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英语中学会正确使用连接词

(2011-05-30 19:06:03)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 作文

要想使文章有整体性、连贯性,就要下面请你认真学习并学会运用下列常见连接词
i表示罗列增加
 first, second, third,
 first, then/next, after that/ next, finally

One...,the other...

Some..., others...
for one thing…for another…, 首先/一则...第二/其次...

on (the)one hand…on the other hand,一方面...另一方面...

For one thing, these shoes don't suit you.For another, they are too expensive.

一方面,这双鞋子并不合适你;另一方面,这太贵了。

I can't stay here for long .For one thing , I've no time .For another , I've no money .

我不能在此逗留太久。首先,我没时间,其次,我没有钱。

On the one hand, I have no money; on the other hand, I have no time.

一方面我没钱,另一方面我也没时间。
besides / what’s more/ in addition / furthermore/ moreover // also(此外,而且),

Besides, the cap suits you very well.

而且你戴的鸭舌帽也很适合你。

Furthermore, he hoped not to be disturbed.

此外,他希望不要打扰他。
 especially/ In particular(尤其,特别是),

College sports, especially football and basketball, are a big industry.

大学运动,尤其是足球和篮球,是一个大产业

And I enjoy almost all sports, but I especially like tennis and gymnastics.

我几乎喜欢所有的运动,但是我特别喜欢网球和体操。

I agree with you. I loved the popular band from Italy in particular.

我很赞同。我特别喜欢从意大利来的那只乐队。

I like one of the magazines in particular.

   我特别喜欢其中的一本杂志。
 ii表示时间顺序
 now目前,现在, at present目前,现在, recently,adv. 最近;新近

Shall I go through customs now?

我现在可以过海关了吗?

The price is reasonable at present. What if prices rise?

目前房价合理。如果价格涨了怎么办?

The cinema is the most exciting and developing art form at present.

电影艺术是当今最激动人心最有发展的艺术形式。

I recently lost one of these beloved friends to cancer.

最近,癌症让我失去了一位亲爱的朋友。

Did you found that Lily and Tom often go out for lunch together recently?

              你有没有发现莉莉和汤姆最近经常一起外出共进午餐?
 After(后面常常接名词,动名词,句子)在 ......之后

Uncle Tom looked hot after his walk.

在步行之后,汤姆叔叔看来很热。

After walking a little way, the three weary travelers came upon a stream.

走了一小段路后,这三个疲惫的家伙来到一条小溪旁。

I found your coat after you had left the house.

你离开房子之后,我发现了你的外衣afterwards adv. 后来;然后(句首或句尾)

Afterwards the prince became her constant companion.

之后,王子变成她的终身伴侣。

Go to your father: go and see Mercédès, and afterwards come to me.

快到你父亲那儿去吧,快去看看美塞苔丝吧,然后再到我这儿来。

Yes, you have to clear up the kitchen afterwards.

对,做完蛋糕后不得不收拾厨房。               

 after that, 在那之后

After that, we have a series of letters.

在那之后,我们还可以发一系列的信。

It was downhill the whole way after that.

从那以后一直都是下坡路。

After that midterm, the professor called me to his office.

期中考试后,教授叫我去他的办公室。 

after a while, 过了一会儿

After a while she would be like any other city person.

过不了多久,她就会像其他任何城里人一样了。

After a while the police walked away.

过了不久警察就走开了。

After a while the train stopped at a station.

过了一会儿,火车在一个小站停了下来。

Mary and John quarreled, but made up after a while.

玛莉和约翰吵架了,但不一会就和好了。

              in a few days,过几天;不日;在几天后(用在将来时态中)

We'll say goodbye to each other in a few days.

几天后我们就要说再见了。

The Green family are moving to London in a few days.

格林一家过几天就要搬到伦敦去了。

注意:in和after 区别

in +时间段:与将来时连用

after +时间段:与过去时连用

after +时间点:可与将来时连用

He will be back in two hours.

He came back after two hours.

