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纽约时报:SAT考试改革7大细节曝光(中英文对照)

(2014-03-06 11:05:36)
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Major Changes in SAT Announced by College Board

美国大学理事会将对SAT进行重大改革

The overall scoring will return to the old 1600 scales, based on a top score of 800 in reading and math.

考试的最高分将重回1600分,其中阅读和数学各占800分。

Saying its college admission exams do not focus enough on the important academic skills, the College Board announced on Wednesday a fundamental rethinking of the SAT, eliminating obligatory essays, ending the longstanding penalty for guessing wrong and cutting obscure vocabulary words.

为回应多方指责美国大学入学考试没有足够关注核心学术技能,美国大学理事会于201435日周三宣布将重启SAT改革,取消必考的论文写作、做错扣分的规则和晦涩词汇的考察。

 

David Coleman, president of the College Board, criticized his own test, the SAT, and its main rival, the ACT, saying that both “have become disconnected from the work of our high schools.”

理事会会长大卫·克莱曼批评了自己旗下的SAT考试和主要竞争对手ACT,称两个考试都“偏离了高中教学内容”。

 

In addition, Mr. Coleman announced new programs to help low-income students, who will now be given fee waivers allowing them to apply to four colleges at no charge. And even before the new exam starts, the College Board, in partnership with Khan Academy, will offer free online practice problems from old tests and instructional videos showing how to solve them.

克莱曼还宣布将开启新的项目帮助低收入家庭的考生,允许其免费申请四所大学。并在考试前与可汗学院合作开设网络教学,教授经典考题。

 

The changes coming to the exam are extensive: The SAT’s rarefied vocabulary words will be replaced by words that are common in college courses, such as “empirical” and “synthesis.” The math questions, now scattered widely across many topics, will focus more narrowly on linear equations, functions and proportional thinking. The use of a calculator will no longer be allowed on some of the math sections. The new exam will be available on paper and computer, and the scoring will revert to the old 1600 scale, with a top score of 800 on math and what will now be called “Evidence-Based Reading and Writing.” The optional essay will have a separate score.

这次的改革大刀阔斧:一些偏难怪的词汇将被替换成大学课堂出现频率高的词,如 “empirical”(实验性的) “synthesis”(整合)。现行的数学考试考点过于分散,新考试将集中考察一次方程、函数和比率。一些部分不许使用计算器。新考试有机考和笔考两种形式,总分回到了1600,数学和“有理性阅读和写作”各占800. 选作的论文写作有独立的分数。

 

Among other changes, the new test will not ask students to define arcane words, relying instead on vocabulary used in college courses.

新出炉的考试也不要求考生会解释晦涩的词汇,而是主要考察大学课程中会出现的词汇。

 

Once the pre-eminent college admissions exam, the SAT has recently lost ground to the ACT, which is based more directly on high school curriculums and is now taken by a slightly higher number of students.

一度风光的美国大学入学考试SAT正在渐渐被ACT强占风头,报考人数逐年飙升,因为ACT更关注考察高中课程内容。

The new SAT, to be introduced in the spring of 2016, will not quell all criticism of the standardized-test juggernaut. Critics have long pointed out — and Mr. Coleman admits — that high school grades are a better predictor of college success than standardized test scores. A growing number of colleges have in recent years gone “test optional,” allowing students to forgo the tests and submit their grades, transcripts and perhaps a graded paper.

2016年春新SAT将试行,但却不会采纳全部的批评意见。大部分批评者指出—克莱曼自己也认同— 高中的GPASAT成绩更能体现学生的能力。近年来越来越多的大学不将SAT成绩作为必选项,只提交高中成绩单、推荐信和一篇评分的论文即可。

 

For many students, Mr. Coleman said, the tests are mysterious and “filled with unproductive anxiety.” Nor, he acknowledged, do they inspire much respect from classroom teachers: only 20 percent, he said, see the college-admissions tests as a fair measure of the work their students have done in school.

克莱曼说,很多学生说考试神秘莫测,“带来无谓的压力”。而且SAT也不受高中老师待见,只有20%的高中老师认为SAT真实反映了学生在高中的表现。

 

Mr. Coleman, who came to the College Board in 2012, announced his plans to revise the SAT a year ago. He has spoken from the start about his dissatisfaction with the essay test added to the SAT in 2005, his desire to make the test mesh more closely with what students should be doing in high school, and his hopes of making a dent in the intense coaching and tutoring that give affluent students an advantage on the test and often turn junior year into a test-prep marathon.

克莱曼于2012年上任,去年便宣布要改革SAT。他上任伊始便直言对SAT2005年加入论文写作不满,他的理想是考试与学生高中表选衔接,打破富家子弟可获得的备考优势,解放高三备考年。

 

It is time for the College Board to say in a clearer voice that the culture and practice of costly test preparation that has arisen around admissions exams drives the perception of inequality and injustice in our country,” he said in a speech Wednesday in which he announced the changes. “It may not be our fault, but it is our problem.”

