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Humanitarian and Development Procurement

(2010-08-23 15:44:04)
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Humanitarian and Development Procurement - A Vast and Growing Market
人道主义援助和发展援助中的采购——一个成长中的广阔市场

By Catherine Taupiac
International Trade Forum
凯瑟琳•桃琵亚克(国际贸易中心合作人)
国际贸易论坛
Throughout the world, international aid agencies implement development or relief assistance programmes aimed at fighting disease, reducing poverty, fostering economic and social development, promoting respect for human rights and protecting the environment. In doing so, they procure an estimated US$50 billion worth of goods and services from companies worldwide. Today, changing procurement trends by these agencies are opening up more opportunities for developing country enterprises.
为了对抗疾病、减少贫穷、促进经济和社会发展、鼓励尊重人权以及保护环境,国际援助机构在世界各地实施发展和救济援助计划。在具体的实施过程中,国际援助机构从世界各地的公司采购了大约价值500亿美元的商品和服务。如今,这些机构中正在变化的采购趋势将为发展中国家的企业开放更多机会。
Several important trends are shaping the way international aid agencies operate procurement. Firstly, the World Disasters Report of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies cites an overall decline in Official Development Assistance (ODA). This is forcing aid agencies to devise strategies to make shrinking budgets meet growing demands. Secondly, the development community’s emphasis is increasingly on supporting local “participatory” initiatives in order to bring about sustainable development. Finally, due to calls from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and institutions such as the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to end the policy of “aid tying”, donor government are reconsidering the practice.
一些重大趋势将影响国际援助机构进行采购的方式。首先,红十字和红新月会国际联盟的《世界灾难报告》指出,官方发展援助已全面下降。这迫使援助机构制定策略,缩减预算以满足日益增长的需求。其次, 发展团体的重点是增加对本地“参与”积极性的支持以实现可持续发展。最后,由于非政府组织和经济合作与发展组织等机构号召结束“援助的附带条件”政策,捐赠政府正在重新考虑这种做法。
The OECD defines “aid tying” as when “the procurement of the goods or services involved in ODA is limited to the donor country or to a group of countries”. The OECD says that untying [aid] in a multilateral context will align the aid business with the free trade principles of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement. As such, it will constitute an important step towards creating a level playing field for procurement.”
当官方发展援助中所涉及的货物和服务采购被限制在捐赠国和一部分国家中进行时,经济合作与发展组织就将其称为“援助的附带条件”。经济合作与发展组织指出在多国范围内进行的“无附带条件的援助”将把援助商业和世界贸易组织《政府采购协议》统一起来。同样地,它也向实现公平竞争迈出了重要的一步。
These three factors are pushing aid agencies to devise strategies that support broad-based cost-effective development objectives. An increasingly popular option is to procure goods and services locally in the regions where programmes are implemented, rather than importing them. In addition to reducing costs, buying locally in developing countries has development benefits: it strengthens the private sector, increases the skills and expertise of people and encourages regional trade.
这三大因素迫使援助机构制定出新的策略以支持一个包含广泛且节省成本的发展目标。一个越来越受欢迎的选择是在实施计划的那些地区内就地采购货物和服务,而不是进口货物和服务。除了减少成本以外,在发展中国家就地采购有许多发展益处:能巩固私营部门、加强人们的技能和专业技术以及促进地方贸易。
Aid procurement: two different markets 
援助采购:两个不同的市场
The market represented by procurement operations of international aid agencies can be divided into two segments: procurement for short-term relief or humanitarian operations and procurement for medium to long-term development assistance programmes. The segments share some common characteristics, but also have fundamental differences that suppliers should note.
因国际援助机构从事采购而提供的市场可以被划分为两个部分:为短期救济而从事的采购或者为中、长期发展援助计划而从事的人道主义行动和采购。供应商应该认识到:这两部分虽然有一些共同特征,但也还存在着一些根本性的不同。
In humanitarian relief operations, the primary emphasis in procurement is on speed and access. In order to save lives, this means delivering the goods to affected areas as quickly as possible. However, these areas are often difficult to reach and/or have security issues. A key concern for international aid agencies is supplying goods to remote areas while ensuring the security of both aid workers and beneficiaries. This issue is crucial in their procurement decisions.