He will be back after two o'clock.  

in+一段时间表示将来时

如:I'll come back in a week

in+一段时间也可用于过去时,意思是”...内”

如:he came in two days.

而after+一段时间通常只能用于过去时,不能用于将来时

如:he came back after a week 

at first, in the beginning起初,开始, to begin with首先(放句首),

At first it used colors to show different weight levels.

首先,它使用了颜色来区别不同的体重标准。

Love is sweet in the beginning but sour in the ending.

爱情最初总是甜蜜的,但结局却是悲哀的。

In the beginning of this year, I was… just another football player.

学年开始的时候,我不过是个……普通的橄榄球员。

In the beginning, all things are hopeful.

在起点,所有的一切都充满希望。

To begin with, it is urgent to create nature reserves.

起首,迫在近在眼前的是建立自然掩护区。

To begin with, I through this car was used to sale toys.

一开始,我还以为是一辆卖玩具的车。

注意:比较下面两个句子中to begin with与begin with的用法

To begin with, course correction would be harder.(放句首做状语)

首先,路线修正要更为困难。

Instructor: We may begin with serve.(在主语后做谓语)

教练:我们从发球开始吧。

Today I would like to begin with a story.

今天我将以一个故事开始我的演讲。
later, (单独使用,或放在一段时间之后)

A little while later, they meet an old woman.

过了一会儿。他们遇到一个老妇人。

Later we learnt that there was a very important person on board.

后来我们才得知,飞机上坐了一位非常重要的人物。

Some time later, clothing was found near the bank of the pond including his coat.

偌干时间以后,在池塘的岸边发现他的衣物,包括上衣。

Later, George Washington played an active part in the American Revolution.

之后,乔治·华盛顿在美国革命中扮演了积极的角色。 

next, 然后,接下来(单独使用,或后接名词)

Next, we must stop searching.

然后,我们必须停止搜索。

Next, click the View Files button.

然后,单击“查看文件”按钮。

The next problem was the design.

下一个的问题是图案。

The next step is to explore and learn from your differences.

下一步是探索你们的不同之处,然后彼此学习。

finally,

Finally, add salt and sugar.

最后,添加盐和糖。

Finally I noticed another mistake.

最后我注意到又出错了

He finally agreed to my plan.

最后他同意了我的计划。

However, he reached the shore finally.

最后他还是游到了岸边。

He went on and finally came to a river.

他继续向前走,最后来到一条河边。
immediately, 立刻(动词前或后)

This should be done immediately.

这件事应该马上去做。

You must immediately stop.

你必须立即停止。

He acted immediately to stop the fight.

他立刻采取行动制止这场战斗。

The landlord smiled and immediately went out.

酒店老板笑了笑,马上走了出去。 

Soon adv. 快;不久,一会儿;(句首或句尾)

Soon after, they saved the girl.

很快,他们救起了这个女孩。 

Superman was soon a big success.

超人是一个伟大的成功。

Soon I got a big fish.

很快我就钓到了一条大鱼。

              Suddenly  adv. 突然地;忽然(句首,或动词后)

Suddenly they found their retreat cut off.

他们突然发现退路已被切断。

Shall we wake up suddenly and find it untrue?

我们会不会突然醒来,发现只是一场梦?

Suddenly he felt that someone was shaking his shoulder.

突然间,他觉得有人在摇他的肩膀。

Don't brake suddenly. The car behind might crash into you.

不要突然刹车,那样后面的车子会很容易撞上你的。

               all of a sudden突然地,出乎意料地(相当于Suddenly放句首)

All of a sudden they find out you're going to lock the doors.

他们忽然间发现,你们就要把大门锁上了。

All of a sudden, a tiger appeared from a distance, running towards them.

突然,远方出现一只老虎,正朝他们飞奔而来。

All of a sudden you're hoping everything goes well, whereas before you're just joking about it.

突然之间,你开始希望一切都会顺利,然而在这之前,你只是在开玩笑时提到它。

But all of a sudden, you disappeared.

一转身你就不见了。

All of a sudden Ware felt like a leader.

