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葡萄酒专业知识词汇中英文对照表

(2011-06-06 22:40:06)
标签:

酿制

霞多丽

白葡萄酒

haut-brion

品种

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分类: 葡萄酒知识
网上收集了一份关于“葡萄酒专业知识词汇中英文对照表”很给力哟!

1 Acid. In the right proportion, gives many wines their balance and longevity. Wines without enough acids are often called 'flabby.'

2 Alsace. French region bordering Germany best-known for distinctive whites such as peppery Gewürztraminer.

3 Appellation. Where the grapes came from. Often, the more specific, the better.

4 Appellation Controlee. French system that sets rules for winemaking in geographic areas. A world standard.

5 Australia. After a decade-long surge, the second-biggest exporter of wines into the U.S. by volume after Italy.

6 Beaujolais. French region producing delightful red wine from Gamay grapes; one of the world's great wine bargains.

7 Bordeaux. French region best-known for classy reds made primarily from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.

8 Botrytis Cinerea. 'Noble rot' fungus responsible for making some great dessert wines in Sauternes and elsewhere by shriveling grapes and concentrating juice.

9 Burgundy. French region best-known for reds made from Pinot Noir and whites made from Chardonnay.

10 Cabernet Sauvignon. Red-wine grape responsible for famous Bordeaux wines and many California 'cult wines.'

11 California. Produces 90% of wines made in the U.S. and 70% of wines drunk in the U.S. Most important regions: Napa, Sonoma.

12 Cava. Spanish sparkling wine.

13 Chablis. French region (part of Burgundy) making special, seafood-friendly wines from Chardonnay. Used in U.S. to mean 'cheap, generic white.'

14 Champagne. French region making the world's best sparkling wine from Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay grapes.

15 Chardonnay. Great white grape of Burgundy. No. 1 'varietal' wine in America.

16 Chenin Blanc. Fine grape for dry and sweet wines. Sometimes used in U.S. to mean 'cheap white,' but sometimes a fine varietal.

17 Chile. Up-and-coming wine exporter best-known for value-priced Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

18 Classification of 1855. Famous ranking of Bordeaux wine by 'growth' - based on quality, price and politics - that's still important today.

19 Corked. Wine that's tainted by a bad cork. Tends to smell like wet cardboard or a wet dog.

20 Cult Wines. Symbol of '90s bubble. Hard-to-find, excellent, very expensive and generally red California wines more often bought and sold than drunk.

21 Disgorge. Process in Champagne in which the sediment is popped out of the bottle before the final cork is inserted.

22 DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita). Italian symbol of highest quality, though it can be hit-or-miss.

23 Dom Perignon. Monk important in early Champagne-making, though he didn't really 'invent' Champagne. Also the name of a fine, expensive Champagne.

24 Duboeuf, Georges. French winemaker and brilliant marketer who did much to popularize Beaujolais Nouveau around the world.

25 Finish. The lingering taste a wine leaves after you swallow it.

26 First Growth. Chateaux Lafite Rothschild, Latour, Margaux, Haut-Brion and Mouton Rothschild.

27 Fortified. Wines with brandy or other spirits added, such as Port.

28 French Paradox. '60 Minutes' report on this (1991) hinted that red wine keeps French healthy. Led to surge in U.S. red-wine consumption.

29 Gaja, Angelo. Great winemaker and trend-setter in the Piedmont region of Italy.

30 Gallo, E.&J. World's biggest winemaker (until Constellation's pending takeover of Australia's Hardy). U.S. firm makes one of every four bottles sold domestically.

31 Gewurztraminer. Peppery white wine that's a specialty of the Alsace region of France.

32 Gout de Terroir. 'Taste of the earth,' the notion that grapes should pass on the natural aspects that are present in a place.

33 Ice Wine (Eiswein in Germany). Dessert wine made from frozen grapes. A specialty of Canada.

34 Labrusca (or Vitis Labrusca). Not Lambrusco, the inexpensive Italian red, but the kind of vine that produces native American grapes, such as Concord.

35 Loire. French region best-known for summery whites.

36 Magnum. A 1.5-liter bottle that's twice as big as regular bottles. Bigger still: Nebuchadnezzar, the equivalent of 20 regular bottles.