克莱曼于周三宣布自己的举措时表示:“大学理事会是时候纯化昂贵备考的社会风气和因此带来的社会不公平了。错误不因我们而起,但举措出自我们。”

 

Some of the changes will make the new SAT more like the ACT, which for the last two years has outpaced the SAT in test-takers and is increasingly being adopted as a public high school test by state education officials. Thirteen states use it that way now and three more are planning to do so. The ACT has no guessing penalty, and its essay is optional. It also includes a science section, and while the SAT is not adding one, the redesigned reading test will include a science passage.

一些改革借鉴了ACT, ACT在过去的两年无论在备考人数上和州政府采纳情况上都超过了SAT. 13个州采纳ACT成绩作为标准高中考试,还有3个州也打算效仿。ACT猜错不扣分,论文写作不算入总分,还有一个“科学”部分,SAT没有打算加入一个“科学”部分,但会在阅读部分加入一篇相关文章。

 

But beyond the particulars, Mr. Coleman emphasized that the three-hour exam — 3 hours and 50 minutes with the essay — had been redesigned with an eye to reinforce the skills and evidence-based thinking students should be learning in high school, and move away from a need for test-taking tricks and strategies. Sometimes, students will be asked not just to select the right answer, but to justify it by choosing the quote from a text that provides the best supporting evidence for their answer.

除了这些细节,克莱曼分析这3小时50分钟带论文写作的考试要重新着眼于强化技能和高中学到的有理性思考,而不是考试技巧。有时不只要求选对答案,更要求找出证据支持答案。

 

The revised essay, in particular, will shift in that direction. Students now write about their experiences and opinions, with no penalty for incorrect assertions, even egregiously wrong ones. Going forward, though, students will get a source document and be asked to analyze it for its use of evidence, reasoning and persuasive or stylistic technique.

特别是论文写作,更要朝此方向发展。现在考生在描述经历和发表意见时,不正确的言论甚至恶性错误的陈述都不会扣分。展望新的论文写作题目,考生将得到一份文件,并要求就其证据、推理、说服性和风格技巧进行分析。

 

The text will be different on each exam, but the essay task will remain constant. The required essay never caught on with most college admissions officers. Few figure the score into the admission decision. And many used the essay only occasionally, as a raw writing sample to help detect how much parents, consultants and counselors had edited and polished the essay submitted with the application.

论文写作的文章各异,但要求是一致的。以前的论文写作成绩大多不被作为录取参考。许多大学只偶尔拿出来和递交上来的材料对比一下,看看到底有多少父母、咨询师和导师后期加工的成分。

 

The Key Changes

主要变化

Starting in the spring of 2016, some of the changes to the SAT will include:

2016年春开始实施,一些变化包括:

Instead of arcane “SAT words” (“depreciatory,” “membranous”), the vocabulary words on the new exam will be ones commonly used in college courses, such as “synthesis” and “empirical.”

摒弃偏难怪词汇(“depreciatory,” “membranous”),着眼大学常见词汇,如“synthesis” “empirical.”

The essay, required since 2005, will become optional. Those who choose to write an essay will be asked to read a passage and analyze how its author used evidence, reasoning and stylistic elements to build an argument.

2005年加入的论文写作将作为选做题。包括一篇文章和分析作者如何使用证据、推理、风格等元素支持自己的论点。

 

The guessing penalty, in which points are deducted for incorrect answers, will be eliminated.

猜错答案不再倒扣分

The overall scoring will return to the old 1600 scales, based on a top score of 800 in reading and math. The essay will have a separate score.

总分回到1600,数学和阅读各占800,论文写作单另算分。

 

Math questions will focus on three areas: linear equations; complex equations or functions; and ratios, percentages and proportional reasoning. Calculators will be permitted on only part of the math section.

数学考点有三大块,一次方程;多元方程或函数;比率和比率推理。数学的一些部分不允许使用计算器。

 

Every exam will include, in the reading and writing section, source documents from a broad range of disciplines, including science and social studies, and on some questions, students will be asked to select the quote from the text that supports the answer they have chosen.

考试的题目来源广泛,包括自然科学和社会科学研究,一些考题要求考生引用原文支持自己选择的答案。

 

Every exam will include a reading passage from either one of the nation’s “founding documents,” such as the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights, or from one of the important discussions of such texts, such as the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.”

阅读必有一篇文章出自建国经典文献,如《独立宣言》 《人权法案》或基于这些文献的讨论文章,如马丁路德金的《伯明翰监狱来信》

 

 

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