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新世纪大学英语综合教程2 Unit8 课堂笔记及课后练习答案

(2011-06-29 18:26:44)
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杂谈

分类: 新世纪大学英语综合教程2

Do you know any proverbs or old sayings concerning adversity? Here are some for your reference.

1. Adversity makes a man wise, not rich. 逆境增才干,并不增财富。

2. The fire is the test of gold; adversity of strong men.

   烈火炼真金,逆境炼壮士。

3. Sweet are the uses of adversity. 祸兮福之所倚。

4. Hardship disposes man to meet adversity. 艰苦能让人适应逆境。

5. It is wise even in adversity to listen to reason.

   灾难中听从理性的召唤也是明智的。

6. A genuine friend will not desert you in time of adversity.

   真正的朋友不会在患难时弃你而去。

I. Useful Words and Expressions Text A

1. classic n.: a creation of the highest excellence古典作品, 杰作

   Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities is a literary classic.

   狄更斯的《双城记》是文学名著。

adj. of the highest quality or class and esp. serving as a model, standard, or perfect representative of a particular type第一流的,最优秀的,古典的

   The temple has been considered an example of classic design.

   人们认为这座神庙是古典式设计的范例。

2. cradle n.: 1) a baby bed with sides and rockers 摇篮;2) where something originated or was nurtured in its early existence 发源地

   stifle in the cradle ...扼杀在摇篮里(防患于未然)

   The sea is thought to have been the cradle of life.

   人们认为海洋曾经是生命的发源地。

3. abuse n. cruel or inhumane treatment; improper or excessive use  滥用,恶习

   I didn't expect him to descend to personal abuse.

   我没料到他会堕落到对我进行人身攻击的地步。

   The government has set up a working party to look into the problem of drug abuse. 政府已成立工作组调查滥用毒品问题。

v. treat badly; use wrongly or improperly or excessively 滥用,辱骂,虐待

   His political reputation was tainted by his abuse of the power.

   他因滥用职权而破坏了政治声誉。

   It's easy to abuse one's power.  人容易滥用权力。

4. haul oneself up by one’s (own) bootstraps 靠自己奋斗而取得成功,白手起家

   Paley had the cheek to say that he was one of those who had pulled themselves up by their own bootstraps.  佩利厚颜无耻地说,他属于靠自己努力而白手起家的那一类人。

   He had to pull himself up by his own bootstraps.  他得自励自强。

5. in the depth of...里面,在...深处

   We lived in the depth of the country.  我们当时住内地。

   This creature lives in the depth of the ocean.  这种生物生活海洋深处。

6. outspoken adj.  characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion直言无讳的, 坦率的, 坦白无隐的

   He was outspoken in his criticism.  他在批评中直言不讳。

   His outspoken remarks made him an easy target for the opposition.

   他那番直言不讳的言语使他成了反对派的主要抨击对象。

7. unyielding adj. resistant to physical force or pressure 不屈服的; 顽强的; 弯曲不了的; 坚硬的

   A pugnacious, unyielding, or determined person.

   好斗的、不屈服的或有毅力的人

   He is always unyielding in his opinions.  他总是固执己见。

8. temper n.  a sudden outburst of anger脾气;a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling 心情,性情

   a display of temper  性情的表露

   His hasty temper made him offensive. 他的急躁的脾气使他令人讨厌。

   keep one's temper. 忍住气;不发火  lose one's temper. 发火;生气

   out of temper. 发火;动怒          in a temper心情不佳

   quick-tempered                    bad-tempered

v. make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else; moderate锻练,调剂,缓和

   Let justice be tempered with mercy. 要做到恩威兼施。

9. tap into  接近;利用,开发 

   Few holidays tap into the American psyche so closely as Halloween.

   与美国人心理最接近的节日莫过于万圣节前夜。

   But there is growing dissatisfaction with the Palestinian leader and his Cabinet, and he is hoping to tap into those sentiments.

   不过对这位巴勒斯坦领导人及其领导的内阁的不满却与日俱增,他希望能利用这种不满情绪。

10. of all time 一直, 始终

   Mozart was, after all, not a mere purveyor of music but one of the supreme dramatic geniuses of all time. 莫扎特毕竟不仅是作曲家,而且是空前的最大戏剧天才之一。

   When we get married, we're going to have the reception of all time.

