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9 American Food Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

(2011-01-02 23:20:12)
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9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Coca-Cola

"We need a bottle which a person will recognize as a Coca-Cola bottle even when he feels it in the dark! The Coca-Cola bottle should be so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was." This challenge, offered by the Coca-Cola Company in 1913, was met by the glassmakers at the Root Company in Terre Haute, Indiana. Inspired by the plump and rippled cocoa bean pod, the Root team came up with the unmistakable silhouette in pale green glass that has meant "Coke" to generations of thirsty folks since 1916.

可口可乐

“我们需要的是一个能给人留下深刻印象的玻璃瓶,就算周遭是漆黑一片,又或者瓶子早已支离破碎,人们也能很快就认出这个瓶子是属于可口可乐的。”这是一项艰巨的挑战。而位于印第安纳州特雷霍特的鲁特玻璃制品公司接受了这个由可口可乐公司在1913年提出的挑战。鲁特玻璃制品公司团队的工作人员亚历山大山姆森受到饱满的有波纹的可可豆豆荚的启发,灵机一动便有了流传至今的这个轮廓清晰的浅绿色玻璃瓶设计。这个造型的设计也寓意着可口可乐对于那些出生在1916年后的饥渴大众而言,无疑是雪中送炭。

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Oreos

On March 6, 1912, New Jersey grocer S. C. Thuesen made history when he purchased a 9 1/4-pound tin of chocolate-sandwich cookies. Little did Thuesen know he was the first person ever to buy what would become the best-selling cookie ever: Oreos, which now sell at a rate of billions upon billions a year. It has been posited that if all the Oreos produced since Thuesen's purchase could be stacked atop one another they would reach the moon four times.

Conceived as one of a trio of English-style tea cookies (the others were Veronese and Mother Goose biscuits), Oreos are the only one of the three brands still produced. Since the beginning, their design has been round and flat, with embossed decoration and a creamy filling. But the size has varied considerably. The familiar 1 3/4 inch two-bite size produced today is about halfway between the large chocolate sandwich of 1912 and the later tiny, pop-in-the-mouth version. Curiously, while many of the facts and figures connected with the cookies' past are a matter of record, no one remembers how or why Oreos got their name.

奥利奥

1912年3月6日,来自新泽西州的杂货商杨绍瑟森购买了一罐9 1/4英镑的巧克力三明治饼干,由此,他创造了一个历史。瑟森当时全然不知自己是这款在未来成为最畅销饼干品牌—奥利奥的第一个购买者。奥利奥,如今每年销售量数十亿,人们设想,如果把所有自瑟森购买后生产出来的奥利奥饼干层层叠加,那将是月球与地球之间距离的四倍。

当时美国,英式茶饼干市场局面为“三足鼎立”,奥利奥被视为其中一隅(另外两个品牌分别为维罗纳和鹅妈妈饼干)。奥利奥也是三个品牌当中唯一一个现在仍在生产的品牌。自面世以来,奥利奥的造型就一直是是又圆又扁平,内有奶油夹心,外有浮雕装饰,而其尺寸却变化多端。现今生产的人们所熟悉的1 3/4英寸双层尺寸,介于1912年大夹心巧克力版与后来小到恰好一块一口的尺寸版本之间。奇怪的是,虽然有许多与品牌过去相关的很多事实与数据记录在案,却没有人知道“奥利奥”这个名字是如何,又是因何得来的。
 

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

SPAM

"Innovate, don't imitate." That was Minnesota meat packer George Hormel's advice to his employees. So when the company that bears his name found itself with several thousand pounds of leftover pork shoulder, they transformed some of it into a unique product — a canned minced pork and ham loaf requiring no refrigeration. To market it, Hormel offered a $100 prize for a catchy name, and the winning entry — SPAM — has since become a household name and a slice of American folklore.

Introduced in 1937, SPAM was shipped abroad during World War II by the tens of millions of pounds. Many GIs remember it as the "ham that didn't pass its physical." No less a figure than General Dwight D. Eisenhower, European commander-in-chief, ate his share of it, too. "I'll even confess to a few unkind remarks about it," he joked some 20 years later, adding that of course they were "uttered during the strain of battle." By the mid 1990s, Hormel boasted that Americans use nearly four cans of SPAM a second. But not all of that was for eating. Austin, Texas, hosted an annual "Spamarama" that included a SPAM toss — pairs of contestants tossing a greased can between them until someone fumbled. At a 50th birthday party Hormel gave for itself in 1987, one celebrant carved a SPAM model of Auguste Rodin's The Thinker. And entries in a SPAM sculpture contest in Seattle, Washington, included replicas of Uncle SPAM, FrankenSPAM, and a model of England's famous circle of Druidic stones — SPAMhenge.