在人道主义救济行动中,采购主要侧重于速度和获取商品。为了拯救生命,这意味着将物品尽可能快地运送到受疾病或灾难侵袭的地区。可是,这些地区通常难以到达或者存在着许多安全问题。国际援助机构最关心的是:向偏远地区提供物品,同时确保救援人员和接受援助的人的安全。这在国际援助机构的采购决议中是个至关重要的问题。
Although subject to competitive bidding, items procured for relief operations tend to be more expensive since quick delivery is the main concern. The goods most commonly procured are relatively simple in design. The generic specifications of such items have been identified by an inter-agency technical committee and are described in a compendium called “Emergency Relief Items” issued by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and its Inter-Agency Procurement Services Office (IAPSO).
虽然受制于具有竞争性的招标,但国际援助机构采购的救济物品价格往往更加昂贵,因为迅速运送是援助机构所关心的头等要事。援助机构采购的物品在设计上一般都很简单。这类物品的一般规格经过了机构间技术委员会的认定。并且,联合国开发计划署和其机构间采购服务办公室在纲领中将这类物品称作“紧急救济物品”。
The other market segment is development assistance programmes aimed at sustainable social and economic development. Working in more than 100 developing economies, the World Bank Group is the world’s largest source of development assistance. Its primary focus is helping the poorest people and the poorest countries in projects focused on basic health and education, social development, good governance, environmental protection and private business development. All projects are geared to creating a stable macroeconomic environment conducive to investment and long-term planning. According to the World Bank, 1.2 billion of the world’s six billion people live on less than US$ 1 per day. All development agencies have set goals to reduce and, where possible, to eradicate these inequities.
另外一部分市场是以可持续社会和经济发展为目的的发展援助计划。世界银行是全球最大的发展援助发起者,在100多个发展中经济中从事发展援助工作。其主旨是通过基本健康和基础教育、社会发展、良治、环境保护以及私人企业发展计划,帮助最贫穷的人民和最贫穷的国家。 所有的计划都适合于建立一个稳定且有益于投资和长期规划的整体经济环境。世界银行指出,世界60亿人口当中,有12亿日均生活费用低于1美元。所有的发展机构都制定出了目标,以减少和在可能的地方根除这些不公平。
Goods and services for development tend to be of a more sophisticated nature and can be delivered following normal lead times. This allows adequate time for bidding, tendering and evaluation.
Who are the buyers?
谁是采购者?
There are many players in the aid market; bilateral donors and regional banks are the most important. Other important buyers are international aid agencies, United Nations specialized agencies and international NGOs. In 2000, the UN system spent over US$3.7 billion on aid procurement, 75% of which was procured by ten agencies which have procurement offices in various countries.
援助市场有许多积极的采购者,双边捐赠者以及地方银行是最重要的采购者。其他重要的采购者是国际援助机构、联合国特别结构以及国际非政府组织。2000年,联合国在援助采购上所花费用超过了37亿美元,其中75%由不同国家的10个设有采购办公室的机构获得。
The volume of goods and services procured by the UN system is regularly increasing. For example, between 1996 and 2000, goods and services procured by the UN increased by an estimated 40%. Interestingly, the annual share of goods versus services procured remained stable, with goods procurement representing between 55% to 60% of all procurement expenditures during the period.
由联合国采购的商品和服务数量正在一天天地增加。例如,1996年到2000年间,联合国采购的商品和服务数量大约增加了40%。有趣的是,年均采购的商品和服务份额一直都很稳定,商品采购在这一时期的全部采购支出中占了55%—60%。
Other non-UN international aid agencies and NGOs such as OXFAM, Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE), Médecins sans Frontières and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) are also major buyers in the aid market. ICRC’s humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance. In 2000, to carry out its mission it procured approximately US$ 221.56 million worth of goods and services.
乐施会、世界救助组织、国际红十字委员会等联合国以外的其他国际援助机构和非政府组织也是援助市场中主要的采购者。红十字委员会的人道主义使命就是保护和维护战争和内乱中受害者的生命和尊严,并向他们提供援助。2000年,为了完成其使命,红十字委员会采购了价值大约为22.156亿美元的商品和服务。
What is being purchased?
采购的对象是什么?
As aid programmes expand in scope and coverage, the portfolio of items traded in the aid market has become more diversified and today includes a vast array of goods and services.
随着援助计划范围和覆盖区域的扩大,在援助市场上进行贸易的物品的类型开始变得更加多样化,如今包括了大批商品和服务。
Goods and services commonly procured by international aid agencies range from food-related items including grains, cereals and agricultural equipment, water supply and sanitation, shelter and domestic items, medical and transport equipment. All of these are required worldwide, but above all in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia.