   我们结婚的时候要举行空前绝后的盛大宴会

11. historic vs. historical

   historic a.: important in history; having or likely to have an influence on history

   有历史意义的; 历史性的

   historical a.: connected with history as a study; based on events in the past

   历史的; 历史学的; 基于史实的

   a historic meeting between two great leaders 两位伟大领导人的历史性会见.

   We will deal with events in historical sequence.

   我们将按照历史上的先后顺序研究这些事件。

   historic battle 有历史意义的一次战役     historic building 历史意义的建筑物

   historical novel / play 历史小说 /       historical society 历史学会,

12. take … by the throat vt. 捏住...脖子(扼杀),牢牢控制

   He took the man by the throat. 他扼住那个人的咽喉。

   I will take fate by the throat, it will not bend me completely to its will.

   我要扼住命运的咽喉,他决不能使我完全屈服。  By 贝多芬)

   Scotland took the game by the throat. 苏格兰队牢牢控制了比赛。

13. fire (sb). up 激怒

   Don't fire him up, he has quarreled with his girl friend.

   别激怒他,他和女朋友吵架了。

   If I were to hear anyone speak slightingly of you, I should fire up in a moment.

   如果我听见谁言语间瞧不起你,我会立刻火冒三丈。

14.  And her childhood writings reveal she never had a sense of “belonging” anywhere, or to anyone.  (L.30-32)

   What she wrote in her childhood shows that she always felt lonely and didn’t easily mix with others.

   她童年的习作表明,她从来没有归属感 觉得自己不属于任何地方或任何人。

   a sense of belonging 归属感      a sense of security / safety 安全感

   a sense of humor 幽默感         sense of taste 味觉

15. Eleanor Roosevelt made a personal choice to lift herself beyond her perceived “limitations”. (L.50-51)

   Eleanor Roosevelt made up her mind to become someone who is better than might be expected.

   埃莉诺·罗斯福做出了自己的选择, 要用自己的力量超越想象中的局限

16. 结果状语从句的翻译

汉语语法的突出特点是隐含性(covertness), 英语语法的特点正好相反,呈外显性 (overtness)。汉语的句法特征是意合(parataxis), 而英语的句法特征是形合 (hypotaxis)。也就是说,汉语句子意连形不连, 句与句间关系隐含, 而英语句子以形连表意连, 表关系的连词起着重要的纽带作用,句与句间关系十分明朗。汉译英中,结果状语 (或从句) 的翻译很好地说明了这点。

汉语中表示结果的连接词通常省略, 但根据前后句子关系可推断出是结果状语, 故将句子翻译成英语时, 应将两句关系明确化, 通常用 “so that”“so …that”“such …that” 连接. 例如:

--他做了错误的决定,浪费了自己半生的时间。

  He made a wrong decision, so that half of his lifetime was wasted.

--差别这么大,所有的人都看得出来。

  The difference is such that all will perceive it.

--这本书是用很小的字体印刷的,很难阅读。

  The book is printed in very small letter so that it is difficult to read.

--他们如此焦虑,难以入睡。

  Their anxiety was such that they could not sleep.

--她对他的影响非常大,完全控制了他。

  She has such a great influence on him that she governs him absolutely.

17. drive them to remarkable achievement and success (L.8) 使某人处于状况

   Her inspiration in writing will surely drive her to success.

   她的创作灵感定会使她成功的。

   His addiction to drugs drove him to a life of crime.

   他吸毒成瘾使他走上犯罪道路.

18. Biologists refer to this as the “adversity principle”. (L.58-59) 称作

   Her parents refer to me as the best friend of their daughter’s.

   她父母将我称作他们女儿最好的朋友.

refer to: 涉及(指的是,提作,参考,适用于)

   For further particulars, please refer to Chapter Ten..  详情请看第10章。

   Don't refer to this matter again, please.  请不要再提这件事了.

   The word can also refer to a conflict or disagreement, often involving violence.  

