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大宝法王于新德里召开有关慈悲心的开示

(2011-01-27 20:27:40)
标签:

噶玛巴

德里

慈悲心

开示

仁波切

杂谈

分类: 藏传佛教

大宝法王于新德里召开有关慈悲心的开示

 

2010219-20日,印度人居中心,德里

 

尊贵的第十七世大宝法王噶玛巴受普世责任基金会之邀,于今天在德里召开两天的法会。普世责任基金会是由嘉瓦仁波切创建的公益组织,他曾在1989年获得了诺贝尔和平奖。噶玛巴在法会上的第二个开示是“修持慈悲心”。此次开示是面向佛教徒和对佛教存有兴趣的公众,噶玛巴传授了修持慈悲心的实修法门,同时他也呼吁佛教在因缘教学上强调慈悲心。

 

此次开示有四部分,上午和下午各有一次开示,每段开示结束后还有问答部分。第一天的上午邀请了Rajiv Mehrotra为法会开场,他是著名的电影制片人和节目主持人,并且在嘉瓦仁波切的授权下,管理着普世责任基金会。

 

在第一段开示中,大宝法王噶玛巴提到了菩提心是佛教徒的修持的核心,也正是佛法的基础。之后,他解释了对外和对内的慈悲心的区别。当我们向外看那些有情众生的疾苦时,总会生起帮他们解脱的念头,这就是通常所说的菩提心。而我们向内心探寻,察觉到我们自己的疾苦,从而想要求得解脱,这就是所谓的出离心。这两种形式的慈悲心的区别就在于关注对象的不同。不同的宗派所强调的重心也皆有不同,但噶玛巴说这两者不论是为己或为他,其实都是本着离苦得乐的目的。

 

紧接着关于菩提心和出离心之间联系的开示,噶玛巴对于佛经上所说的三种菩萨作了评论。最高层次的是自觉觉他,其次是觉他,最后是自觉。虽然菩萨要为了自己修行的概念听上去有反常理,但噶玛巴解释到,若不自渡又何来普度众生。自渡并不意味着菩萨放弃了普度众生,事实上,有些菩萨就和我们刚踏上学佛之途的弟子一样,认为自己目前还不能渡人,但他们依然有着强烈的信念,希望以后可以普度众生。因此,他们首先修习戒定慧三学,使自己能利益众生。

 

从这个角度讲,大宝法王希望弟子们能培养对自身的爱。他强调说,真正的珍惜自身,是需要我们去认识什么是真正有益的,什么是有害的。因此,我们要思索并运用我们的智慧,如你会看不起他人的时候就要想想眼下或许对我们自身有益,但长远来说最终还是害了自己。

 

虽然通过培养大智慧也能获得解脱,但这只能带来我们自己的解脱。作为有原则的人,我们不可能只求自己脱离轮回苦海而让其他众生继续受苦。尤其是佛教教义更敦促我们铭记其他有情众生在过去世都做过我们的母亲,抚育我们长大,因此只求自己的解脱是忘恩负义的行为。

 

如果想帮助其他众生,我们需要了解他们的习性、根器和需要。噶玛巴说,有情众生是无限的,他们的习性也是多样的,所以这更要求我们要有大智慧。因此菩萨把修成佛果作为最高目标,以希求帮助有情众生脱离苦海。

 

关于修持慈悲心,由于此刻我们自身依然还未从轮回苦海中解脱,因此我们不能只寻求帮助众生而忽略了自身,而是应该培养对自身的关爱。法王拿慈善捐献作为例子说,我们首先要拥有财产,才能给予他人。所以如果我们要帮助其他众生,我们要增长自己的福慧,才能给予他们。

 

大宝法王噶玛巴在下午的开示中,以月称菩萨《入中论》中的一段话作为开场:

悲性于佛广大果,

初犹种子长如水,

常时受用若成熟,

故我先赞大悲心

 

大宝法王强调慈悲心就如同种子,它会生根发芽,最终长成佛果。它不是我们能在店里花钱买到,也不能从其他任何地方获得。它是我们与生俱来所拥有的品质,但需要我们的悉心培育。以法王童年在西藏时的经历为例,他看到动物被宰杀作为肉食时感到触目惊心,纵使当时他就连慈悲心这个词的确切意思都不了解。尽管在期后学习佛学的几年间他会念着“愿一切有情众生幸福”,都不及年幼时当看到动物遭受痛苦时所发的慈悲心来得浑然天成,这也再度印证了我们与生俱来便拥有慈悲心。但就好比树木需要扎根到泥土中并悉心浇灌,慈悲心也一样需要深入自己的内心,只有当我们的慈悲心扎根后它才能更好地发芽。