American ingenuity, it seems, has known no bounds when it has come to finding uses for SPAM. One wag even dared to suggest "SPAM-on-a-Rope" for people who get hungry in the shower.

斯帕姆

“坚持原创,反对模仿。”是明尼苏达州的肉类包装商乔治荷美尔对他的员工提出的建议。所以,当以他的名字命名的公司发现有数千镑剩余猪肉肩时,公司的员工就把其中一些转变成了一种独特的产品——无须冷冻的罐装碎猪肉及火腿面包。为了把这种产品推向市场,荷美尔悬赏$100为其征求一个顺口的名字。SPAM成为获奖作品,自此,就成为美国家喻户晓的品牌及流行世界的美国名片。

欧洲1937年引进,二战期间,SPAM数以万计的运往海外。许多大兵把它称为“未经过体检的火腿”。不得不提的是,艾森豪威尔将军——美驻欧洲总司令也曾尝过一些。20年后,他跟别人开玩笑说:“我承认甚至是我也对它做过一些不好的评论。”但是他也补充说明道:“那当然也只是在战争压力大的情况下说的。”20世纪90年代中期,荷美尔吹嘘道美国人平均几乎每秒消耗4罐SPAM。但也不全是拿来吃的。在德克萨斯州的奥斯丁,每年都会举办“Spamarama”活动,其中就包含一个开SPAM罐的游戏。两名竞争对手要一直开启被涂了润滑油的罐头,直到有一方失手。在1987年公司50周年庆聚会上,荷美尔自己给自己做了一个形似奥古斯特洛丹的沉思者的刻有SPAM字样的模型。以及一些在华盛顿的西雅图举办的SPAM雕塑大赛上获奖的作品,其中包括SPAM叔叔的仿制品、FrankenSPAM以及由英格兰著名的德鲁伊教石头圈打造的模型——SPAMhenge。

当提及找寻SPAM的用途时,美国人的创造力似乎就无穷无尽了。甚至有人大胆建议那些洗澡时突然很饿的人,一种叫“SPAM-on-a-rope”(把SPAM栓到绳子上)的方法。
 

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Graham Crackers

When Sylvester Graham, a frail and disgruntled early nineteenth-century Connecticut cleric, went searching for the root of all evil, he came up with a long list of possibilities. Topping the list was the American diet. Embracing his new calling as a nutritional moralist, Graham traveled the country inveighing against red meat, fats, alcohol, salt, sweets, condiments, tobacco, and white bread. Graham alleged that these substances were not merely unhealthful, but downright immoral. Among their ill effects, he contended, were sexual excesses, family conflict, disease, and insanity.

Graham's recommendations were a mixture of asceticism and practicality. He advocated tooth brushing, frequent bathing, looser clothing, exercise, a vegetarian diet, clean air and pure drinking water, laughter as a digestive aid, and temperance in everything — all radical ideas in his day.

Fortunately, his zealotry contained several kernels of sound, albeit intuitive, advice. Graham's "Treatise on Bread and Bread-Making," written in 1837, made a persuasive case for what is now known as a high-fiber diet. And his assertion that whole-grain dark bread was preferable to bread made from refined white flour was later borne out by the twentieth-century discovery of vitamins.

Even so, dissenters and even rioters often dogged Graham's lecture tours. His reformist arguments attracted considerable ridicule and violent protests — especially from professional bakers and butchers.

Graham's bran crusade influenced many — including such prominent individuals as Horace Greeley and Mother Ellen Harmon White, spiritual leader of the new (and growing) Seventh-Day Adventist church — and sparked sweeping changes in America's eating habits. In a time when many started the day with heaping platters of meat and potatoes, he ate a daily ration of dry, crumbled whole wheat biscuits: the original Graham crackers.

Ironically, all-around health "expert" Graham never attained the vigor he promised others. He took his last righteous meal in the fall of 1851 and died at the early age of 57 — but the cracker that bears his name lives on around the world.