   这个词还可指冲突或不和,常涉及暴力行动。

II. Useful Words and Expressions Text B

1. in the face of (L 17)  面对,面临,在面前

   He is dumb in the face of the fact. 事实面前哑口无言。

   She felt ashamed in the face of better dressed girls who went by.

   她看见穿着比自己漂亮的姑娘从身边走过,就感到羞愧。

2. draw on (L 18) 戴上;(时间)渐渐过去或消逝;吸收,利用,临近,凭借,动用,引用

   He drew on his gloves, picked up his umbrella and went out.

   他戴上手套,拿起雨伞走了出去。

   He remembered sitting in silence with his grandmother as evening drew on.

   他记得和祖母静静地坐着度过晚上。

   In making plans we must draw on workers' suggestions.

   在定计划时要吸收工人的意见。

   As I require money quickly I must draw on my reserve.

   由于我急于用钱,我必须取出存款。

   I shall draw on you for assistance.  我还要依赖你的援助。

3. throw sb. off balance (L18-19) 使某人摔到,使失去平衡,使慌乱

   The old lady was thrown off balance by a gust of wind.

   大风老妇人的身体失去了平衡。

   I wasn't expecting any interaction with the audience and was thrown off balance by his question.  我没有预料到会与观众进行互动,他的问题使我慌乱起来。

4. be prone to (L21-22)  易于...,...倾向的

   He was prone to anger.  他易于发怒。

   People are more prone to make mistakes when they are tired.

   人们疲劳时更容易出差错。

5. more… than… (L25-26)

与其……不如……” 用来比较两种说法的正确程度,即前一种说法比后一种说法要正确一些。在这个句型里,more后不能用形容词或副词的比较级形式,而要用原级形式,此外还可用名词、代词、动词、介词短语等。

   He is more good than bad.  与其说他坏不如说他好。

   It is more a poem than a picture.  与其说这是一幅画,不如说这是一首诗。

   more... than 后接从句,可表示否定意义。例如:

   You spent more money than was intended to be spent.

   你花掉的钱比原计划的要多。(原计划要花的钱没有这么多。)

   We often advise him not to drink more wine than is good for his health.

   我经常建议他不要饮酒太多,以免有害健康。

对于上述表示否定意义的句子,有的人认为在than后面省略了when,有的认为省掉了it,也有的认为than 用作关系代词,因而并无省略。这类句子在理解上并不困难,结构上变化也不大,从实用出发,可将其视为一种句型来学习。

6. take up (L38)  拿起;占用时间或空间;从事;吸取,接纳

   She took up a book.  起一本书。

   This table takes up too much room.  这张桌子太占地方了。

   She took up the narrative where John had left off.  她接著讲约翰未讲完的故事。

   She took up tennis at the age of 11.  她在11岁的时候就开始打网球。

   Jurors formally take an oath to take up office.  陪审员们正式宣誓就职。

7. try for (L42)make an attempt to get sth. 尝试

   They both try for the position.  他们俩都想得到这职位。

   I don't think I have a particularly good chance of getting the job, but it's certainly worth trying for.

   我看得到那份工作的可能性并不很大,不过争取一下肯定是我值得的。

   我女婿应该谋求这个公司领导的职位。

   My son-in-law should try for the leading position of the company.

8. convert… into… (L45) ...转变成

   Sugar is converted into alcohol through the process of fermentation.

   糖经过发酵变成酒精。

   The old barn we bought to convert into flats was practically tumbling down.

   那个旧谷仓我们买下想改建住房的, 实际上已经快塌了.

   She was converted from Christianity into Judaism to marry the Jewish man.

   为了嫁给那个犹太人,她从天主教改信犹太教。

9. imagine… as… (L50)  想象成,自以为

   We tried to imagine ourselves as old men.  我们试把我们自己想象成老年人。

   I imagine him as a big tall man.  我以为他是个高大的人。

10. go for (L67)  去找,努力获取;对作出决定,选择;试图得到(或达到)

   Let's go for a picnic by the riverside. 我们到河边野餐去吧。

   Where can I go for help?  我该怎么办?

   I wish that we had gone for the second plan.

   我们要是选择了第二个计划就好了。

   He went for a job as a delivery driver.  他努力想得到一份送货司机的工作。

   Go for it!  尽最大努力得到(或实现)[常用于劝告语中]

   Sounds like a good idea—go for it!  听起来是个好主意,去实现它吧!

