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线性工作流程-全程详解(一)

(2012-07-30 11:58:53)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 教程
原文出处:http://ghostxx.com/details?id=2554&page=1

By Daniel Dye

作者:Daniel Dye

Software used使用软甲:

3ds Max, V-Ray, mental ray, 等等。

 翻译by:ghostxx.com

线性工作流程 
 

I have seen quite a lot of confusion surrounding linear workflow and 3ds Max. This is understandable, as there are many guides online, some with conflicting information. Another confusing stage is how to composite these renders correctly. That is why I have written this guide. I hope it will explain everything you need to know in order to work in a full linear workflow.

我看过很多混乱的3dsmax中线性工作流程使用方法。这是可以理解的,因为网上有许多关于这个的指南,一些信息是矛盾的。另一个令人困惑的过程是如何让这些渲染者正确地改正这些错误的方法。这就是为什么我写了这篇指南。我希望它能解释一切:你如何工作在一个完整的线性工作流程。
 



 

For a fantastic technical breakdown on what a linear workflow actually is and why you should care, read this article by Max Attivo here:

对于一个奇妙的技术误解,一个线性工作流程实际上是什么,应该关注什么,请先看看这篇由Max Attivo 写的文章:

http://maxattivo.blogspot.com.au/2011/07/what-is-gamma-correction-in-image.html

翻译by:ghostxx.com

Why use a linear workflow?

为什么要使用线性流程?

Using a linear workflow results in images that better match how the human eye perceives the world.

使用一个线性工作流程的图像,能更好地满足人类眼睛感知世界。
 

Essentially, using a linear workflow makes it possible to have a more realistic output.

本质上,使用一个线性工作流程,使它可能有一个更为真实的输出。
 

As an added benefit in some cases, using a linear workflow can reduce calculations needed for rendering, therefore speeding up your render time.

另一个好处是在某些情况下,使用一个线性工作流程可以减少渲染计算所需的时间,因此加快你的渲染时间。
 

This is accomplished by more accurately displaying light falloff and travel distance, meaning you may not have to increase GI samples or depth to get correct illumination.

这可以通过更精确地显示光衰减和跟踪的距离,这意味着你可能不需要增加GI采样或深度来获得正确的照明。
 



 

So that all sounds great, but how do you do it?

听起来不错,但是应该怎么做呢?

翻译by:ghostxx.com



 

Part 1: Setting up 3ds Max

第1部分:设置3ds Max
 

Recommended Gamma and LUT Settings (found under Customize > Preferences- > Gamma and LUT) can be seen in Fig.01. Here's a breakdown of the settings:

建议伽马和 LUT 设置(设置路径:max菜单 Customize > Preferences- > Gamma and LUT)中可以看到Fig.01。这是一个硬核设置(系统设置):
 

1.Enable Gamma/LUT Correction: Enabled

1.打开Gamma/LUT 矫正。

. This tick box tells 3ds Max to use the Gamma Correction. To work with a correct linear workflow, we want this activated.

这个开关是用来告诉MAX使用Gamma Correction。为了正确地工作在线性流程,我们要开启它。


 

2.Gamma: 2.2

2.Gamma: 2.2

This is the display Gamma. It tells 3ds Max what gamma to display for your viewport and in the Render Frame Buffer.

这是显示伽马。它告诉3dsmax在显示窗口和渲染窗口显示你设置的gamma值。
 

You could leave this at 1.0, but by making sure it is set to 2.2, you enable gamma correction as a preview only.

你可以把这个值设置为1不变,但是这里当我们要设置成2.2,你就可以在预览视窗里得到正确的gamma显示。

 In other words, setting this to 2.2 doesn't affect render output. When you save your files, they will still be Gamma 1.0, but you are more easily able to understand what the final color corrected output will look like (Fig.02a – 02b).

换句话说,将这个选项设置为2.2并不影响渲染输出。当您保存文件,他们会仍然是伽马1.0,但是你能够很容易的了解最终的color corrected 输出看起来会像什么样子(Fig.02a - 02 b)。

翻译by:ghostxx.com


gamma1.0

Fig.02a – Gamma: 1.0. This shows the gamma of the final output when everything else is set up properly, but can make choosing and adjusting colors and tones difficult.
Fig.02a – Gamma: 1.0. 这显示了伽马1.1的最终输出的效果当其它所有一切都正确设置,但是结果是选择和调整颜色和色调都比较困难。
 
 
 


 

 


Gamma: 2.2

Fig.02b – Gamma: 2.2. This shows how your final output will look when corrected to a gamma of 2.2, when everything else is also set up correctly. Essentially, this means what you see is what you get.
Fig.02b – Gamma: 2.2. 这展示了你将gamma修正至2.2的时候,其他一切设置都和之前一样。从本质上讲,这意味着你看见的就是你得到的。
 
 
 
 


3. Affect Color Selector and Affect Material Editor: Enabled. When both of these options are enabled, the Gamma setting affects the display of colors on the standard 3ds Max Color Selector, the Object Color dialog and in the Material Editor. This means when selecting colors and viewing materials they will match the final output when it has been corrected to a gamma of 2.2 (Fig.03a – 03d).

3。Affect Color Selector 和 Affect Material Editor:启用。当这两个选项启用,伽马设置影响3dsmax的颜色选择器显示的颜色,物体的颜色,和材质编辑器的颜色显示。这意味着颜色选择器和材质浏览器中显示的结果将与最终的输出相一致,都是2.2(Fig.03a - 03 d)。

翻译by:ghostxx.com


color selector  

Fig.03a – Affect Color Selector: Disabled. Colors are displayed with a gamma of 1.0. This means any color you choose will be brighter than expected when rendered and gamma corrected to 2.2.