37 Meritage. Name for red and white blends in the U.S. made from classic Bordeaux varieties. Rhymes with heritage.

38 Merlot. Bordeaux blending grape. First bottled as a U.S. varietal in 1972 by Louis Martini. Top red varietal in the U.S.

39 Mondavi, Robert. Visionary California winemaker greatly responsible for U.S. wine renaissance that started in late 1960s.

40 Mosel-Saar-Ruwer. German area best known for flowery Rieslings.

41 Muscat. Honey-like grape grown all over the world to make slightly sweet to very sweet wines.

42 Nebbiolo. Great grape of Barolo and Barbaresco in the Piedmont region of Italy.

43 New Zealand. Up-and-coming wine-producing country best known for its juicy Sauvignon Blancs. Most-talked-about winery: Cloudy Bay.

44 North Dakota. Last state in the U.S. to have a commercial winery, which opened last year.

45 Nose. How a wine smells.

46 Oak. Wood used in winemaking to add complexity and various flavors to wines often fermented and/or aged in oak barrels.

47 Parker, Robert M. Jr. Publisher of 'The Wine Advocate.' Most powerful wine critic in the world. His 100-point scale widely replicated.

48 Paris Tasting of 1976. In a head-to-head blind tasting, French judges preferred American wines, a turning point for U.S. wines.

49 Phylloxera. Plant louse that kills vines. Devastated French vineyards in the 19th century, hit California hard recently.

50 Piedmont. Italian region best known for lusty reds including Barolo and Barbaresco.

51 Pinotage. Spicy, unusual red wine of South Africa.

52 Pinot Grigio. Italian wine - same grape as Pinot Gris - that recently became the most popular imported wine in the U.S.

53 Pinot Noir. Great red grape of Burgundy. Experts used to believe incorrectly that the U.S. couldn't make fine Pinot. Specialty of Oregon.

54 Port (or Porto). Fortified wine from Portugal.

55 Qualitatswein Mit Pradikat. Symbol of high quality on a German label.

56 Reserve. In some countries, this means wine was aged longer. In U.S., it can mean that or nothing at all.

57 Rheingau. German region best-known for Riesling wines.

58 Rhone. French region best-known for its earthy reds. Most notable grape is Syrah.

59 Riedel. Stemware company that popularized the idea that there is a perfect glass for every wine. Rhymes with needle.

60 Riesling. Great white-wine grape at its best in Germany.

61 Rioja. Spanish district best-known for woody red wine.

62 Sangiovese. Great grape of Chianti.

63 Sauvignon Blanc. White grape that makes grassy dry wines all over the world. Also used in dessert wines. Same as Fume Blanc.

64 Sauternes. Great dessert wine from Bordeaux. Most famous and best: Chateau d'Yquem.

65 Sediment. Naturally occurring muddy stuff in the bottom of some bottles, especially old ones. It's harmless.

66 Shiraz. Australia's signature red-wine grape. Same as Syrah.

67 Stainless Steel. Wines said to be 'all stainless steel' were fermented in temperature-controlled steel tanks and meant to be fresh, fruity, aromatic.

68 Sulfites. Naturally occurring substance also added to preserve and stabilize wines. Present in virtually all wines. Often incorrectly blamed for headaches.

69 Sur Lie. Allowing a white wine to sit on its dead yeast for a while, often giving it extra complexity and mouthfeel.

70 Tannins. Naturally occurring substances that give red wines their backbone and often their longevity. Sometimes cause mouth to pucker.

71 Terroir. The total environment in which grapes grow - the soil, the climate, etc.

72 Turley, Helen. Great American winemaker responsible for many cult wines.

73 Tuscany. Region of Italy best known for Chianti and Brunello di Montalcino.

74 Varietal. Wine named for a grape type, like Chardonnay. In U.S., a wine must be at least 75% of a grape type to be called that.

75 Vinifera (or Vitis Vinifera). Species of vine that produces classic European wine grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon and most of the wines produced today.

76 Vintage. Year grapes were harvested. In U.S., 95% of wine must be from that year's grapes to be labeled that vintage.

77 Yeast. Naturally occurring substance that creates fermentation in grape juice to make wine. Sometimes commercial form is used.

78 Zinfandel. U.S. red grape (originally from Croatia). White Zinfandel, with juice allowed a little skin contact for color, outsells red 7 to 1.