国际援助机构采购的商品和服务通常包括:大米、小麦以及农业设备等与食品相关的物品、给水和卫生设施、住宿和日常用品、医疗和运输设备。世界各地都需要这些物品,但撒哈拉沙漠以南的非洲地区、中东、拉丁美洲以及亚洲尤其需要它们。
Some of these items are manufactured and available in developing countries. In 2000, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) procured one-third of its US$60million worth of goods and services from its regional procurement offices in South Africa and Kenya. From its regional logistics centre and various delegations in Africa, ICRC spent an estimated US$68million on procurement. More than half of the items were pharmaceuticals, tents, food and blankets.
这些物品中有一些是在发展中国家生产和采购的。2000年,联合国儿童基金会采购了价值达6000万美元的商品和服务,其中有1/3是由其在南非和肯尼亚的采购办事处就地采购的。联合国儿童基金会在非洲的地方后勤中心和各委托机构在采购上所支出的费用大约为6800万美元。所采购的物品中有一多半是药品、帐篷、食物和毯子。
ITC has identified various product and service sectors with potential for developing country suppliers. They include domestic and shelter items; small electric generator equipment; water supply and sanitation items; agriculture products and food; and services.
美国国际贸易委员会把各个产品和服务部门看作是潜在的发展中国家供应者。它们包括:住宿和日常用品、小型电动机设备、给水和卫生设备、农产品和食物、以及服务。
In some cases, the agencies are looking for large quantities of blankets, mosquito nets and impregnated bed nets, edible oils, grains, dried vegetables, canned goods and non-perishable food items, as well as plastic pipes, storage tanks and basic hand-pumps. Most of these items are available from developing country enterprises.
有时,这些援助机构将购买大量的毯子、蚊帐、食用油、大米、干菜、罐头、不易腐烂变质的食品、塑料管子、储藏罐、气筒等等。这些物品中大多数都是从发展中国家的企业中购得的。
Buyer concerns 
采购者关心的问题
Procurement by international aid organizations is no different than procurement by private enterprises. All buyers want the best possible value at a reasonable price. Price considerations involve additional aspects that take into account the initial purchase price, maintenance, quality, deadlines and delivery conditions.
国际援助机构的采购与私营企业的采购没有什么不同。所有的采购者都想以合理的价格得到尽可能好的商品。针对价格需要考虑的事情涉及最初的采购价格、维修、质量、截止日期以及运送条件等其他方面。
Quality
质量
The quality of the goods acquired is of paramount importance to all agencies, each of them procuring items based on their own technical specifications to which suppliers must adhere.
被采购商品的质量对所有的机构来说都是极为重要的。这些机构所采购的每一个物品都是以它们自己的技术规范为基础的,供应商必须遵守这些规范。
The international aid agencies have quality concerns similar to most buyers in the private sector. Particularly for sensitive items such as drugs, they follow strict quality assurance guidelines, to which suppliers must conform.
国际援助机构对质量的关注与私营部门的大多数采购者并无两样。尤其是对于那些如麻醉药等较为敏感的物品,它们遵循着严格的质量保证方针,供应商必须遵守。
Examples of some quality requirements include:
这里有一些有关质量要求的例子:
• Suppliers must demonstrate a proven record of competence, knowledge and expertise in manufacturing and exporting the required goods.
供应商必须提供在生产和出口所要求货物的能力、知识以及技术方面的证明材料
• Suppliers must conform to good manufacturing practices and to internationally recognized quality standards.
供应商的生产必须符合规定,并达到国际质量认证标准。
• Inspection of samples and trial orders of small quantities might be used with suppliers for whom there is no previous purchasing record.
必须对那些过去没有采购记录的供应商进行样品检查和小部分订购试验。
• In some cases, both product packaging and labelling might have to be analysed by the agency’s laboratories and quality assurance staff.
在特定情况下,产品包装和标签必须由机构实验室和质检人员验证。
• In some cases, agencies might ask to carry out audits at the supplier’s premises.
在特定情况下,机构可能要求对供应商进行查帐。
International aid agencies also base procurement decisions on ethical and environmental considerations. Contracts are not awarded to any company which uses child labour; is connected with weapons manufacturing; or is accused of environmental abuses.
国际援助机构还将采购决定建立在对道德和环境的考虑基础之上,不与任何使用童工、与武器制造有关系、或被指控污染环境的公司签定合同。
Logistical concerns 
需要考虑的后勤事项
Logistical issues are carefully considered when procuring goods and services. Agencies will investigate the processes involved in importing, clearing, transporting and despatching the goods. This is particularly important since these agencies often work in remote and unsafe areas. If the transport infrastructure is poor, agencies will be concerned about the time required to deliver the goods to the appropriate location. Generally, in emergency situations, they will be looking to procure from companies with an appropriate amount of stock, which is easily accessible in a very short period of time.