格雷厄姆饼干

当西尔维斯特格雷厄姆,一个体弱和不满19世纪早期康涅狄格教士,去追查所有罪恶的根源的时候,他列出了一张长长的所有可能性的单子。排在首位的是美国人的饮食。为了支持他作为一个有营养的道德学家的新主张,格雷厄姆游历了许多反对食红肉、脂肪、酒精、盐、糖、调味品、香烟及白面包的国家。格雷厄姆宣称,这些东西不仅是不健康的,而且是彻头彻尾不道德的。格雷厄姆还声称,在它们所包含的不良影响中,有性放纵,家庭战争,疾病以及精神错乱。

格雷厄姆的这些建议是禁欲主义与实务主义的结合体。他主张勤刷牙,勤洗澡,穿宽松的衣服,多做运动,吃素食,呼吸清新空气,引用纯净水,多笑笑以助消化,而且心平气和对待所有事——所有他日常生活中的基本想法。

幸运的是,他的狂言中也包含着一些尽管原始的核心论调及建议。格雷厄姆1837年写的《关于面包及面包制作的论述》中,举出了一个很具有说服力关于现在被熟知的高纤饮食的例子。且且20世纪,当维他命被发现时,他又提出了关于“全麦黑面包比由精制白面粉制成的面包要好很多”的主张。

尽管如此,持异议者甚至一些暴动者经常跟踪格雷厄姆去巡回演讲。他改革主义的言论引起相当大的嘲弄和暴力抗议,尤其是专业面包师和屠夫。格雷厄姆的麸圣战影响了许多人——包括一些很优秀的人,例如,霍勒斯格里利和圣母埃伦哈蒙白,新成立(正在壮大的)安息日教会的精神领袖——也引起了美国的饮食习惯的彻底改变。曾几何时,当人们以堆叠的肉和土豆沙盘开始一天的生活的时候,他全天都吃干粮,啃全麦饼干:最初的Graham饼干。

讽刺的是,全球健康“专家”格雷厄姆没有达到他向别人承诺的活力。他在1851年的秋天食用了他最后一顿适当饮食餐,逝世时仅57岁。——但以他名字命名的饼干全在全世界盛行。

 

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Tabasco

When successful Maryland-born businessman Edmund McIlhenny saw his millions of Confederate dollars rendered worthless by the outcome of the Civil War, he returned with his wife, Mary, to her family's home on Avery Island, Louisiana. To his surprise, the red peppers the amateur gardener had planted a few years earlier were thriving. McIlhenny chopped up the pepper pods, mixed them with Avery Island salt, and then set the mash to age. When it had ripened to his liking, he added vinegar, decanted the brew into an assortment of old cologne bottles, and gave samples to friends. McIlhenny's fiery red sauce — which he called Tabasco after the Mexican river and state — was an immediate success. In 1872 he patented the process for his tongue-searing condiment and shortly afterward opened a London office to handle the swelling tide of foreign business. Today the family-owned company McIlhenny founded carries on the tradition on Avery Island, manufacturing a product that has become one of the most familiar in the world.

塔巴斯科

当成功的马兰里州商人埃德蒙麦基尼看到他数百万的联邦美元由于内战的爆发而变成一文不值时,他偕同他的妻子玛丽回到了她在路易斯安那州埃弗里艾兰的家。令他惊喜的是,几年前业余园丁种植的红辣椒现在已经长得很茂盛了。麦基尼混着埃弗里兰盐,吃了点辣椒,然后把成熟的捣成糊状。当辣椒已经成熟到他满意的程度,他再加上一些醋,然后再倒几滴到一个老品种的克隆啤酒瓶里,拿些样品给他的朋友。麦基尼鲜红的酱汁——他据墨西哥河及墨西哥国家命名的Tabasco——一瞬就声名鹊起。1872年,他为他辣舌的调味品申请了专利,并且在之后的短期时间内,在伦敦开了一家事务所专门处理蓬勃发展的外贸事务。如今,家族企业McIlhenny按照传统在埃弗里艾兰成立公司,大量生产一种已经被全世界所熟知的产品。

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Cracker Jacks

A prize in every box! That's what generations of kids have looked forward to whenever they asked for Cracker Jack. But even before the popcorn, peanut, and molasses treat became identified with hidden treasure, it was one of America's favorite snacks. First finding popularity in 1871 when Frederick Rueckheim concocted the confection and sold it from his Chicago popcorn stand, it met with even wider acclaim when Rueckheim and his brother introduced it at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. By 1899 Cracker Jack was distributed in snack-size boxes, and in 1908 it was immortalized in the song "Take Me Out to the Ball Game." When prizes were tucked into every package in 1912, Cracker Jack's success was assured.

From the beginning, the prizes were remarkably inventive. Nestled in the mix were whistles, watches, watch fobs, and even Cracker Jack piggybanks that held five pennies — just enough to buy the next box. With prizes numbering in the thousands, a child could expect a new surprise with each new box.

