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[转载]英国《经济学人》:日本地震包含核危机(中英双语)

(2011-03-13 09:59:25)
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[转载]英国《经济学人》:日本地震包含核危机(中英双语)

Japan's earthquake

日本的地震

Containing the nuclear crisis

包含核危机

Mar 12th 2011, 15:49 by K.N.C., H.T. and A.N. | TOKYO

2011年3月12日15:49由K.N.C., H.T.与A.N.共同撰稿|东京

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醉里挑灯看剑的博客:http://blog.sina.com.cn/zlm3906

FIRST came a violent earthquake. Then a devastating tsunami followed. Now an explosion at a nuclear power plant—and the release of radioactive material—has added to Japan's woes. But there was a momentary sense of relief on Saturday evening when the government assured the public that the explosion had not been caused by the meltdown of the reactor. 

首先是一场肆虐的地震。然后是一次毁灭性的海啸。现在则是一座核电厂的爆炸——放射性物质的泄露——已经使日本民众雪上加霜。但是在周六晚上,当政府向民众保证本次爆炸不是由核反应堆的融化而引发,于是人们才有了一次历史性的祛痛感。

Two aftershocks of yesterday's quake rattled northeastern Japan between 10:20 and 10:40 pm, measuring 4.8 and 6.0 in magnitude. Yesterday's 8.9-magnitude earthquake set off the automatic shut-down systems in ten of Japan's 55 nuclear power plants, from which the country gets a third of its electricity. But the cooling systems malfunctioned in numerous reactors at the Fukushima plant. As the temperatures rose, so did the pressure inside two reactors. Radioactive vapour was released into the air on Saturday to ease the pressure. The control room reported radiation levels at 1,000 times the norm.

昨天地震之后在上午10:20和10:40发生的两场分别为里氏4.8级和6.0级的余震,使日本东北部地区的民众非常荒乱。昨天发生的里氏8.9级地震使日本66座核电厂中的十座自行关闭,日本三分之一的电力来源于这些核电厂。但是冷却系统使福岛的许多核反应堆发生了故障。随着温度的升高,两座核反应堆中的压力也随之增加。周六,为减轻压力,放射性的气体排到了大气中。据报告,控制室的放射性水平超过了正常水平的1000倍。

At  3:36pm the Fukushima Dai-ichi (number one) building exploded following reported tremors, billowing plumes of smoke into the atmosphere. Yukio Edano, the government's chief cabinet secretary, said that the reactor's nuclear containment vessel did not suffer a meltdown or explode, citing the plant's operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO).

在下午3:36,福岛的首个建筑物在报道发生剧烈震荡之后产生了爆炸,滚滚浓烟冲上了云天。枝野幸男是日本内阁官防长官,他引用东京电力公司操作人员的话说,这座核反应堆的核容纳水平没有因一次融化或者爆炸而受到损坏。

The explosion, he said, was due to hydrogen buildup in the steam piping that mixed with oxygen, and that there was no damage to the container with the nuclear fuel. TEPCO has been filling the container with seawater combined with boric acid to cool the reactor, which Mr Edano called an "unprecedented" remedy. Boric acid is a strong neutron absorber which will help prevent the nuclear fuel from overheating. But the corrosive mixture of boric acid and seawater will also make the reactor much harder to get running again. That may be academic, though, because the elderly reactor was due for decommissioning anyway.

他说,本次爆炸是由于蒸汽管道中的氢气与氧气混合产生膨胀所致,没有损及盛放核燃料的容器。东京电力公司始终使用与硼酸混合的海水装填容器来降低反应堆的温度,枝野幸男将之称为“空前的”补救方法。硼酸是一种强烈的中子吸收剂,可用于阻止核燃料过热。但是硼酸与海水腐蚀性的混合也会使核反应堆更难重新运转。尽管这是理论上的说法,因为老式的反应堆总会淘汰。

Four workers were injured in the explosion and another person is reported dead. The hourly radiation following the blast was 1,015 microsieverts, a level of exposure that is considered acceptable per person per year. But it has since been falling steadily, according to TEPCO. The government has ordered the evacuation of people within a 20km radius of Fukushima Dai-ichi, and a 10km radius of a second reactor nearby. "We wanted to play it safe," Mr Edano said.