在采购商品和服务的时候,后勤问题得到了慎重地考虑。国际援助机构将对这些货物的进口、出售、运输以及分发过程进行调查。这尤其重要,因为这些机构经常在偏远和不安全地区工作。如果运输的基础设备简陋,国际援助机构会对要求运送货物到指定地点的时间表示担忧。通常,在经济环境中,国际援助机构将向那些有大量存货的公司采购商品,从而能在非常短的时间内容易地获得商品。
Tendering procedures
投标程序
Unlike private businesses, most agencies are publicly funded and are required to provide equal opportunities to all firms interested in bidding and to follow a number of specific procedures guaranteeing competition, fairness, integrity and transparency.
与私营企业不同,大多数机构都是由公众建立,这就要求它们向所有对招标感兴趣的公司提供平等的机会,并且要求它们要遵循许多保证竞争、公平、公正、透明的特定程序。
The normal tendering procedures followed by agencies depend on the total value of the purchase. Different levels of expenditure require a different set of procedures. The rules for the UN system are as follows, but with variations in amounts between agencies:
这些机构所遵循的正规的投标程序是有购买总价值决定的。开支的水平不同,所需要的程序也不同。联合国的规定如下,但机构之间的数量并不相同:
1. In most cases, for procurement under US$ 30,000, the procurement officer selects three suppliers and awards the contract to the lowest bidder.
一、 大多数情况下,对价值在3万美元以下的采购来说,采购官员选择3个供应商,与出价最低的供应商签定合同。
2. For orders ranging from US$30,000 to US$100,000, a pre-selected shortlist of suppliers is invited to provide sealed bids. The shortlist consists of suppliers from developing countries, including the recipient country; under utilized donor countries and other donor countries.
二、 对价值在3万美元到10万美元之间的订购来说,首先选出参加竞标的供应商的名单。该名单由发展中国家的供应商构成,其中包括接受援助的国家、其捐赠物用以竞标的国家以及其他捐赠国家。
3. If the contract is worth more than US$100,000, international competitive bidding applies. An international call for tenders is published in the UN publication Development Business, in IAPSO’s Business Opportunities or by advertising in other trade publications.
三、 如果合同价值超过10万美元,将申请国际性竞争招标。联合国《发展商业》、联合国机构采购服务处《商业机会》以及其他贸易刊物将对招标进行公布,并在国际上号召竞标者。
After the bids are received and assessed, contracts are awarded based on several criteria:
当投标获得了承认和得到了估价以后,将以以下一些标准为基础签定合同:
• Respect for submission deadlines.
遵守所提出的最终期限
• Compliance with the specifications in the call for tenders.
服从投标中公布的规范
• Price quoted.
报价
• Technical quality of the product proposed.
被提议产品的技术质量
• Acceptance of the delivery deadlines and commercial/financial terms and conditions.
接受运送最终期限以及商业、金融条款和条件
There are times when the agencies cannot use normal tendering procedures. These include special conditions such as natural disasters when providing assistance and goods in a timely manner is crucial. Additional details on UN organization procurement rules, ranging from sourcing activities to executing the procurement contract, can be found on the IAPSO web site under “Supplying the UN”, “General Business Guide”, “Additional Information” and “Common Guidelines for Procurement by Organi-zations in the UN system”.
有时,国际援助机构不能使用正规的投标程序。这包括了一些特殊情况,例如:自然灾害发生的时候,及时地提供援助和货物至关重要。在联合国组织采购规定中,从发起采购到签定采购合同的其他一些细节可以在联合国机构采购服务出网站的“供应联合国”、“综合交易方针”、“额外信息”、以及“联合国体系内各组织采购的共同纲领”栏目内找到。
Major NGOs providing aid and humanitarian assistance also generally follow competitive bidding procedures. They have set up their own purchasing conditions and have established various control systems for all their procurement operations.
大多数提供援助和人道援助的非政府组织通常也遵守竞争性招标程序。它们已经提出了它们自己的购买条件并且已经为它们所有的采购行为建立了不同的控制系统。
Who are the suppliers?
谁是供应商?
Companies which sell to international agencies also tend to supply other markets such as the transport, medicine and food sectors. UN agency annual reports often list the names of suppliers awarded contracts over US$100,000. The lists show that these companies are predominantly multinational enterprises able to supply large quantities of the goods required. Some of them have offices in the countries where agencies operate.
