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四级,六级英语作文所有模板整理”少了“环保类”现在弥补上去!

(2011-02-28 20:57:47)
标签:

杂谈

环保类环境问题
Control Poaching偷猎
Endangered species 濒危物种
Rare breeds 稀有物种
Animal breeding 饲养
Breeding programme
Inbreed 近亲繁殖
Zoo Conservation 动物园保护计划
Conservation program
 extinct 灭绝
facing extinction
captivity 笼养
capture 捕获
captive
animal lover
animal rights activists 动物权利保护者
fund the research研究基金
erode 腐蚀
erosion
exhaust emission 废弃排放
traffic  fume 尾气
global warming
greenhouse effect
be contaminated by
contaminant污染
acid rain
organic有机
inorganic无机
recycle 循环
genetically modified 转基因
genetically engineered
biodegradable 生物降解 packaging
unleaded petrol无铅汽油
petroleum refining 提纯汽油
fossil fuel 不可再生燃料
sustainable 可持续/viable /renewable resources
  reforestation 造林
deforestation’砍伐森林
ecosystem 生态系统
ecotour生态旅游
green belt 绿化带
battery farming化学农业

conservation 保护,保存 (? conserve)v.s. conversation 
environmentalist conservationist 
acid 酸  酸的 (<>alkali)acid rain 
carbon 碳 (C)  v.s. charcoal (炭)carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide 
fume exhaust fumesv.s. smoke, fog, smog 
petroleum 石油à petrol (BE) gasoline/gas (AE)à unleaded petrol/gas 
ozone 臭氧 (o zone)ozone layer 
ooze 渗出  渗出物 
radiation 辐射ultraviolet(UV) radiation~ radioactive 
greenhouse 温室greenhouse effect/gases 
solar 太阳的 (solar energy)^ lunar (lunar calendar) 
phenomenon 现象 
catastrophe disaster, cataclysm 
deterioration 恶化 (? deteriorate) 
extinction 灭绝 (? extinct) 
species endangered species 
drought 干旱  (^ “找它”)>>> famine    v.s. flooding 
recurrent 反复发生的re (oc)cur rentv.s. concurrent 
inundate 淹没    “淹掉它” 
embankment 筑堤 (em bank ment) 
sediment 沉积(物)= deposit 
delta 三角洲the Pearl River Delta 
alluvial 冲积的 
desertification desert  (v.s. dessert) 
dust-storm 沙尘暴^ thunderstorm, brainstorm 
barren 贫瘠的,不育的,无效的 
dune sand dunethe game “DUNE”! 
attributable 归因于be attributable to… 
deforestation 滥砍滥伐(森林)de forest ation<> afforestation/reforestation 
log 原木,日志  伐木v.s. logo 
vegetation 植物,植被v.s. vegetable, vegetarian 
habitat 栖息地? habit (Habit is the second nature.) 
ecosystem 生态系统 (eco system)~ ecology 
viability viable  “vi”: life养育能力One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis. 
demographic 人口统计的  demo(people) graph(write) ic 
interdependence inter dependence 
counterbalance 使平衡,弥补 (=offset)counter(against) balance 
mechanism 机理,机制 
precipitation 陡降,降水 (? precipice)<> evaporation 
circulation 流通,循环 
tide à tidal wave (海啸)<> ebb    <<< earthquake 
typhoon tornado, hurricane 
meteorology 气象(学) 
volcano 火山 
eruption 喷发 (? erupt)volcanic eruption    >>> lava 
granite 花岗岩 
imminent impending    v.s. eminent 
Celsius 摄氏的  37OCv.s. centigrade 
Fahrenheit 华氏的 
latitude 纬度(另) longitude, altitude 
tropical (the) tropicstropical/torrid zone, temperate zone, frigid zone 
glacier 冰川 
dump 倾倒,倾销à anti-dumping 
contaminate 弄脏  (à contaminant) 
recycle 回收再利用 
irreversible 不可逆的 (= irrevocable) 
reclaim 开垦,改造  à reclamation 
contentious 有争议的 (? contend)Many environmental issues today are highly contentious. 
opt 选择(+ for)    à option 
prioritize 优先考虑 (? prior, priority)

