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黑客面面观 神秘背后的秘密

(2011-06-27 10:51:29)
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杂谈

分类: Entertainment娱乐

The lone wolf  独行侠

    Hacking has its roots in recreation. "The majority of people hacking are just people," Schneier says, meaning they aren't connected to a hacking network other than chat rooms and online forums. "It's just guys messing around."
   人们当黑客的根本原因是为了消遣。施奈德指出:“大部分黑客只是普通人。”这意味着他们本身并不属于某个黑客网络,一般只是通过聊天室和在线论坛进行联系。“他们只是一些四处捣乱的普通人。”

    Some members of this breed of hacker eventually go corporate. For example, Linus Torvalds, the man who wrote the central component for the Linux operating system, has a well-respected hacking history. He even co-authored a book called The Hacker Ethic, published in 2001. Another high-profile hacker is Apple (AAPL) co-founder Steve Wozniak, who speaks openly about his early days at UC Berkeley, building and selling devices that could hack phone networks to make free calls.
    这类黑客中的某些人最终投向了企业的怀抱。例如Linux操作系统的核心组件程序是莱纳斯·托瓦兹写出来的,他一度曾是黑客界高山仰止的人物,甚至还与人合写了一本书,名字就叫《黑客的道德准则》(The Hacker Ethic),该书已于2001年出版。另一位知名度颇高的黑客是苹果(Apple)的共同创始人史蒂夫·沃兹尼亚克,他公开坦承自己早年在加州大学伯克利分校(UC Berkeley)学习期间,曾经制作并销售过能够侵入电话网络免费打电话的设备。

Hacktavism"“黑客主义”

    There's another, relatively new breed of hacker that seeks publicity. These are typically politically-motivated groups, says Ethan Zuckerman, a researcher at Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet and Society. The attacks they launch, he says, are "really designed to get the press release."
   还有一类黑客专门以获得曝光率为目的。这类黑客出现得相对较晚。哈佛大学伯克曼互联网与社会中心(Berkman Center for Internet and Society)研究员伊桑·扎克曼表示,这类黑客一般都是具有某种政治动机的团体,而他们所进行的黑客攻击,“实际目的是要获得媒体曝光率”。

    One of the most famous groups is Anonymous, an anarchic network of hackers that periodically organizes to shut down websites, either for fun or for some political purpose. Generally, the group launches a "denial of service" (DDoS) attack, which targets and cripples a specific site. Anonymous has launched several such campaigns, most famously its 2008 efforts to take down the digital presence of the Church of Scientology, which involved a DDoS attack and offline protests by masked members. Recently, the group forewarned an attack against the Federal Reserve, calling for the resignation of Chairman Ben Bernanke via a YouTube video, though none of the Fed's websites have been shut down yet.
   其中最出名的黑客团体之一叫作“匿名”(Anonymous)。这是一个松散的黑客网络,经常组织起来对某些网站进行攻击,有时是为了好玩,有时则是为了某些政治目的。通常这个团体会对目标发动一次“阻断服务”(DdoS)攻击,目的是要使某个特定网站瘫痪。“匿名”已经进行了好几次这样的攻击,其中最著名的一次当属2008年对山达基教会(Church of Scientology)网站的攻击。黑客们网上网下两线作战,既发动了阻断服务攻击,又组织其成员戴着面具进行抗议示威。最近,“匿名”还在Youtube上发了一个警告视频,称要对美联储(the Federal Reserve)进行攻击,要求美联储主席本·伯南克下台。不过到目前为止,还没有任何一个美联储的网站被“黑”掉。

    Another group called LulzSec has also stirred up news recently. On Wednesday, it temporarily crashed the Central Intelligence Agency's public website, Cia.gov. LulzSec has also claimed responsibility for breaches at PBS, Fox and Sony (SNE). For the Sony attack, LulzSec's goal was to showcase a pitiful lack of online security at the company, according to Phil Blank, a senior security analyst at Javelin Strategy & Research, and it succeeded. "It's a very fundamental, basic attack that no modern corporation should be subjected to -- it's embarrassing."
    另一个叫LulzSec的黑客团体最近也曝出新闻。本周三该组织攻击了美国中央情报局的公共网站cia.gov,导致该网站暂时关闭。LulzSec还宣称对美国公共广播公司(PBS)、福克斯电视台(Fox)和索尼的被“黑”负责。标枪战略研究公司(Javelin Strategy & Research)的高级安全性分析师菲尔·布兰克表示,LulzSec之所以要攻击索尼,仅仅是为了证明索尼的网络安全性低得可怜,而且他们成功了。布兰克说:“这是一次非常基本、非常初级的攻击,任何一家现代企业都不应该抵挡不住这样一次攻击——实在太丢人了。”

Hacking spies 黑客间谍

   Government-backed hacking efforts are a different story -- they have much more funding, but can still be next to impossible to trace. They're also happening all the time, Schneier says: "The U.S. is doing it, China is doing it. Governments have spied on each other for thousands of years."
   由政府支持的黑客行为就是另一回事了。他们资金更雄厚,而且几乎无法追踪他们的行踪。施奈德表示:“美国这么干,中国也这么干。各国相互秘密侦察的做法已经有几千年的历史了。”

   While complicated, expensive hacks are more likely to involve government investment, it can be difficult to prove the connection. Earlier this month, the IMF announced to its faculty and staff that it had suffered a cyberattack, but hasn't released details. There has been speculation that the attack received funding from a foreign government, says Phil Blank, a senior security analyst at Javelin Strategy & Research, but there's little public proof. "To be able to create the attack from that distance requires a substantial infrastructure, IT work and research," he says. "Generally speaking, that is out of the scope of most individuals, and it's probably not corporate espionage."
   复杂、密集的黑客攻击行动背后可能都有政府资助的影子,但要证实这种联系却很困难。本月早些时候,国际货币基金组织(IMF)向其工作人员通报IMF遭受了一次网络攻击,不过并没有公布细节。标枪战略研究公司的高级安全性研究员菲尔·布兰克表示,有人推测这次攻击获得了某个外国政府的资助,但却几乎没有任何公开的证据能证实这种猜测。布兰克说:“如此长距离的远程攻击需要一个庞大的基础架构以及一支庞大的IT工作和研究力量。一般说来,这种攻击超出了大多数个人的能力,而且可能并不是企业的刺探行为。”

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