向国际机构出售产品的公司往往也向其他市场供应产品,例如:运输、药品以及食品部门。联合国机构一年一次的报告经常要列举出所签定合同价值超过10万美元的供应商。该列表显示这些公司中,能供应所需要的大量商品的跨国公司占了主导地位。这些跨国公司在国际机构进行实际操作的许多国家都设立了办事处。
Names of enterprises which sell to international aid agencies can be found on the rosters of pre-qualified companies of individual agencies. Many agencies manage these rosters at headquarter and country levels, making it difficult for smaller firms to enter the aid business. To address this problem, 12 UN organizations created the Common Supplier Database (UNCSD) to act as a window for the business community to register with the UN system. There are now about 18,000 companies listed.
向国际援助机构出售产品的企业名称能在各机构的合格公司名单上找到。许多机构在总部和国家水平上管理这些名单,使得一些较小的公司难以金融援助商业。为了解决这个问题,12个联合国组织建立了公共供应商数据库,以此作为商业团体登陆注册联合国体系的窗口。现在,有18000家公司都被列入了公共供应商数据库。
Statistics show that the majority of international aid agencies buy items from developed countries. IAPSO reports that the total value of UN procurement from economies in transition and developing countries represented 36.3% in 2000, down from 44.8% in 1996.
数据显示大多数国际援助机构都从发展中国家购买物品。联合国机构采购服务处报告说,2000年,联合国从转型经济和发展中国家的收购总价值是总收购价值的36.3%,与1996年的44.8%相比有所下降。
Encouraging procurement from developing country firms
鼓励从发展中国家公司的收购
International aid agencies are aware of the decreasing share of goods and services procured from developing countries and are committed to addressing the issue. Some have introduced specific measures to encourage participation of developing country enterprises. For example, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the World Bank allow for a 15% price preference for local suppliers. This preferential margin often turns the tender in favour of the local bidder.
国际援助机构意识到了从发展中国家收购商品和服务份额的下降,并许诺要解决这个问题。有的机构提出了特殊的措施鼓励发展中国家企业的参与。例如,联合国高级难民事务专员办事处和世界银行给予了地方供应商15%的价格优惠。这种优惠经常使得投标更加利于地方竞标者。
Most agencies are instituting other practical measures and systems to foster local procurement. The World Health Organization (WHO) requests its project teams to source locally; UNHCR trains local buyers to identify domestic sources and the World Food Programme (WFP) organizes workshops to build awareness on the importance of procurement and has appointed developing country nationals to work in procurement divisions at its headquarters in Rome.
大多数机构正在建立其他一些实际措施和体制以促进地方采购。世界卫生组织要求实施其计划的团队就地获取资源;联合国难民事务高级专员培养地方采购者以确定国内资源;世界粮食计划署把工场组织起来以建立它们对采购重要性的认识,同时,其在罗马的总部为发展中国家指派了采购分部。
Conclusion
总结
Goods and services procured by humanitarian or development agencies represent exciting business opportunities for enterprises worldwide, including developing country enterprises. Products such as household items, agricultural products, small electric generator equipment and water supply and sanitation items offer good potential. However, developing country enterprises have to make serious efforts to capture part of that market. As described in the various articles of this magazine, when a company sets out to develop specific strategies for that purpose, it should be particularly cautious in understanding and addressing buyers’ concerns and quantitative and qualitative requirements. Through its various activities, ITC is working on both assisting developing countries enterprises to better understand those issues, as well as on further exposing buyers in the aid market to the supply potential of developing countries.
人道主义或发展机构所采购的商品和服务为包括发展中国家企业在内的全球企业提供了令人振奋的商机,家庭用品、农业产品、小型电动设备以及给水和卫生设备等产品提供了巨大的潜力。但是,发展中国家的企业必须付出巨大努力以抓住这块市场。正如这本杂志中的许多文章所形容的那样,当一个公司以此为目的开始开发特殊策略的时候,这个公司就应该在理解和解决采购者所担心的事情以及满足采购者数量和质量要求上特别谨慎小心。通过它的各种行动,美国国际贸易委员会正致力于帮助发展中国家更好地理解这些问题、在针对发展中国家供应潜力的援助市场上进一步吸引采购者。
As part of its South-South trade promotion programme, ITC has launched an initiative which aims to strengthen Africa’s private sector by increasing the market share of its enterprises in providing goods and services to international aid agencies. The initiative fosters links between international aid agencies which provide assistance to Africa and export-ready African enterprises which produce goods and services that could be procured by the agencies.
作为南—南贸易促进计划的一部分,美国国际贸易委员会已经发起动议,旨在通过增加其向国际援助机构提供商品和服务的企业市场份额。该动议促进了向非洲提供援助和作好了出口准备的非洲企业之间的联系,这些非洲企业通常能生产为这些机构所采购的商品和服务。

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