这种九九重阳旗通常都剪出龙或者虎的图案。

 

3. The Third Category 第三类  绣花样板

The third is used as stencils for embroidering clothes, hats, shoes, pillow cases, bibs, sleeve embroidery and backbags.

第三类用作绣花的样板,比如花衣服、花帽子、花鞋子、花枕头、花围嘴、花袖子和花背带。

 

3.1 Shoe Decorations 鞋花

This type of papercut is used as a kind of stencil base for embroidering shoes. The patterns of shoe decorations are usually clean and symmetrical, and sometimes are separeated without leaving a space to serve as an indicator for embroiders to change the colour of the thread. At least two categories of shoe decorations can be seen, one is “toe flowers”, and another is “saddle flower” .

这种剪纸是作为绣花鞋的样板的。鞋花简洁干净而且对称,做工精细,连划粉记号都看不到。鞋花至少有两种:一种是趾花,另外一种是“马鞍形鞋花”。

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)马鞍形鞋花

 

4.The Fouth Category 第四类 蓝印花布

The fourth is used as a stencil for indigo prints, which are used for clothing, quilt covers, door and window curtains, cloth wrappers, aprons and scarfs.

第四类用作蓝印花布的雕花蜡版,花布可以用来缝衣服、被罩、门帘或窗帘、包裹、围巾、披肩等等。

 

4.1 Indigo Prints 蓝印

This is a technique using indigo dye to make designs on fabric. Cut the oiled paper into a pattern and then with a mixture of lime, starch and water make a dye-preventing agent, cover the material and immerse it in the dye, and then dry it in the air. When it is dry the dye-preventative can be scraped off to reveal white patterns on a blue backgound. Most of the paper stencils for dyeing use negative lines.

这是一种给布料染上靛青色花纹的技法。首先用油纸剪出雕花图版,然后将油纸固定在布料上,并刷上一层防染色的物质,其主要成分是石灰、淀粉。这道工序完成后就可以进行蓝靛浸染。浸染几天后晒干,最后去掉防染色的涂料,就能显出白色图案来。在蓝印花布中,大部分的剪纸都是阴刻。

 

A Distinctive Style

独特的风格

The style of Chinese folk papercutting is directly connected to its unique artistic vocabulary. The naivete of the forms, the force of the designs, the brightness of the colours and the restrictions on the tools material used all reflect the working people’s ingenuity and desire for beautiful surroundings.

The 6,300-kilometre Yangtze River divides China into north and south. Northern papercuts are characteristically “simple and vigorous” while southern papercuts are “ingenious and refined”…Large or minute, coarse or delicate, exaggerated or realistic, plain or gaudy, each expresses something different from out of the lives of the creators.

中国剪纸的风格与它独特的艺术语言息息相关。天真的形式,有力的设计,亮丽的颜色和工具材料上的限制,无不反映出创造者的天才和他们对美的渴望。

6300公里的长江把中国分成南北两部分。北方剪纸质朴有力,南方剪纸精巧细致。无论剪纸大或者小,粗犷或者细腻,夸张或者真实,平实或华美,每一种风格都体现着创造者独特的生活经历。

1.       Large and minute大小

2.  Coarse and Refined 粗犷与细腻

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)     读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)

3.   Exaggeration and Realism 夸张与真实

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)    读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)

 

4.Plainness and Gaudiness 平实与华丽

读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)   读张道一《中国剪纸艺术》(Chapter <wbr>2, <wbr>upper)









 







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