Before plastic arrived in the 1940s, the most durable prizes were molded from tin — but some of the most interesting were made of paper. Sports fans could collect several series of baseball cards, including one for the short-lived Federal League. Elaborate paper cutouts included an "Indian" headdress that was almost two feet long when unfolded. Other prizes bore the likenesses of Sailor Jack and his dog, Bingo, the snack's mascots. Modeled after Rueckheim's grandson, Jack debuted on the logo in 1918, and he and Bingo appear to this day on every box of Cracker Jack.

Cracker Jack(百事旗下一品牌)

每个盒子里头都有奖品吧!这是当一代又一代的小孩求助于Cracker Jack时,他们所热切期望的。但是,即使在爆米花、花生和糖蜜如同埋葬的宝物一样被认可,它也曾经是美国最受欢迎的零食之一。首次大卖是在1871年,当Frederick Rueckheim调制出糖果剂并且在他位于芝加哥的爆米花卖点售出,甚至当Rueckheim与他的兄弟在1893年哥伦比亚世博会引进它时,获得了更多的赞誉。到了1899年,Cracker Jack一小食品尺寸的盒子对外销售,1908年它因歌曲“把我带去球赛中”享负盛名。1912年,当所有奖品都被塞进每一个小包装袋时,Cracker Jack的成功得到了保障。

从一开始,奖品酒具有显著的创造性。哨子、手表、表链,甚至装有5便士的Cracker Jack储钱罐整合在一起——正好足够买下一盒。随着奖品数量达到千件,小孩都期待着每一盒新的里头都有一个新的惊喜。

在20世纪40年代塑料品盛行之前,持久性最长的奖品是用锡制造的——但最有趣的是用纸制作的。运动迷们可以收集一系列的篮球卡片,包括一张专为短期联邦联赛设计的卡片。精品剪纸中还有当合上时聚会有2寸长的印有“印度”头饰的卡片。其他的奖品刻有其他的一些肖像,例如孔赛勒杰克和他的狗,宾果,小吃的吉祥物。以Rueckheim的祖孙为原型,杰克在1918年首次亮相在商标上,他和宾果出现在每一盒Cracker Jack上直至今日。

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Shredded Wheat

One morning in 1892, a Nebraska hotel was serving breakfast when lawyer Henry Perky noticed a man eating a bowlful of boiled wheat and milk. "Helps my indigestion," the stranger explained. A fellow sufferer, Perky tried some himself — and so, legend has it, a cereal was born.

Back in his hometown of Denver, Perky built a machine that could shred moist wheat and fold the filaments into spongy, pillow-shaped biscuits. The biscuits tended to spoil quickly, but Perky found that baking preserved them. Believing the invention would make his fortune, Perky tried selling his machine but soon discovered that no one wanted equipment for an unknown product. Undaunted, he decided to sell the cereal itself, peddling the biscuits door-to-door from a wagon.

Searching for a national market, Perky traveled east with his cereal, and in 1901 built a bakery at Niagara Falls. The move was a marketing triumph. Thousands of tourists, still damp from the falls, visited the sparkling new plant and took home free samples. Before long, Shredded Wheat was a breakfast standard.

宝氏麦斯卷麦片

1892年的一个清晨,内布拉斯加州一家饭店正是提供早餐的时间,亨利佩基律师注意到一个正在吃一满勺煮熟的小麦和牛奶。“助我消化,”陌生人解释道。同在的佩基自己也尝了一点——一个麦片传奇由此诞生。

佩基回到了他位于丹佛的家,制造了一台可以把湿润的小麦切成细丝,又把细丝整合成海绵枕头状饼干的机器。饼干很快会变质,但是佩基发现烘烤之后就能保存得更长。坚信这项发明能给他带来财富的佩基尝试着去推销他的机器,但是很快发现没有人愿意买一台生产未知产品的机器。不屈不挠的佩基决定自己销售麦片,用四轮货车装着,挨家挨户得兜售饼干。

为了开拓海外市场,佩基带着他的谷物向东游历,1901年他在亚加拉瀑布开了一家面包店。这项举动是一次市场性的胜利。成千上万的从瀑布湿漉漉出来的旅客参观了全新的厂房,并带了样品回国。不久的之后,宝氏麦斯卷麦片成为了最基本的早餐。

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Animal Crackers

"If the kids can't go to the circus, bring the circus to the kids" seems to have been the idea behind the introduction of animal crackers in 1902. Although animal-shaped cookies had been around for a long time, it was the National Biscuit Company that took them out of bins and tins and put them into compact, colorful boxes. The string handle on each box was originally meant for hanging on a Christmas tree, but the crackers gained year-round popularity and have taken the form of 37 animals over the years. Up to 18 different beasts — produced at a rate of over half a million per hour — may inhabit each box, including the ever-popular lions, tigers, and bears, as well as crunchy hyenas, camels, and seals.