 

嘉瓦噶玛巴进而强调了慈悲心培养的要素。如果我们要种植一整片森林,我们不可能坐等着风会自己把种子吹向适合生长的地方。我们需要选择开始并持之以恒,而且不仅是要播种更要细心呵护,适时适量地浇灌。

 

大宝法王开玩笑地说到既然有一瞬间会炸死数百人的炸弹,那么如果有装满着慈悲心的炸弹能瞬间让数百人解脱该多好,当它爆炸的时候会让人们开始欢笑。虽然这个想法很美妙,但也不现实,因为真实的炸弹是剥夺我们生的意愿,而慈悲心的增长却不是违背我们意志之事,它是我们自发的愿望。从这个角度来说,慈悲心是个人的选择,也将给我们带来自由。反之,嗔念会剥夺我们的自由并控制我们。慈悲心给了我们把握自己生命的机会。

 

在一天开示的尾声,法王提到了对忍辱的培养。他强调修持忍辱并不仅仅是让自己身处逆境经受挫折,而是要培养察觉自己的负面情绪,比如嗔念。我们需要清楚认识到嗔念和苦恼都是完全错误的,因此我们要对抗它们。大宝法王举例说当一个人如果已经决定不想再做某件事情的时候,当他再被要求去做,他会毫不犹豫地拒绝。同样当我们事先想到我们不能从负面情绪中获得任何东西,当嗔念升起时我们就会有能力去克制。

 

最后在总结一天的开示时,大宝法王说我们不应把修行视为像工作一般,这样会让我们感到有负担。我们应该用一种更为有趣的方式,充满着热情与喜悦地修行。

 

 

英语原文

Gyalwang Karmapa Commences Two-Day Teachings on Compassion in Delhi

February 19th & 20th, 2010 - India Habitat Center, Delhi

The 17th Gyalwang Karmapa today commenced a two-day series of teachings in Delhi at the invitation of the Foundation for Universal Responsibility. The foundation is a not-for-profit organization founded by His Holiness the Dalai Lama with the Nobel Peace Prize awarded to him in 1989. The topic for this second set of teachings the Gyalwang Karmapa has given at the foundation was ‘Cultivating Compassion.’ As the talks were addressed to a general audience including Buddhists and those curious about Buddhism, the Gyalwang Karmapa offered practical tools for developing greater compassion, while philosophically grounding his call for greater compassion in Buddhist teachings on interdependence.

The teachings consisted of four sessions, morning and afternoon and included a question-and-answer period at the end of each session. The first morning opened with a warm welcome from Rajiv Mehrotra, an award-winning filmmaker and talk show host who manages the foundation at His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s behest.

The Gyalwang Karmapa began his first talk by noting that compassion is core to all Buddhist traditions, and can rightly be called the essence of the Buddha dharma. He then drew a distinction between compassion that focuses outwards and compassion that focuses inwards. When we look outwards and observe the suffering of sentient beings, and feel a wish to remove their sufferings, this is what we generally call compassion. When we look inwards and observe our own suffering and wish to end it, this is called renunciation. These two forms of ‘compassion’ are distinguished primarily by the object on which they focus. Different Buddhist vehicles may stress one more than the other, yet Gyalwang Karmapa noted that both consist in the basic wish to remove suffering, either that of oneself or of others.

Continuing to clarify the relationship between working for ourselves and working for others, His Holiness commented that the scriptures speak of three types of bodhisattva. The highest are able to accomplish both their own aims and the aims of others at the same time, the middling type accomplishes the aims of others and the lowest accomplishes their own aims. Although the idea that there are bodhisattvas working to further their own aims might seem counterintuitive, in fact, His Holiness explained, without taming our own minds it is unrealistic to expect that we will be able to tame others. This does not mean that bodhisattvas give up the idea of working for others: far from it. Rather, some bodhisattvas—who may be likened to beginners like us on the path—recognize that they are currently unable to benefit others, yet they make strong aspiration to be able to do so in the future. On that basis, they engage first in the three higher trainings of ethics, concentration and wisdom in order to equip themselves to be able to benefit others.

In this sense, His Holiness urged the audience to cultivate affection for themselves. To truly cherish ourselves entails recognizing what is of real benefit and what is of harm to us, His Holiness emphasized. To that end, we need to think deeply and use our basic analytical intelligence. For example, we may treat others with contempt with the idea that this furthers our own interests but in fact it only harms us in the long run.

