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Women's Day

(2011-03-07 11:05:20)
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杂谈

I believe this to be a retrograde step for women and for the economy. First of all domestic work , childcare and elder care should be valued highly in society as they are crucial to social reproduction and the generation of good well educated citizens. However to confine only women to this role and to confine them to play this role in the private sphere of the household will have negative effects on the women themselves and for the economy. For both intrinsic reasons of gender equity women should have the same opprotunity as men to engage in income generating activities. For instrumental reasons the particpation of women in the economy contributes to overall economic growth. Having said that, the nature and form of that engagement with the public world of work has to be considered carefully and current issues of gender segregation in paid work and the low monetary value to the work carried out by women have to be addressed. 我认为这个问题,无论对妇女还是对经济,都是一种倒退。 首先家务劳动,抚养孩子、照顾老人,都应该得到社会的高度重视,因为她们对社会的再生产和高素质的公民的产生,都是至关重要的。 然而,仅仅把妇女局限到这一角色,或者是限制她们在家庭的氛围扮演这一角色,都会对妇女自身以及经济产生消极影响。 出于性别平等的本质原因,妇女与男性在收入问题方面,应该拥有同样的机会。 另外,妇女参与经济,对整个社会的经济增长,也会有卓越的贡献。 综上所述,我们应该对妇女参与社会工作的实质和形式予以认真考虑。 而且,目前在工作收入和工作的低回报方面的性别差距问题,应该得到重视。

valuing family management Family management is very important and should be recognised and valued. It takes up a lot of time and even in households where people are wealthy enough to be able to afford marketised services or domestic assistance such as nannies it is generally women who play this role. But to confine women to this role means that they would not be participating fully in social life and would be open to direct oppression within the household with no independent means of income which places them in a very vulnerable situation. 家务活是比较重要的,应该得到认可和重视,家务活要花费许多的时间,即便是那些比较有钱的人家里,他们能雇得起保姆来帮助他们。比如说奶妈,但是总体来说主要还是由妇女来做家务活。但是如果把妇女仅仅限制在做家务活上,那就意味着她们不可能全心地投入到社会生活当中,参与社会生活。而且也可能在家庭中受到压迫,没有独立的经济来源,这一情况使她们处于弱势。

education and both women's and overalll welfare Statistical analyses of the relationship between gender equality in education and well being indicate a positive relationship. Gender inequality in education undermines economic growth directly by lowering human capital and indirectly through its impact on investment and population growth. Gender inequality in education leads to lower overall levels of economic growth. Thus raising the education attainment levels of women has been shown to promote prosperity and effeciency, lower mortality especially child mortality and to lower fertitlity levels. Thus from the perspective of society as a whole there are positive effects of reducing gender inequality in education and raising the education levels of women. There are also instrinsic reasons for raising the level of women's education in terms of raising their individual human capabilities and well being. Education will enhance the income generating potential of women. Having said that - education is a necessary condition to achieve this goal but it may not be and in fact experience from the UK suggests that it is not a sufficient condition for lowering overall inequality between women and men. The number of female graduates from universities has begun to exceed those of men and the qualification of girls leaving school are generally higher than those of boys but earnings inequalities continue. It is important also to think about the kind of education that women and men receive and the economic rewards given to different kinds of work. 教育和福利方面的两性平等关系,是一种积极的关系。 教育不平等问题会直接减缓经济的增长,因为他会降低人力资本,并间接地作用于其对投资和人口增长的影响。 教育方面的两性不平等,会导致整体经济水平的降低。所以,提高妇女的教育水平,可以促进经济繁荣和提高经济效益,尤其是减少婴儿死亡率和不孕率。 所以,从社会整体的繁荣角度来看,减少两性之间的教育不平等以及提高妇女的受教育水平,有着非常积极的意义。 从个人能力方面和福利方面提高妇女的受教育水平,也有着实质性的原因。教育会增强妇女的收入潜力。 综上所述,教育是实现这一目标的必要条件,但是也未必如此,事实上,从英国的经验来看,减少两性间的不平等,并不是充分的条件。 女性大学毕业生的数目,超过了男性,而且毕业的女孩们的能力通常高于男孩,但是仍然存在着收入差距。 考虑男女不同的教育形式,根据不同的劳动性质获取收入,这也是至关重要。

There have been some imporvements, however. Taking the employment gap first. The scale of female partipation in the labour force has been rising significantly in recent decades. But much of the increase in the UK has been part time work. Currently part time work allows women combine paid work with childcare - which is good but the kinds of jobs they do are often receive lower pay and are confined to the sectors of the labour market that are considered to be low skilled. To remedy this situation flexible employment opportunities at all levels of the occupational profile would assist. Taking the pay gap. The pay gap has been narrowing but now has reached a plateau of about 80 per cent. The equal pay legislation is effective in terms of narrowing the pay gap between women and men doing similar jobs for the same employer to a relatively small amount - less than 5 or 10 per cent. But this situation is rare. Because of continuing employment segregation and the low pay afforded to the jobs that women disproportionately do the pay gap remains. This gap can only be addressed by raising the monetray value of and recognising the skills involved in the kinds of work that women do. Currently the value of different jobs is profoundly gendered with the work that women do being valued less than that of men. This situation needs to be resolved to narrow the gender pay gap. 机会平等的立法已经存在了30年了,但是不平等,从它的规模和质量上来说,以及妇女和男人之间收入不平等来说还继续存在,对此,我没有好的办法。 现在有一些改善,然而,首先从职业差距上来说,在最近数十年间,女性参与劳动的规模得到了显著提高。但是在英国,许多增长还仅局限于临时工作。目前,临时性工作允许妇女兼顾她的工作以及子女教育,这本身是好的。但是她们所做的工作,往往是低级回报,并且是局限于那些被认为是低技能的工作。 为改善这一情况,在各个层次上具有弹性的工作机会,会有所帮助。 以收入不平等来说。收入不平等正在被缩小,但是现在达到了一个80%的高原现象。 收入平等立法从缩小男女之间同等工作收入不平等的角度来说,是有效的。它使得为同一雇主工作的男女之间的收入差距减小到5%或10%。 但是这一情况是少见的。持续存在的就业不平等,以及妇女倾向于做的工作收入较低,这些情况继续存在。 只有提高妇女从事工作的金钱价值,以及意识到她们工作所需要的技能,这一差距才可能得到改善。现在,工作价值的不同是由于妇女工作的价值比男人得到低的估价所产生的。只有这种情况得到解决,男女之间收入不平等才可能缩小。

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