参考译文:
酸(Acid):如在酒中酸的比例得当,它会让许多葡萄酒获得平衡度并易于长期保存。缺乏足够酸成份的葡萄酒通常被称为“软塌”的酒。

阿尔萨斯(Alsace):法国一地区,和德国接壤,出产富有特色的白葡萄酒,如胡椒味口感的格乌兹塔明那(Gew口rztraminer)酒。

酒标(Appellation):是标明葡萄产地的标识。通常是越具体越好。

原产地管理证明(Appellation Controlee):是法国的一种制度,其规定了某地域内酿酒的规则。是一种世界通用的行业标准。

澳大利亚(Australia):经过十多年的快速增长,澳大利亚已成为向美国出口葡萄酒的第二大国,出口量仅次于意大利。

博若莱(Beaujolais):法国一地区,该地区采用加迈葡萄(Gamay)酿制出爽口的红酒,是世界上最有性价比的葡萄酒之一。

波尔多(Bordeaux):法国一地区,最知名的是主要采用赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)和梅鹿辄(Merlot)葡萄品种酿制上等的红葡萄酒。

葡萄孢菌(Botrytis Cinerea):所谓的“高贵的腐烂”菌,其作用是在所塔尔那(Sauternes)和其它地区酿制出某些优质的佐甜点酒,其方法是让葡萄变干瘪和浓缩果汁。

勃艮第(Burgundy):法国一地区,最知名的是用黑比诺葡萄(Pinot Noir)酿制的红酒以及用霞多丽葡萄(Chardonnay)酿制的白酒。

赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon):用以酿制红酒的葡萄品种。著名的波尔多地区(Bordeaux)产的葡萄酒和加州的许多顶级葡萄酒就是用此品种酿制而成。

加利福尼亚州(California):美国产的葡萄酒90%来自该州。美国人消费的葡萄酒70%也产自该州。其最重要的地区为纳帕(Napa)和索诺玛(Sonoma)。

卡瓦(Cava):一种西班牙起泡酒。

夏布利(Chablis):法国一地区(属勃艮第地区的一部分),出产采用霞多丽葡萄酿制的适合佐食海鲜的特殊葡萄酒。在美国也用来指“无牌廉价的白葡萄酒。”

香槟(Champagne):法国一地区,出产世界上最好的起泡酒,采用的是黑比诺(Pinot Noir)、皮诺穆尼耶(Pinot Meunier)和霞多丽(Chardonnay)葡萄品种。

霞多丽(Chardonnay):生长于勃艮第地区的优质白葡萄。美国的头号单品种葡萄酒。

白诗南(Chenin Blanc):是用以酿制干葡萄酒和甜葡萄酒的优质葡萄品种。在美国有时指“廉价的白葡萄酒”,但有时也指精良的单品种葡萄酒。

智利(Chile):世界上崭露头角的葡萄酒出口国,以定价合理的梅鹿辄(Merlot)和赤霞珠酒最为著名。

1855年评级(Classification of 1855):对波尔多地区的葡萄酒按“等级”(growth)进行的著名的排名,至今仍具重要意义。“等级”的评定是基于质量、价格和营销这些要素。

被酒塞污染(Corked):指酒遭到差的软木塞的污染。一般来说有种湿纸板或淋湿了的狗的气味。

发烧友葡萄酒(Cult Wines):是上世纪90年代葡萄酒炒作泡沫的象征。指罕见的、极高品质和及其昂贵的酒,一般为加州红酒。与其说这些是酒买来喝的,倒不如说它们常常是为了进行倒卖炒作的。

去除沉淀(Disgorge):指香槟酒酿制过程中的一道程序,即在插入最后的软木塞前,把沉淀物从酒瓶中取出。

DOCG(Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita):代表意大利品质最高的葡萄酒,但判断酒的质量并非完全能依赖这个标记。

唐•培里侬(Dom Perignon):早期香槟酿制史上曾作出重要贡献的一位修道士,但他并没有真正“发明”香槟。也指一种精良昂贵的香槟酒。

乔治•迪宝夫(Duboeuf, Georges):一位法国酿酒大师和市场营销大师,他为把莱新薄酒(Beaujolais Nouveau)推广到世界各地做出了卓越贡献。

回味(Finish):在咽下葡萄酒后嘴里留下的酒的余香。

第一级别(First Growth):包括五种: Chateaux Lafite Rothschild,、Latour,、Margaux,、Haut-Brion 和 Mouton Rothschild