Although it is possible to achieve liberation from our own suffering simply by developing our wisdom, and specifically the wisdom realizing ultimate reality, this would only result in our own liberation, Gyalwang Karmapa pointed out. As principled human beings, it would be out of the question that we escape alone samsara’s cycles of suffering and leave everyone else behind to continue suffering. Especially in Buddhist teachings where we are urged to consider that all sentient beings have been our mothers in past lives and have raised us with great tenderness and kindness, it would be an act of ingratitude for us to strive solely to free ourselves from suffering.

Yet to be effective in working for the well-being of others we need to understand their individual dispositions, capacities and needs. Gyalwang Karmapa commented that this requires great wisdom and, ultimately, omniscience, since sentient beings are infinite and so are their dispositions. For that reason, out of compassion wishing to alleviate the sufferings of all sentient beings, bodhisattvas seek as their final goal the omniscient state of buddhahood.

In the case of our own cultivation of compassion, since at the moment we ourselves are also inundated with an ocean of sufferings, we cannot simply neglect our own condition and solely seek to care for others. Rather, we must cultivate a sense of affection and genuine love towards ourselves, and care for ourselves on that basis. His Holiness gave the example of wanting to make charitable donations. To do so, we need to possess wealth of our own to give, he said. In that sense, if we wish to bring about the wellbeing of others, we have a responsibility to work on our own minds as a means of developing the inner wealth to offer to them.

His Holiness opened the afternoon session with one of the initial verses from Chandrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara, or Entering the Middle Way.

The abundant harvest that is buddhahood
Has compassion as its seed, and as the moisture that makes it grow.
Compassion is what ripens into its lasting state of happiness.
Thus it is compassion that I praise first.

His Holiness stressed that the seeds of compassion that will ripen as buddhahood do not need to be bought in a store or imported from anywhere else. They are naturally present within us. But they do need to be planted and tended with care and attentiveness. Using the example of his own experience as a small child in a nomad family in Tibet, His Holiness recounted his own intense emotions when he saw animals brought to be slaughtered for meat. At that time he did not even know the word compassion much less what it signified, he said. Yet despite the intervening years of studying Buddhist texts and his facility in uttering such phrases as ‘may all sentient beings equaling space be happy,’ no experience of compassion he has had since then can compare to that spontaneous response to the animals’ suffering he had as a child, Gyalwang Karmapa said. This indicates that we do have the innate seeds within us, he added. But just as a tree needs roots that go deep into the ground to hold it firmly in place and to draw water that sustains the entire tree, so too we need to root compassion deeply in our hearts, and we need to allow our compassion to become stable so it can support our further growth.

In that regard, the Gyalwang Karmapa stressed the component of choice in the cultivation of compassion. If we want to plant a forest, he said, we cannot simply wait and hope that the wind might blow the seeds to some spot where the conditions are right for them to grow. Rather we must choose to begin the process, and then follow up with consistent action; not only do we need to choose to plant the seeds but also to tend them mindfully by giving them the water they need in the right amounts at the right times.

His Holiness wryly noted that he once had the thought that since there are bombs that can instantly kill hundreds of people at the same time, it would be nice if we could make a bomb of compassion that would suddenly alleviate the sufferings of hundreds when it exploded and make them all burst into delighted laughter. As wonderful as that would be, it is not possible, Gyalwang Karmapa said, precisely because ordinary bombs rob us of our lives against our will, while the development of compassion is not something that can be done to us against our will. We must voluntarily wish to develop compassion. In that sense, compassion involves personal choices, and brings us freedom. By contrast, our afflictive emotions remove our freedom and place us under their control. Compassion gives us the opportunity to take control of our own lives.

For the remainder of the day’s teachings, Gyalwang Karmapa turned his attention to the cultivation of patience or forbearance. He stressed that patience or forbearance does not imply merely putting up with adversity or forcing oneself to bear hardship. Rather, His Holiness said we must actively train ourselves to see the faults in our afflictive emotions, such as anger. This recognition must not be limited to seeing them as partially faulty, of sometimes inappropriate and other times good. Rather, we must gain a clear certainty that our anger and other afflictions are completely and fully faulty. With that certainty, we will be prepared to defend ourselves against them. Gyalwang Karmapa gave the example of a person who has already decided that they do not want to do something. If they are then asked to do it, they can say no without hesitation or doubts. In the same way, if we have determined ahead of time that there is nothing whatsoever to be gained from following our afflictive emotions, that knowledge will fortify us against them when they do arise.

Gyalwang Karmapa concluded his teaching by emphasizing that we should not view our spiritual practice as a chore or a job, since this can make it seem heavy or overly serious. Rather, we can take a more playful approach, not forcing ourselves but engaging in our practice with enthusiasm and joy.

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