一时间威尔好像成了一个领导者。

 at that moment 在那个时刻(句首或句尾,常用与过去时)

We were so close at that moment.

在那个时刻,我们是如此地贴近。

At that moment a very strange thing happened.

就在那时,发生了一件非常奇怪的事情。

At that moment he thought of his wounded wife.

那时他所关心的是他受伤的妻子。

At that moment, everybody began to laugh and sing.

此时,大家已经笑了起来,同时唱起了歌。

You can't imagine how happy we were at that moment!

你是想象不出那时我们是多么的高兴。

               as soon as, 一…就…  as soon as possible尽快

Don't forget to call as soon as you arrive.

到了的时候不要忘了打电话。

As soon as we got home, the telephone rang.

我们一到家,电话就响了。

As soon as the door closed, it opened again.

门关上了,即刻又打开了。

How can I improve it as soon as possible?

我怎样才能尽快提高我的汉语水平呢?

I must contact him as soon as possible. It's urgent.

但我必须马上同他联系。这事非常紧急。

Start clean-up as soon as possible, especially if flooding has occurred.

尽快开展卫生清理工作,特别是发生过洪水的时候。

              from now on从现在开始(用于将来时或祈使句句首或句尾)

I will study harder from now on.

从现在起我会更加努力学习的。

I shall take good care of myself from now on.

从现在开始我会特别小心的。

Happiness is an attitude! from now on, choose to be happy!

快乐是一种态度,从现在开始,选择快乐的生活!

All I want is vegetables and fruit from now on.

从现在起我只要吃蔬菜和水果。

               from then on从那时起(用于过去时句首或句尾)

He could not walk from then on.

从那时起,他就不能走路了。

From then on, it became their second home.

从此,这里就是他们的第二个家。

From then on, he helped me a lot in many ways.

从那以后,他在许多方面都给了我很大的帮助。

From then on, I often played it and had interest in it.

              从那以后,我经常打球,而且对它产生了兴趣。
 at the same time同时;然而(句首或句尾)

You have to push and twist at the same time.

你必须要同时向下按而且转一下。

At the same time, he is sending more troops to Afghanistan.

与此同时,他正加紧向阿富汗派出更多的军队。

No it isn't. Only idiots can't drive and talk at the same time.

不,一点也不会啊。只有傻瓜才不能在开车的时候讲电话。

When you study, do not think about other things at the same time.

当你学习的时候,不要同时还想着其他的事情。

               meanwhile,adv. 同时,其间(句首或插入语)

Meanwhile, house prices are falling in America and Britain.

同时美国和英国的房价又持续下跌。

Meanwhile, no work at the field is going on.

在此同时,该油田却未进行任何施工。

Boys, meanwhile, are more likely to drop out of high school than girls.

同时,男孩们比女孩们更容易在高中失学。

Meanwhile, demand, especially from the developing world, has been growing faster.

与此同时,需求,特别是发展中国家的需求却增长迅速。
Till 直到

You mean I can stay till 12 a. m.

你的意思是我可以住到中午12点。

Will this meat keep till tomorrow?

这肉能放到明天不坏吗?

The airport shut down till the storm is over.

机场被迫关闭直到暴风结束。

In the past, people often worked in the same job from graduation till retirement.

过去,人们毕业后常常从事一种工作直到退休。

               not...until,直到…才(注意3种常用表达法:1.普通 2.倒装句 3.强调句)

1.  She didn't sleep until eight..

她八点钟才睡觉。

He didn't return until midnight.

他直到午夜才回来。

She didn't come until yesterday.

她直到昨天才回来。

I didn't understand until you tell me.

直到你告诉我才明白。

John didn't cry until he saw his mother.

约翰直到看到妈妈才开始哭。

I didn't sleep until my mother came back.

直到妈妈回来我才睡。

He didn't arrive until the game had begun.

直到比赛开始他才到达。

He didn't leave until the meeting was over.