强化酒(Fortified):葡萄酒与白兰地或其他烈酒勾兑的混合酒,如Port酒。

法国悖论(French Paradox):在1991年的一期美国 “60分钟时事杂志”('60 Minutes')的电视节目中发布的报告暗示说,红葡萄酒让法国人保持了健康。这引发了红葡萄酒的销量在美国大增。

安杰罗•加亚(Gaja, Angelo):意大利皮埃蒙特区(Piedmont)中一位杰出的酿酒师及流行趋势领军人物。

Gallo, E.&J: 在Constellation酒庄即将对澳大利亚的Hardy酒庄进行收购之前,它曾是世界上最大的酿酒企业。这是一家美国企业,在美国国内销售的每四瓶葡萄酒中有一瓶就出自该企业。

琼瑶浆(Gewurztraminer):一种胡椒味口感的白葡萄酒,为法国阿尔萨斯地区(Alsace)的特产。

风土气息(Gout de Terroir):所谓“泥土味道”,该理念认为,葡萄应该传递给人们葡萄的生长地区的自然气息。

冰葡萄酒(Ice Wine):(德国也叫做Eiswein)。佐甜点酒,采用冰冻葡萄酿制而成,为加拿大特产。

Labrusca(或称Vitis Labrusca):不要和廉价的意大利红酒Lambrusco混为一谈。它是在美国本土生长的葡萄,生长的葡萄品种如Concord。

卢瓦尔(Loire):法国一地区,因出产适合夏令时节饮用的白葡萄酒而著称。

马格南(Magnum):1.5升酒瓶,容量是普通酒瓶的两倍。更大的还有尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar),其相当于普通酒瓶容量的20倍。

梅里蒂奇(Meritage):美国市场上用经典的波尔多地区(Bordeaux)红白葡萄酒勾兑的一种酒。读音和heritage同韵。

梅鹿辄(Merlot):一种混合了多种产自波尔多地区(Bordeaux)的葡萄酒的混合酒。于1972年首次作为美国酒的一种由Louis Martini酒庄进行瓶装,是美国顶级红酒中的一种。

罗伯特•孟大为(Mondavi, Robert):美国加州一位富有远见的酿酒大师,他为始于1960年代的美国葡萄酒复兴作出了重大贡献。

摩泽尔-萨尔-鲁沃(Mosel-Saar-Ruwer):德国一地区,以生长带有花香的葡萄品种──雷司令(Riesling)而闻名。

马斯喀特(Muscat):蜜糖般的葡萄品种,在世界各地广为种植,可酿制从微甜到极甜的葡萄酒。

内比奥罗(Nebbiolo):生长于意大利皮埃蒙特地区(Piedmont)的巴罗洛(Barolo)和巴巴拉(Barbaresco),是优良的葡萄品种。

新西兰(New Zealand):崭露头角的葡萄酒生产国,该国以生长多汁的长相思(Sauvignon Blanc)葡萄而闻名。最令人瞩目的酒庄是多云湾酒庄(Cloudy Bay)。

北达科他州(North Dakota):美国最后一个开设商业酒庄的州,于2002年开设。

香气(Nose):指葡萄酒的香气。

橡木(Oak):酿酒过程中所用的木料名,葡萄酒经常在橡木桶中进行发酵和熟化,这给酒增加了质感和不同的口味。

小罗伯特•帕克(Parker, Robert M. Jr.):《葡萄酒倡导》杂志的出版商,是世界上最有影响力的葡萄酒评论家。他首创的100分制被广泛采用。

1976年的巴黎品酒会(Paris Tasting of 1976):在那次竞逐激烈的盲品会上,法国的品酒师们更喜欢美国产葡萄酒,那成了美国葡萄酒声誉鹊起的一个转折点。

根瘤蚜(Phylloxera):可以杀死葡萄藤的植物虫害。在19世纪曾对法国的葡萄园具有摧毁性的打击;近来加州的葡萄园也深受其害。

皮埃蒙特区(Piedmont):意大利一地区,以出产比较烈的红酒而闻名,产品包括巴罗洛(Barolo)和巴巴拉(Barbaresco)红葡萄酒。

Pinotage:辛辣而不同凡响的产自南非的红酒。

比诺格里乔(Pinot Grigio):意大利葡萄酒 (灰皮诺(Pinot Gris)也是用同样的葡萄酿制的) ,最近在美国成了最热门的进口葡萄酒。

黑比诺(Pinot Noir):产自勃艮第(Burgundy)地区的优质红葡萄。专家们过去曾不公正地认为美国地区不适于生长优质的比诺葡萄(Pinot)。如今这种葡萄是俄勒冈州(Oregon)的特产。

