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(2010-10-19 13:31:57)





分类: 翻译经验和资源

   contract agreement的有无区别?在英语中,合同一般称为contract,协议一般称为agreement.下面分别进行讲解。


  第一部分 何谓“contract”?


  1999年中国《合同法》第二条对contract定义为:a contact in this law refers to an agreement establishing modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footingthat isbetween natural personslegal persons or other organizations. 根据这一定义,合同平等主体之间设立的确定民事权利和义务的协议。


  Steven h. gifts编著的“law dictionary”中将contract 定义为“contract is a promise or a set of promises for breach of which the law gives remedy or the performance of the which the law in some way recognize as a duty.”根据这一定义,合同是一种承诺,违反承诺可以得到法律救助,某种意义上法律将履行该承诺看做是一种补偿。


  I .b Curzon 在其编撰的字典“a dictionary of law”给contract的定义:“contract is a legally binding agreement”根据这一定义,合同就是有法律约束力的协议。


  综合起来,有一个相同点,就是“contract is an agreement”,即可将合同说成是“an agreement which binds the parties concerned”或者说成是“an agreement which is enforceable by law”,也可以说:contracts are promises that the law will enforce.


  第二部分 何谓“agreement”?


  I.b a consensus of mind or evidence of such consensus in spoke or written form relating to anything done or to be done.”根据这一定义,协议是对已经做或准备做的相关事宜,经过谈判、协商后取得一致意见,以口头或书面形式做出的约定。


 “Black Law Dictionary”有两个定义。一个是:“a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties of certain past or future facts or performance”根据这一定义,协议即双方或多方对某些过去或将来某些事实的相关权利、义务或相关权利、义务的履行而达成的一致理解和愿望。


  另一个是:the consent of two or more persons concurring respecting the transmission of some property right or benefits with the view of contacting an obligation a mutual obligation.根据这一定义,协议即两个或多个当事人,为了约定单方责任或相互责任,就财产权利、利益的转移取得的一致同意。


  第三部分 contractagreement是否可互换?


  合同的成立必须具备几个主要因素。它们(要约和承诺构成的)协议、约因、设立法律关系的愿望和缔约能力四大部分组成。l.b curzon编著的“a diction of law”提到“contract generally involves”:


  1. offer and absolute and unqualified acceptance (要约和绝对接受)


  2. consensus ad idem (意思表示一致,也叫meeting of minds


  3. intention to create legal relations (建立合同关系的意愿)


  4. genuineness of consent (同意的真实性)


  5. contractual capacity of the parties (合同当事人的缔约能力)


  6. legality of object(标的物的合法性)


  7. possibility of performance (履行的可能性)


  8. certainty of terms(条款的确定性)


  9. valuable consideration(等价有偿)


  “Black Law Dictionary 中解释道:although often used as synonyms with contract”, agreement is a broader term e.g. An agreement might lack an essential element of a contact. 即“协议”和“合同”经常用作同义词,但“协议”这一术语含义更广,例如协议可能缺乏合同的必备条款(essential clauses/provisions)。


  实际使用当中,协议可不受必备条款的限制,而称为合同的文体肯定少不了必备条款,有的合同将其单列,称为一般条款(general provisions)。1999中国《合同法》第十二条规定了八项一般条款,分别是:


  1. title or name and domicile of the parities(当事人的名称或姓名和住址)


  2. contract object(标的)


  3. quantity(数量)


  4. quality(质量)


  5. price or remuneration(价款或者报酬)


  6. time limit place and method of performance (履行期限、地点和方式)


  7. liability for breach of contract(违约责任)


  8. methods to settle disputes (解决争议的方法)




  第四部分 商务英语合同结构特点




  this agreement/contract is made and entered in to this ____ day of _____month), _______ year by and between party A hereinafter called party A ”)and party B hereinafter called party B ”)






  … it is hereby agreed as follows




  witnessed whereas


  now therefore for and in consideration of the mutual covenants and agreements contained herein the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows




  in witness whereofthe parties hereto have hereunto set their hands the day and years first above written.




  第五部分 新加坡合同格式




  this agreement is made the 9th day of august 2001 between lucky international ltd a company incorporated in Singapore and having its registered office at Telek Blongar rise Singapore 19569 hereinafter called the company”) of the part and Jack Wong NRIC No._________ /a of 108 orchard road Singapore 01688 hereinafter called the manager”) of the other part.




  1. The company is engaged in it business and requires a person with the necessary qualifications and experience to manage its business.






  now it is hereby agreed as follows


  1. The company shall employ the manager and the manager shall serve the company as manager of the company's it business for a period of two years commencing on 1st day of September






  in witness whereof the parties hereto have set their hand the day and year first above written.


  The schedule above referred to


  Duties of manger


  1. to manage maintain and promote the business of the company.


  Signed by roger tan


  For and on behalf of lucky international ltd


  In the presence of


  Signed by Teresa Wong


  In the presence of






  this agreement is made the ——__________ day of _____ month),____ year between a _______ hereinafter called the company”) of the part and b______ hereinafter called the manager”) of the other part.


  句子开头this agreement contract和当事人的姓名和名称,都应大写。当事人是自然人的,用“of”和其后的住址相连;是法人或非法人单位的,用“having its registered office at”和其后注册地址相连。




  第三部分:称为habendum 具体约定当事人的权利和义务。正文部分的结束段为:


  in witness whereof the parties hereto have set their hand the day and year first above written. 这段作用相当于中文合同的“双方签字盖章,特此为证”。




  第五部分:称为attestation,证明部分。当事人如果自然人,用“signed by __”;连接后填写见证姓名的表达部分“in the presence of ____”。




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