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[转载]四级语法课-虚拟语气-小秀-2010.9.14(教材)

(2010-09-18 22:22:30)
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Subjunctive mood

虚拟语气:一种表示虚拟状态的语气

Tips:1.so…that…其他的形式从句没有一般现在时,虚拟语气的起点是过    去时

2.一般不用was

一.In subject clause(暗含建议)

It’s+ adj                                                          be

(nessary,strong,important,surprising,essential)                         +that +S+(should)   

It’s+p.p                                                                                                                    do

(order,suggest,advise等表命令,要求,建议的Ved)                     be done

        high time,time+that S+ did/should do                                                       

 

 

二.Objective clause

 

               did(were)

1.    wish +that+S+  had done

                                  would/could/might do不能用should

2.    一坚持二命令三建议四要求+that S+(should)+do

一坚持 insist   二命令command,order  

三建议suggest,advise,propose

 

四要求require,request,demand,desire

外加一建议recommend(表推荐时不虚拟)

eg1.——be sent to work there?

A.   Who do you suggest  B.Who do you suggest that should

C.Do you suggest who should   D.Do you suggest whom should

eg2.Jane’s pale face suggested that she ____ill,and her parents suggested that she ____a medical examination.

A.be;should have    B.was;have  C.should be;had  D.was;has

eg 3.He insisted that he was not a thieve.

Tom insisted that Mike should apologize to his teacher,but Mike insisted that he was not wrong at all.

小窍门insist主从句主语一致 不虚拟;主从句主语不一致虚拟

Suggest 主句主语是人 虚拟 ;主句主语是物 正常语序

3.imagine/prefer+that+S+(should)do

Would rather that S did(should do)

He can’t imagine that such a gentle man(should)be so rude to the lady.

He would rather that his wife was stayed at home.

Mr.Johnson prefers that______with him personally.

A Mary speaks B would speak C Mary speak D Mary would speak

三.Adveribal Clause状从

a.if 引导的条件状语从句虚拟时,主句中必须出现wouldcould,从句长相为过去式,过去完成,过去将来时

四.If only 要是...就好了  if only+S +were/did;had done;should do

What if如果...就会...   what if +S +were/did; had done

五.In Predictive/appositive Clause

如果n表达建议,命令,要求等引导的表语从句,同位语从句要虚拟

 

 

六.But for/without   

 

 If weren’t +...for..     +S+would/could/should/might

Otherwise                  +do/have done

七.If 引导的条件状语从句虚拟,if可省,这时要提前werehad,should用倒装

八.May +s+V

九.For fear that/lest(恐怕,以免,以防)+should/may(表现在或将来的状况)/might(表过去的状况)+ V

十.Had +p.p原以为,本以为

虚拟:与现在事实相反;与过去事实相反;与将来事实相反

注意:1.

If+ S+were to+V原,S+would/could/might/should/ought to+V

Truth:The cat can’t smile.

2.时态不一致的虚拟

 

 

3.in case that...万一

 

4.  wish

wish 后接that从句,一定要用虚拟语气。与现在事实相反,用过去时;与过去事实相反,用过去完成时。换言之,that从句绝无现在时。

I wish that =would rather that=would that

Hope 的用法:hope之后的that从句,使用一般时态。

 

 

               

 

       

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