●垃圾问题
乱扔垃圾的原因
Plastic container and utensils are pervasive in the city and the country alike. These plastic shopping bags, chopsticks, to-go boxes and mineral water bottles, to name but a few, when not properly disposed of, engender a colossal amount of non-biodegradable refuse. It is manifest that we have embarked upon a “throw-away” era when plastic trash is dumped indiscriminately and irresponsibly. From my own perspective, the causes of this phenomenon are manifold. To begin with, at present the majority of individuals who shop or eat out regularly are still poorly-informed, uninformed or misinformed about the baneful influence that non-biodegradable pollutants exert on the ecosystem, which is the chief culprit in the global-scale mishandling of the plastic waste. The primary component of such trash can not decompose over the process of the next hundreds of years if no major scientific breakthrough comes along in refuse treatment. Further, the proliferation of plastic shopping bags and eating utensils is largely engendered by the surging consumerism. Plastic containers and utensils are lighter in weight, cheaper in price and water-resistant in performance, whi9ch makes them preferable in customers’ eyes. Lastly, plastic bags and containers are also cost-effective since they are cheaper to manufacture, ship and store. These considerations also have prompted the good old cloth or paper bags to be supplanted by plastic bags and environmental afflictions ensure.
The comfortable and convenient life accompanied by the fantastic growth of science and technology can account for overwhelming rubbish. As we know , the pride-taking symbol of 21st century is the unbelievable technology, which provides a multitude of one-off products enjoyed avariciously by indolent people, such as chopsticks, shopping bags, and purified water bottles, some of which are non-biodegradable for ages. Accordingly, wastes have been produced and accumulated at an amazing rate. Furthermore, the awareness of environment protection is alarmingly scarce. We are assisted to entertainment of life but often refer to environment as others. In our perspective, pollution combating and nature conserving ate far from our essential jobs, and government should take all the responsibility. So we can drop litter without even a grain of shame.
●现状
1.  The road scattered with all sorts of trash are a disgrace and the railway line are littered with decaying rubbish.
2.One third of the waste produced is made up of packaging materials.
What we are doing now is a wasteful of resources and unfriendly to the environment.
We lack adequate facilities to dispose of rubbish of all kinds. For instance, not many dustbin are seen along streets.
The quickening tempo of modern lifestyle also contributes partly to the increasing rubbish problems, because many people prefer takeaway fast food and the use of disposal items for the convenience’s sake.
We are living in a consumer-oriented society.
●解决办法解决问题
The joint effort from both government and individuals
Play one’s cards right
From governmental perspective
Crack down on the environmental issue
Take strong and harsh measure
Band-aid solution
Effective solution carry out a series of regulations and rules
It makes (no)sense for government to do
Red tape
Bureaucracy
Cut the red tape
Exercise control and supervision over ….issue
Improve people’s environmental consciousness
Arouse peoples awareness of environmental protection
Environmentally friendly policy
Economic /financial interest
Surveillance
Afforestation
Reforestation
Air purification
Desalt the water
Dump raw sewage properly
Sewage treatment
Sewage disposal system
Sewage purification
Water disposal
Recycling
Integrated waste management
Alternative energy source
Disposable product
Disposable packaging
recyclable
renewable
environmentally sound product
environmentally favorable energy option
environmentally favorable strategy
ecological balance
keep /break
victim
temporal interest
long-term interest
as far as the citizens are concerned
social evolution
eco-warriors
set a good example for all the citizens
stand united
sustainable development
commercial interest