IIIKeys to Exercises (p259—p270 )

Checking Your Vocabulary (p259—260)

Word Detective

1. 1) d   2) f   3) g   4) c   5) a   6) b   7) e   8) j

2. 1) pressure   2) part   3) changed   4) keep-   5) position

3. 1) thrown off balance   2) draw on   3) go for   4) in kind   5) by definiton

Enhance Your Language Awareness (p262—270)

WORDS IN ACTION

1. 1) matured   2) stuff   3) identify   4) convert   5) classic   6) shortcomings

7) breeds   8) stress   9) maintain   10) impulse   11) pose

12) claims   13) identity   14) media   15) tap   16) reasonable

2. 1) graduate with honours   2) fires herself up   3) take…by the throat   4) take action

5) make an excuse   6) in kind   7) in the face of   8) trying for   9) nurse…through

Increasing Your Word Power

1. 1) a. mature   b. ripe   c. mature / ripe   d. ripe   c. matured

2) a. select   b. was elected  c. were selected   d. choose

2. 1) dreamer   generator (发动机  achiever   climber   operator

robber   supporter   defender

2) officer   guitarist   physicist   Brazilian   socialist   historian

biologist   mathematician

GRAMMAR REVIEW

1. 1) is    2) has    3) is    4) were   5) were / are   6) are      7) is

8) are   9) is    10) is

2. 1) its    2) its     3) his    4) our   5) his / her    6) themselves

7) he or she / one   8) them   9) its   10) themselves

CLOZE

1) discovered   2) intense   3) contributors   4) disadvantaged   5) achievement

6) fascinating   7) troubled   8) even   9) physical   10) who

11) with   12) lead   13) advantage   14) obstable   15) refer

TRANSLATION

1)诚然,没有人是完美的,但我们总是可以做得更好。(It is true that …but…

   It is true that no one is perfect, but we can always do better.

2)莫扎特(Mozart)常被称为有史以来最伟大的音乐家之一。(refer to…as, of all time

   Mozart is often referred to as one of the greatest musicians of all time.

3)人人都会遇到逆境,但你的生活质量在很大程度上取决于你如何利用可用资源去应对逆境。(tap into

   Adversity comes to every one, but the quality of your life may depend in a large measure on how you tap into resources available to handle that adversity.

4)写作时,你可以利用亲身经历举例来解释自己的观点。(draw on

   When writing, you can draw on your personal experience for examples to help explain your ideas.

5)圣诞节是严冬中的一丝温暖(warmth),黑暗里的一盏明灯。(in the depth of

   Christmas is a little warmth in the depth of winter and a bright light in the dark.

6)有时,当我们试图得到更多时,收获却越少。(go for

   Sometimes we do get less when we go for more.

7)如果你不愿意原谅那些伤害过你的人,一心想要以其人之道还治其人之身,只会令你的生活更糟糕。(in kind

   It will only make your life worse if you refuse to forgive those who have done you wrong and be determined to repay them in kind.

8)许多农场主声称今夏的恶劣天气使他们绝望了。(drive sb. to sth.

   Many farmers claim that the vicious weather this summer has driven them to despair.

THEME-RELATED WRITING

Write a short essay entitled “When Facing Adversity”. The following outline may be of some help.

        1. The adversity we may encounter in life

        2. General reactions of people to adversity

        3. Your own view on dealing with adversity

Sample

Throughout our lifetime we may encounter many adversities: unable to pay for the education, obstacles in studies and even physical disbilities. Whether we are rich or poor, intelligent or slow, adversity seems the constant companion of many of us.

In the fact of adversity there are typically two reactions: one is to feel frightened and run away; the other, to face it with courage. But what happens next makes a big difference between the brave and the cowardly. Some people turn away from adversity without even an attempt to make things better; while others, though frightened emotionally or disadvantaged physically, manage to shake off the initial fear and take hold of their bootstraps to pull themselves out of the bad situations they are in.

We should choose the attitude of the latter because running away is not going to solve the problem. In addition, this attitude may lead to acquire the habit of always thinking negatively and thus limit one’s growth and development.   (163 words)

 

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