动物饼干

“如果孩子不愿意去马戏团,那么就把马戏团搬到孩子面前”好像已经是1902年发明的动物饼干发明背后的理念了。尽管动物形状的饼干已经风靡全球一段很长时间了,正是全国饼干公司把它们从桶罐里头拿出来,装进了压缩的彩盒里。装在每个盒子上的绳子原本是为了能方便挂在圣诞树上,但是饼干全年畅销,而且多年以来已经采用了37种动物形状。多达18种不同的动物——以每小时50多万的速率生产——可能出现在每一个盒子里,包括日益流行的狮子,老虎,熊,以及松脆的土狼,骆驼,和海豹。

9 <wbr>American <wbr>Food <wbr>Legends(美国九大食物品牌品牌故事)

Grape-Nuts

Charles W. Post, a traveling salesman and sometime venture capitalist, was among the many philosophical heirs of Sylvester Graham. Bedeviled by chronic digestive disorders and other health problems, Post tried a number of "cures" with little success. In 1884 he found his way to the Battle Creek Sanitarium, a widely touted health spa directed by John Harvey Kellogg, MD.

Patient Post endured a variety of treatments and some curious regimens at Kellogg's "San," including the Grahamite diet and instruction in the "Chewing Song," a ditty Kellogg had composed to encourage thorough mastication. But Post came away after nine months no stronger than when he had gone in. "Given up on by the doctors," as he would later claim, he took his troubles to a Battle Creek Christian Science practitioner. Within two days his appetite and strength returned.

Post was convinced he owed his recovery to a combination of natural foods and positive mental suggestion, and that there were untold marketing opportunities in such an approach. He opened his own spa and began experimenting with ways to prepare more palatable health foods. In 1895 he launched a bran, wheat, and molasses-based no-caffeine coffee substitute called Postum. Grape-Nuts, a gritty "scientific" formulation that had neither grapes nor nuts in its cereal mix, appeared in 1898. These were followed in 1906 by "Elijah's Manna," an earnest entry in the cornflakes sweepstakes, later rechristened Post Toasties.

Post's new products, marketed with some of the most persuasive advertising ever devised, brought him great wealth. But he never lost his conviction that "Sickness is man-made" and that people would choose a healthier way if only shown how. To this end he published The Road to Wellville, a prescriptive pamphlet that explained how to maximize health by consuming Post products — and thoughtfully enclosed a copy in every package.

粒状麦粉

旅行商人,同时也是风险投资家的C.W波斯特,是西尔维斯特格雷厄姆的许多哲学继承人中的一员。被慢性消化系统疾病的和其他健康问题困扰的波斯特尝试过许多次只有小小成效的治疗。1884年他找到了他通往巴特尔克里克疗养院的路,这是一个由约翰哈维凯洛格医师执管的非常有名的健康SPA中心。

在凯洛格的“San”, 病人波斯特经历了多种治疗及一些非常痛苦的疗程,包括包括Grahamite饮食疗法及“咀嚼歌”中的一些指示,“咀嚼歌”是凯洛格编的鼓励彻底咀嚼的一个小调.但是波斯特9个月之后出去时,并没有比他进来时强壮多少。“被医生们放弃了,”随后当他这么发出声明时,波斯特把他的麻烦带给了一个巴特尔克里克基督教科学实践者。两天之内,他的食欲与体力都恢复如前。

波斯特坚信他能康复得归功于天然食品的食用和积极的心理暗示的结合,而且这个方法有着数不尽的市场机会。他开了一家自己的SPA馆,并且开始进行多种途径的尝试以提供更美味的健康食品。1895年,他推出了一款用麦麸、小麦及糖蜜制成的无咖啡因咖啡代替品,命名为Postum(波斯敦)。粒状麦粉——一种既没有葡萄,也不在其谷物混合坚果的大胆的“科学”提法——诞生于1898年。1906年由认真的玉米彩票检查“以利亚的曼纳”延续,随后再度命名为波斯特烤面包。

波斯特的运用了有史以来最有说服力的广告打开市场的新产品给他带来了巨大财富。但是他从没有失去他的信仰“疾病是人为的”,和如果只是为了如何显摆,人们将选择一种更健康的方式。为此,他发表了“韦尔维尔之路”,一本解释了如利用波斯特产品最大限度增强健康的说明性小册子——并且考虑周到地在每个包装袋里都装有一册。

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