Public activities should be sponsored by government to promote the [public awareness of environmental protection. Make sure that everyone is a conscious
Our government should take stronger and harsher measures to combat the littering behavior.
Use environment-friendly materials.
The rubbish should be classified scientifically so that the procedure can achieve high efficiency.
People should learn to recycle . For instance, we should set up bins around town to collect glass, paper, and aluminum that can be converted back into raw materials, then made them into new products.
People’s awareness of how persistent and devastating non-biodegradable trash can be to our environment and our descendants’ should be heightened.
The government and the technologists should spare no effort in advocating the use of environmentally-friendly containers.
Biochemical research must be launched here and now in pursuit of effective means of converting non- biodegradable refuse to biodegradable refuse.
The government should allocate enough funding to such research on the corporate level.
 Retail stores and restaurants should strive to encourage their customers to reuses plastic packing items.
A tax levied by the government on the use of plastic bags in businesses will, doubtless, help to curb this massive “white pollution”.
The authority have to invest more money in efficient disposal of trash, and the large-scale campaign against ugly phenomenon such as random garbage-throwing and spitting should be launched without any delay. As for individuals, behaving themselves and saying no to possible environmental-unfriendly deeds are strongly recommended.
Rubbish-solving is a quite complex issue, and it needs cooperative efforts from people and society as a whole. Since we were capable of turning the world into a splendid wonderland long ago, we have good reasons to belief that a clean, wonderful homeland is not far behind.
●个人也应承担保护环境的责任
Concerns for environmental issues should be shared by the general public.
Individuals ought to make conscious efforts to save energy and to keep our environment clean.
In fact there are many things that the individual can do. For example, we should try to reduce our dependence on private cars and use bicycles more often.
By doing so, not only do we save energy and therefore reduce the release of CO, which is a major greenhouse gas, we also become healthier riding bicycles.
Household rubbish can be sorted out for recycling. Paper , plastic and metals such as Cocacola cans can all be recycled.
We can use more products made from recycle materials so that the recycling industry has a better prospect of commercial success.
We should stop using plastic bags and plastic meal boxes which bring convenience but pollute the environment , as they are not biodegradable.
Used batteries should also be disposed of properly because there is lead in it.
If these efforts are shared by more people, we will have a better life.
●动物实验
Advantages
1.Since human beings existed in the world, animals have always been accompanying us. They are of great help to humans in many aspects. For example, they help a lot in medical experiments.
2. Animal testing allows scientists to test and create new drugs. With the help of animal tests, we have found cures to many formerly fatal diseases.
3. Many people argue that animal testing is cruel. In some cases this is cruel. However it would be much more cruel to let people die because there is not enough information about a disease.
4. At present there are no other better methods to replace them.
5. Animals have similar physical processes to humans.
6. Not only would the costs of testing in humans be extremely high, but also it is brutal to test new drugs on children or adults.
7. Animal tests are still regarded as the only reliable and feasible method.
8. Animals such as monkeys or rabbits which are used in experiments are easily bred. In fact they can be raised in laboratories artificially. In other word, there is a large supply of animals for medical research.
9. Using animals in drug tests will not have negative effects on the balance of ecosystem.
10. Most countries set standards for animal treatment in tests, and laboratories have regulations to prevent cruelty.
11. From a more pragmatic standpoint, evidence abounds that animal subjects are still an indispensable part of scientific research at this phase of human development.
12. Drug experiment on live mammals is far more effective than on bacteria or on other lower species in determining drug safety.
13. Medical history informs us that drugs that can potentially exert grave side effects on Homo sapiens should be tested by pharmaceutical companies live mammals first to ascertain their toxicity.
Disadvantages
1. Animal tests violate animals’ rights. Although humans have been occupying the dominant position since they appeared on the earth, God created animals before humans.
2. Some animals are of great help to humans in many aspects. Some kinds of animals have been used for transportation. Some others help the police solve cases.
3. In experiments, animals are usually killed or at least suffer from great pains. It is a kind of brutality and cruelty.
Not all experiments are necessary. With the fast development of science and technology, other alternatives have been found to replace animals testing. For example, computer simulation can achieve similar results.
Not all the experiments are reliable. Animals and humans are two quite different kinds of creatures. they have different physical processes.
The treatment and drugs which are effective on animals are sometimes useless and can even have negative effects on humans.
Information gathered from animals does not always apply to humans.
Mounting evidence suggests that many animal experiments are performed callously without any heed to the discomfort or pain that laboratory mammals endure..
Improper confinement of test animals such as locking them up in cramped cages is inhumane, and this , in turn, can severely disrupt natural biological functions of the test animals.
The effects of vaccination or vivisection conducted on live mammals can be chilling. In extreme cases, they constitute sheer torture of animals.

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