直到会议结束他才离开。 

2. Not until we lose health do we know its value.

我们直到失去健康才知道健康的价值。

Not until the game began did he arrive at the stadium.

直到比赛已经开始他才来到运动场。

Not until the accident happened did I realize my foolishness.

直到事故发生,我才意识到我的愚蠢。

Not until that evening was she able to recover her self-control.

一直到那天晚上,她才恢复了自我控制能力。

Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.

直到我开始工作,我才认识到了我已浪费了很多时间。

Not until we read the newspaper did we know how many students joined the parade.

直到我们看了报纸才知道有多少学生参加了游行。 

3.  It was not until the next day that I learned the truth.

直到第二天,我才明白事情的真相。

It was not until 1454 that the first book was printed in Europe.

直到1454年欧洲才印刷了第一本书。

It was not until Dr. Weeks came to China that she knew what kind of a country she is .

知道威克斯博士来到中国后,她才认识到中国是一个什么样国家。

It was not until 1972 that we began studying English.

直到1972年我们才开始学习英语。

It was not until 1920 that regular radio broadcasts began.

直到1920年才开始有了定期的无线电广播。

 before, 在...以前(名词,代词,动名词,句子前面)

以前(现在完成时句尾)

Have you really been there before?

你真的曾经去过那里吗?

This was our last practice before the game.

这是我们比赛前的最后一次练习。

What do you need before you can travel to another country.

在你可以到另外一个国家旅游之前你需要什么?

But maybe I could help you study before the next test.

或许我可以在下次考试前在学习上帮助你。 

after, (见前面讲解)

when , 1 当.....的时候(注意时态)  2 这时;突然,(其他用法略)

1 在时间、条件等状语从句里,用一般现在时表示将来时(( 1 ),( 2 ))

表示过去发生的事情,在 when 引导的时间状语从句的主从复合句中,动作有先后则发生在先的用过去完成时,在后的用过去时。如果先后不明显,则都用过去时。(( 3 ),( 4))

( 1 ) When you see him, please say hello to him.

见到他时,代我问他好。 

( 2 ) When you have finished your experiment, please tidy the lab and put everything back in the cupboards.

 当你们做完实验后,请把实验室整理好并把物品放回柜子中。

( 3 )When I was in Japan, I bought some beautiful pearls.

我在日本时,买了一些漂亮的珍珠。 

( 4) When I reached the station, the train had left.

当我到达火车站时,火车已经开走了。 

2 对所描述的事件予以引人注目的强调,意为“这时;突然”;当位于句末的分句具有引种用法时,大致有以下三种情况: 

A. when 分句前面的分句使用过去进行时。
  如:

( 1 ) He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife came in. 他正笑着的时候,门突然开了,他妻子走了进来。 

( 2 ) I was thinking of this when I heard my name called. 我正想着这件事时,突然听到有人叫我的名字。 

B. when 分句前面的分句使用 was (were) about to, was (were) on the point 等。
  如:

( 1 ) We were about to start when it began to rain. 我们刚要出发就开始下雨了。
 

( 2 ) He was on the point of leaving when someone knocked at the door. 他刚要走就有人敲门。
 

C. when 分句之前的分句用过去完成时,其中 sb had hardly / scarcely /barely … when 已成为固定词组。如: 

( 1 ) We had hardly fallen asleep when the bell rang. 我们刚刚入睡,铃声就响了起来。

  ( 2 ) He had scarcely arrived when he had to leave again. 他刚刚到达就又要离开了。 

while, 当……的时候(从句用延续行动作进行时)注意1.2.3.与4.5 的差别

1、While Jim was mending his bike, Lin Tao came to see him.
  正当吉姆修自行车时,林涛来看他。    
2、You can’t do your homework while you’re watching TV.
  你不能一边看电视一边做家庭作业。
3、While they were talking , the bell rang.
  正在他们谈话的时候,上课铃响了。

4、While the teacher was speaking, the students were listening.

(老师讲课时,学生们在听。)  

5、While he was writing, I was reading.

  (他写字时,我在看书。)

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