Port (或称为 Porto):产自葡萄牙的强化葡萄酒。

Qualitatswein Mit Pradikat:在德国葡萄酒酒标上高品质酒的代号。

庄园精选(Reserve):在一些国家,这个词意味着葡萄酒熟化的时间较长。在美国,这可能也代表是同样的意思,也可能什么意思也没有。

莱茵高(Rheingau):德国一地区,以出产雷司令(Riesling)葡萄酒而闻名于世。

罗讷(Rhone):法国一地区,出产知名的带本地泥土气息红葡萄品种。最著名的葡萄品种为西拉(Syrah)。

里德尔(Riedel): 一家生产玻璃高脚杯的公司,其理念是任何一款葡萄酒都有一种完美的酒杯与之匹配,该公司将此理念普及至深入人心。与needle发音同韵。

雷司令(Riesling):优质的酿制白葡萄酒的葡萄品种,以产自德国的最为上好的品种。

拉里奥哈(Rioja):西班牙一地区,以产有木质味道的红酒而闻名。

圣乔维斯(Sangiovese):生长于意大利基安蒂(Chianti)地区的优质葡萄品种。

长相思(Sauvignon Blanc):生长于世界各地的能酿制出带草香味的干葡萄酒的白葡萄品种。也用于酿制佐甜点酒。与Fume Blanc相同。

Sauternes:产自波尔多(Bordeaux)地区的优质佐甜点葡萄酒。最有名也是口味最佳的是Chateau d'Yquem。

沉淀物(Sediment):某些酒尤其是陈年酒的瓶底部自然形成的土状物质。对人体无害。

设拉子(Shiraz):产自澳大利亚的最著名的酿制红酒用的葡萄品种。与西拉(Syrah)相同。

不锈钢(Stainless Steel):若一种葡萄酒被标明为“全不锈钢”酒,那么就说明该酒是在温控钢罐里发酵的,这样做是为了酿制出新鲜、有水果味并且香气扑鼻的葡萄酒。

亚硫酸盐(Sulfites):自然生成的一种物质,也被人工添加进酒,目的是为了更好地储存并稳定葡萄酒。在几乎所有的葡萄酒里都有该物质的存在。它经常为头痛症状担当不公正的恶名。

Sur Lie:让白葡萄酒在其非活性酵母中呆一段时间,经常会给酒带来更精致的质感以及口感。

单宁(Tannin):自然生成的物质,赋予红葡萄酒以质感以及便于长久储藏。这种物质有时会让你喝酒后咂咂嘴巴。

风土(Terroir):葡萄生长的总体环境 - 包括土壤、气候条件等。

海伦•特利(Turley, Helen):美国酿酒大师,很多发烧级葡萄酒因她而出现。

托斯卡纳(Tuscany):意大利一地区名,以基安蒂(Chianti)和布鲁内洛迪蒙塔尔奇诺(Brunello di Montalcino)最富盛名。

品种(Varietal):以葡萄品种命名的葡萄酒,如霞多丽(Chardonnay)。在美国,葡萄酒必须至少含有75%的某种葡萄品种才能以该葡萄名命名。

Vinifera(或称Vitis Vinifera):指某些葡萄树种,它们能生长出能酿制出经典欧洲葡萄酒的葡萄,如赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon),当今酿制的大部分葡萄酒就是采用这些树种结的果实。

葡萄收成年份(Vintage):指葡萄采摘的年份。在美国,如要标明某年份的葡萄酒,酒中所含的95%的葡萄必须是该年采摘的。

酵母(Yeast):自然形成的物质,它在葡萄汁中造成发酵现象以形成酒。有时也使用商业包装的酵母。

金芬黛(Zinfandel):美国红葡萄品种(原产于克罗地亚)。金芬黛白葡萄酒允许其果汁与葡萄皮有少量接触使其酒汁成微红,其销量是金芬黛红葡萄酒的7倍。

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