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专业英语

(2011-05-26 13:05:19)
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专业英语

杂谈

  Questions review of unit 1

  1 How many methods are there to classify the material? 有多少方法进行材料的分类?

  A: Materials may be grouped in several ways. Scientists often classify materials by their state: solid, liquid, or gas. They also separate them into organic (once living) and inorganic (never living) materials.

  材料可以按多种方法分类。科学家常根据状态将材料分为:固体、液体或气体。他们也把材料分为有机材料(曾经有生命的)和无机材料(从未有生命的)。

  For industrial purposes, materials are divided into engineering materials or nonengineering materials. Engineering materials are those used in manufacture and become parts of products.

  就工业效用而言,材料被分为工程材料和非工程材料。那些用于加工制造并成为产品组成部分的就是工程材料。

  Nonengineering materials are the chemicals, fuels, lubricants, and other materials used in the manufacturing process, which do notiffany and co outlett become part of the product.

  非工程材料则是化学品、燃料、润滑剂以及其它用于加工制造过程但不成为产品组成部分的材料。

  2 what are the basic properties of metal? 什么是金属的基本属性?

  A: Metiffany jewelry outlettals are elements that generally have good electrical and thermal conductivity. Many metals have high strength, high stiffness, and have good ductility.

  金属就是通常具有良好导电性和导热性的元素。许多金属具有高强度、高硬度以及良好的延展性。

  Some metals, such as iron, cobalt and nickel, are magnetic. At low temperatures, some metals and intermetallic compounds become superconductors.

  某些金属能被磁化,例如铁、钴和镍。在极低的温度下,某些金属和金属化合物能转变成超导体。

  3 How to change the properties of alloys? 如何改变合金的特性?

  A: Alloys contain more than one metallic element. Their properties can be changed by changing the elements present in the alloy. Examples of metal alloys include stainless steel which is an alloy of iron, nickel, and chromium; and gold jewelry which usually contains an alloy of gold and nickel.

  合金包含不止一种金属元素。合金的性质能通过改变其中存在的元素而改变。金属合金的例子有:不锈钢是一种铁、镍、铬的合金,以及金饰品通常含有金镍合金。

  4 Can you give some examples of nonmetallic materials? What are the basic properties of ceramics? 您能不能给一些非金属材料的例子?什么是陶瓷的基本性质?

  A: Ceramics and Glasses

  陶瓷和玻璃

  A ceramic is often broadly defined as any inorganic nonmetallic material. By this definition, ceramic materials would also include glasses; however, many materials scientists add the stipulation that “ceramic” must also be crystalline.

  陶瓷通常被概括地定义为无机的非金属材料。照此定义,陶瓷材料也应包括玻璃;然而许多材料科学家添加了“陶瓷”必须同时是晶体物组成的约定。

  5 What is the definition of composite material? What are the basic properties of composites? 什么是复合材料?什么是复合材料的基本性质?

  A: Composites are formed from two or more types of materials. Examples include polymer/ceramic and metal/ceramic composites. Composites are used because overall properties of the composites are superior to those of the individual components.
<<a href=http://www.tiffanyand-cooutlet.net/ title=tiffany & co outlet target=_blank >tiffany & co outletbr />  复合材料由两种或更多材料构成。例子有聚合物/陶瓷和金属/陶瓷复合材料。之所以使用复合材料是因为其全面性能优于组成部分单独的性能。

  6 What is the characteristic of polymer? And what properties does it have? 什么是聚合物的特性?而且它有哪些属性?

  A: A polymer has a repeating sttiffany outletructure, usually based on a carbon backbone. The repeating structure results in large chainlike molecules. Polymers are useful because they are lightweight, corrosion resistant, easy to process at low temperatures and generally inexpensive.

  聚合物具有一般是基于碳链的重复结构。这种重复结构产生链状大分子。由于重量轻、耐腐蚀、容易在较低温度下加工并且通常较便宜,聚合物是很有用的。

  Some important characteristics of polymers include their size (or molecular weight), softening and melting points, crystallinity, and structure. The mechanical properties of polymers generally include low strength and high toughness. Their strength is often improved using reinforced composite structures.

  聚合材料具有一些重要特性,包括尺寸(或分子量)、软化及熔化点、结晶度和结构。聚合材料的机械性能一般表现为低强度和高韧性。它们的强度通常可采用加强复合结构来改善。

  Tips of the discussion:技巧讨论

  &#8226; Kinds of material: metal, nonmetallic, composites, polymer, alloy, aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy, chromium alloy ,composites, plastic, ceramics

  种材料:金属,非金属,复合材料,聚合物,合金,铝合金,镁合金,铬合金,复合材料,塑料,陶瓷

  &#8226; Density, strength, stiffness, hardness, fracture toughness, Young’s module, stress, strain, impact, plastic deformation, conductivity, insulator, machining ability, integral casting/punching

  密度,强度,刚度,硬度,断裂韧性,年轻的模块,应力,应变,冲击,塑性变形,导电,尽缘,机械加工能力,整体铸造/冲压

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