据报道,在本次爆炸中有四名员工受伤,一人死亡。爆炸之后每小时产生的放射量相当于1015个微西弗特,这种放射性的水平据认为是每人每年可接受的。但是据东京电力公司的报道,它始终在稳定地下降。政府已经要求福岛在此20公里半径以及另一座反应堆半径10公里的民众进行撤离。枝野幸南说:“我们想确保万无一失。”

Yet Japan has a spotty record for nuclear safety. In previous cases of suspected contamination, the government and industry has not been fully transparent—though it improved its response, such as after the release of small amounts of radioactive water following an earthquake near Niigata in 2007 that closed the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant.

然而,日本在核安全方面有一个不良的记录。在以前怀疑受到污染的案例中,政府与行业部门没有做到始终透明——尽管它们已经提高了反应速度,例如,在2007年的新滹附近发生地震之后,地震关闭了柏崎刈羽原子力発电所他们立即释放了少量的放射性水源。

The nuclear crisis adds to a day of chaos and cleanup for the country. The earthquake decimated cities and towns throughout northeastern Japan, followed by a crushing tsunami with four-metre high waves. Torrents of muddy water and firery debris washed away cars and buildings, flooding towns and farmland. The government has mobilized all self-defense forces personnel, with 50,000 directly dispatched for rescue efforts. More than 3,000 people have been rescued, including many by helicopters from building roofs, where people went to escape the floods. Around 9,500 people remain unaccounted for in the town of Minamisanriku in Miyagi Prefecture, say prefectural officials—more than half of the population of the coastal town. In all, at least 600 people have been declared dead and another 650 missing.

本次核危机进一步增加了全国范围内的混乱与处置。地震摧毁了日本东北部地区的城乡,紧随其后的是海浪高达四米的毁灭性的的海啸。泥石流与燃烧的垃圾物冲走了汽车和房子,摧毁了城镇与农田。政府已经调动了所有的日本自卫队士兵,其中5万人被直接派遣去救灾。3000多人已经获救,其中许多人通过直升机从逃生的房顶被救出。据当地官员称,在宫崎市的志津川镇,依然有9500人失踪——这已经超过了该镇一半以上的人口。整体来看,至少有600人已经宣布死亡,有另外650人失踪。

So powerful was the quake—off the coast of Japan and 24km under water—that Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology said the Earth's axis shifted 25 centimeters as a result, and the US Geological Survey said the main island of Japan had shifted 2.4 meters. Tsunami warnings were issued throughout the Pacific basin and as far away as Chile. The devastation has forced power cuts to 5.6m households in the most stricken region, and more than 1m households lost their water supply, according to the Japanese news agency Kyodo.

日本海岸外及其24公里深水下的地震太强烈了——意大利国家地质学与火山学会称地轴由于偏移了25厘米,美国地质学会称日本的主要岛屿偏移了2.4米。关于太平洋盆地产生海啸甚至会涉及智利的警告已经发出。据日本共同社报道,在多数受冲击的地区,这种毁坏已经使得560万个家庭减少了用电,超过100万个家庭失去了自来水供应。

Businesses are being disrupted. Nissan plans suspend operations at all of six of its Japanese factories until its supply chain can be assured. Honda will suspend four of its five domestic plants and Toyota said that two of its subsidiaries shut their factories in region. Sony suspended operations at six components factories in the area, and Toshiba halted a chip plant.

企业也受到了破坏。在日本六家汽车公司中,尼桑公司计划延产直到其供应链得以确保。本田公司将暂停其五条生产线中的四条,丰田公司称在该地区的两家子公司将暂停生产线。索尼公司在该地区的六家子公司将暂停运转,东芝公司暂停了芯片生产线。

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