加载中…
个人资料
Sunny
Sunny
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:359,628
  • 关注人气:318
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

Lesson One: Legal System 第一课: 法律制度[E-C]

(2010-09-19 17:34:05)
标签:

法律翻译

法律制度

何家弘

教育

分类: 何家弘《法律英语》

Part One

第一部分 

 

   The United States is at once a very new nation and a very old nation. It is a new nation compared with many other countries, and it is new, too, in the sense that it is constantly being renewed by the addition of new elements of population and of new States. But in other senses it is old. It is the oldest of the "new" nations--the first one to be made out of an Old World colony. It has the oldest written constitution, the oldest continuous federal system, and the oldest practice of selfgovernment of any nation.

    美国既是一个非常年轻的国家,又是一个古老的国家。和世界上许多国家相比,它是个年轻的国家,同时,美国又因新人口成分和新州的加入而持续更新,在此意义上,它也是个年轻的国家。但是从另一种意义上讲它又是一个古老的国家。它是“年轻”的国家之中最古老的----在各国家之中,美国是第一个从旧大陆殖民脱胎而出的国家。它拥有最早的成文宪法,最早的无间断的联邦制度,也是最早践行政府自制的国家。

 

   One of the most interesting features of America’s youth is that the whole of its history belongs in the period since the invention of the printing press. The whole of its history is, therefore, recorded: indeed, it is safe to say that no other major nation has so comprehensive a record of its history as has the United States, for events such as those that are lost in the legendary past of Italy or France or England are part of the printed record of the United States. And the American record is not only comprehensive; it is immense. It embraces not only the record of the colonial era and of the Nation since 1776, but of the present fifty States as well, and the intricate network of relationships between States and Nation. Thus, to take a very elementary example, the reports of the United States Supreme Court fill some 350 volumes, and the reports of some States are almost equally voluminous: the reader who wants to trace the history of law in America is confronted with over 5,000 stout volumes of legal cases.

 

    美国建国初期一个很有趣的特征是它的全部历史归属于印刷机器发明之后的时期,因此它的历史都被记载下来:实际上,可以这样说其他任何大的国家都没有能像美国一样有如此详尽的历史记载,因为像在意大利、法国或英国过去的传说中湮没的那些事件则是美国有文字记载之历史的一部分。而且,美国的记载不仅范围广泛,而且浩如烟海。它不仅记载了殖民地时期和1776年建国之后联邦的历史,而且记载了50个州现在的情况,还包括了美国的联邦和州之间错综复杂的关系。为此可以举个很简单的例子,美国联邦最高法院的判例汇编共有350卷,而且一些州的判例汇编也差不多有这么多卷;要追索美国法律历史的读者就要面对5000多巨册的法律案例。

 

   No one document, no handful of documents, can properly be said to reveal the character of a people or of their government. But when hundreds and thousands of documents strike a consistent note, over more than a hundred years, we have a right to say that is the keynote. When hundreds and thousands of documents address themselves in the same ways, to the same overarching problems, we have a right to read from them certain conclusions which we can call national characteristics.

    一个或少量的记载难以合适地反映一个民族或其政府的特征,但是当数以千百册的记载文字敲击出始终如一的音调,且穿越百年如一,我们就有权说这是主旨。如果数以千百册的记载以相同的方式表达,并直指同样的问题,我们就可以从中总结一些我们称作民族特征的特定结论。

 

Part Two

第二部分

 

  The American legal system, like the English, is methodologically mainly a case law system. Most fields of private law still consist primarily of case law and the extensive and steadily growing statutory law continues to be subject to binding interpretation through case law. Knowledge of the case law method as well as of the technique of working with case law therefore is of central importance for an understanding of American law and legal methodology.

    美国的法律制度和英国的一样,在理论上大致属于判例法系。私法的大部分领域仍主要是判例法,而且日益增多的制定法在判例法体系中仍受制于有法律拘束力的司法解释。因此,要了解学习美国的法律和法学方法,判例法方法方面的知识以及研究判例法技巧方面的知识仍是重中之重。

 

   The Common Law is historically the common general law -- with supremacy over local law--which was decreed by the itinerant judges of the English royal court. The enforcement of a claim presupposed the existence of a special form of action, a writ, with the result that the original common law represented a system of "actions" similar to that of classical Roman law. If a writ existed (in 1227) a claim could be enforced; there was no recourse for a claim without a writ, the claim did not exist. This system became inflexible when the "Provisions of Oxford" (1258) prohibited the creation of new writs, except for the flexibility which the "writ upon the case" allowed and which later led to the development of contract and tort law.

    在历史上,普通法即普遍实用的法律---其力高于地方性法律---由英国皇家法院的巡回法官判决组成。某项诉讼请求的强制执行是以法院令状这种特殊诉讼行为形式之存在为前提的,而这就使最初的普通法表现为由类似于古罗马法的“诉讼行为”所构成的体系。若有法院令状(在1227年),诉讼请求可被执行;若无法院令状,诉讼请求便无追索权,因而该诉讼请求也不存在。该制度后来变得非常不灵活,因为1258年的“牛津条例”禁止法院再发布新的令状,除非“本案令状”情形下许可,这后来也便促进了合同法和侵权法的发展。

 

    The narrow limits of the forms of action and the limited recourse they provided led to the development of equity law and equity case law. "Equity", in its general meaning of doing "equity", deciding ex aequo et bono, was first granted by the King, and later by his Chancellor as "keeper of the King's conscience", to afford relief in hardship cases. In the fifteenth century, however, equity law and equity case law developed into an independent legal system and judiciary (Court of Chancery) which competed with the ordinary common law courts.  Its rules and maxims became fixed and, to a degree, inflexible as in any legal system. Special characteristics of equity law include: relief in the form of specific performance (in contrast to the common law award of compensatory damages), the injunction (a temporary or final order to do or not to do a specific act), the development of so called maxims of equity law which permeated the entire legal system and in many cases explain the origin of modern legal concepts. However, equitable relief regularly will lie only when the common law relief is inadequate. For instance, specific performance for the purchase of real property will be granted because common law damages are deemed to be inadequate since they cannot compensate the buyer in view of the uniqueness attributed to real property.

    这种诉讼令状有限的类型以及它所提供的有限追索权导致了衡平法和衡平案例法的发展。“衡平法”的本意是是“公平”行事,即按照“公平合理的原则”裁决,其最初是由国王许可,后来是由作为”国王良心的守护人的“大法官”来处理疑难案件使用的原则。然而,在15世纪时,衡平法和衡平案例法发展成一个独立的法律系统而且形成和普通法法院系统并行的一套司法系统(即衡平法院)。衡平法的一些规则和原则逐渐确定,在一定程度上,已和其他的法律系统中的一样具有确定性。衡平法的特点有:特定履行的救济方式(与之对应的普通法救济则是补偿性损害赔偿)、禁令(即予以或不予当事人做出特定行为的临时判决或者终审判决),所谓的衡平法原则的发展贯穿了整个法律系统,而且在很多个案中阐释了现代法律理念的一些渊源。但是衡平救济一般是在普通法救济不足时才得以适用。比如,在购买不动产的交易中,鉴于不动产的唯一性,普通法的损害赔偿被认定为不足以弥补买方的损失时衡平法的特定履行才适用。

 

    As the common law, equity law became part of American law either through judicial acceptance or through express statutory provision. Today, both legal systems have been merged in many American jurisdictions (beginning with New York in 1848), with the result that there is only one form of civil suit in these jurisdictions as well as in federal practice. Only few States continue to maintain a separate chancery court. Nevertheless, the reference to the historical development is important because, on the one hand, it explains the origin and significance of many contemporary legal concepts (for instance the division of title in the law of property) and, on the other hand, it is still relevant for the decision of such questions whether, for instance, there is a right to a trial by jury (only in the case of common law suits, in other cases only before the judge). In addition, the differentiation will determine whether the "ordinary" common law relief of damages applies or whether the "extraordinary" equity remedy of specific performance is available.

    像普通法一样,衡平法通过司法认定或明示的制定条例逐渐成为美国法律的一部分。目前,两种法律体系都已纳入到美国的司法体系中(始于1848年的纽约),因此,这些州司法系统和联邦系统一样只有一套民事诉讼体系。只有少数几个州继续保持独立的衡平法院。但是不能忽视衡平法的发展史,因为一方面它既可以说明众多当代的法律观念(比如财产法中的所有权分割)的渊源和重要性,另一方面,对某些司法疑问的裁定还有参考价值,比如,陪审团的审判权(只针对普通法范围的案件,其他案件由法官裁决)。另外,将根据以上普通法与衡平法的差异,来裁定适用普通法规定的损害赔偿金救济,还是衡平法规定的特定履行救济。

 

   "Case law" describes the entire body of judge made law and today includes common law and equity precedents. In imprecise and confusing usage the terms "common law" and "case law" are often used synonymously, with the term "common law" in this usage connoting judgemade law in general as contrasted with statutory law. "Case law" always connotes judgemade law, while "common law" in contrast--depending on the meaning intended--describes either the judge made law in common law subject matters or, more extensively, all judge made law.

    “判例法”是法官造法的总称。目前,包括普通法、衡平法先例。“普通法”与“判例法”概念通常被混淆,被错认为同义词。普通法是指“法官造法”,与“制定法”概念相对。“判例法”通常指“法官造法”,而“普通法”相对是指普通法具体案例上法官制定的法律,或指法官制定的所有法律的总称-取决于意图指向。(完)

(注:本文为原创翻译,如需使用请尊重版权!欢迎指正交流!)

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有