Fig.03a – Affect Color Selector: 关闭。这颜色按照gamma1.0显示。这意味着任何你选择的颜色都将比预期更明亮当伽玛纠正到2.2的时候。
 

 

 


gamma of 2.2

Fig.03b – Affect Color Selector: Enabled. Colors are displayed with a gamma of 2.2. This means the colors you select will match the colors in the final render when gamma corrected to 2.2.
Fig.03b – Affect Color Selector: 开启.颜色按照2.2的伽马显示,这意味着当你最后用伽马2.2渲染图片的时候你调节的颜色和渲染出来的颜色将是一致的。
 
 
 


伽马1.0

Fig.03c – Affect Material Editor: Disabled. Materials are displayed as Gamma 1.0, which makes correctly changing parameters difficult.
Fig.03c – Affect Material Editor: 关闭.材质按照伽马1.0的标准显示,这让你在调节材质参数的时候很困难。
 
 


伽马2.2

Fig.03d – Affect Material Editor: Enabled. Materials are displayed as Gamma 2.2, correctly showing how the material will look once your final output is corrected to 2.2 Gamma.
Fig.03d – Affect Material Editor: 开启.材质按照伽马2.2的标准显示,正确地显示了当你设置最终输出时伽马位2.2的时候材质的颜色。

翻译by:ghostxx.com
 

4.Input Gamma: 2.2

Tells 3ds Max what gamma is already applied to images you are importing (such as texture maps).

告诉max你的材质和贴图使用说明什么样的伽马值。

If you leave it on 1.0 you have to override the gamma for every diffuse image when loading the images through Bitmap, but it's much less work to set Input Gamma to 2.2 and only have to change normal, displacement, bump and HDR images to a gamma of 1.0 on import.

如果你把Input Gamma保持在1.0,当你通过BITMAP加载图像时,你需要把所有的图像的伽马属性调整成2.2,但是现在设置输入伽马到2.2工作量就小多了,只需要改变法线贴图、置换贴图、凹凸贴图和HDR图像的伽马为1.0就可以了。
 

 

Do keep in mind though that some formats such as TGA may have gamma settings that 3ds Max will read on import (Fig.04a – 04c).

记住,做一些格式如TGA可能内置了伽马设置,3dsmax调用这类图片的时候可能会调用图片的伽马值(Fig.04a - 04 c)。

翻译by:ghostxx.com
 

 

 



1552_tid_fig04a.jpg

Fig.04a – Input Gamma: 1.0. 3ds Max assumes the gamma of the original imported image is 1.0, so applies a gamma of 2.2 unless you manually override the gamma to 2.2 on each texture you import. This results in an incorrect "double gamma” effect. The render on the right was done using Input Gamma: 1.0 and the resulting render (which has 1.0 gamma) was gamma corrected to 2.2 for final output. As you can see, this results in bright, washed-out textures.

 
Fig.04a -输入伽马:1.0。 3dsmax默认假设调入的伽玛值是1.0,因此应用一个伽马的2.2时,除非你载入图片时手动覆盖每张图片的伽马到2.2。这就导致了一个不正确的“双伽马”效应。如图的渲染使用输入了Gamma:1.0但是最终最终输出被校准到了2.0。如您所见,这个结果是材质过亮,颜色饱和度低。
 
 
 
 


1552_tid_fig04b.jpg
Fig.04b – Input Gamma: 2.2. This tells 3ds Max that the imported images have a gamma of 2.2, so no correction is done for the preview (because of our other settings telling 3ds Max to display with a gamma of 2.2). Behind the scenes though, 3ds Max is changing the gamma to 1.0 to allow for correct rendering. The render on the right was done using Input Gamma: 2.2 and the resulting render (which has 1.0 gamma) was gamma corrected to 2.2 for final output. This results in a correct render.
 
Fig.04b -输入伽马:2.2。 这告诉3dsmax导入图片的伽马为2.2,所以预览时不需要修正(因为我们的其他设置已经告诉3dsmax伽马为2.2)。但在后台,3dsmax仍然改变伽马到1.0为了正确地渲染。如图的渲染使用Input Gamma:2.2由此产生的渲染最终输出时矫正到2.2。这将生成一个正确的渲染结果。
 
翻译by:ghostxx.com
 


 
 


1552_tid_fig04c.jpg

Fig.04c – Here is a close up, split screen of the two renders above. Input Gamma: 1.0 on the left and Input Gamma: 2.2 on the right, both rendered with a 1.0 gamma and then gamma corrected to 2.2 for final output. You can see the brightness and contrast differences in the textures. This can be more evident depending on the texture.
 
Fig.04c——这是一个特写对比,拆分了以上2次的渲染结果。左边是输入伽马1.0,右边是输入伽马2.2,都呈用1.0伽马渲染然后伽玛纠正到2.2的最终输出。你可以看到不同的亮度和对比度的纹理。这在贴图上更为明显。
 
 


 

5.Output Gamma: 1.0

5.输出伽马:1.0

This tells 3ds Max to save the rendered image with a gamma of 1.0. By doing this, we will have access to the full tonal range during compositing (Fig.05a – 05b).

这告诉3dsmax用伽马1.0保存渲染后的图像。通过这样做,我们将可以在后期合成阶段拥有完整的色调范围可以调节(Fig.05a - 05 b)。


 



Output Gamma: 2.2

Fig.05a – Output Gamma: 2.2. This is the render exactly as it is saved out, without any gamma correction. While this image is correct, gamma 2.2 has been baked in which will limit us with tonal range when it comes to compositing.
Fig.05a -输出伽马:2.2。 这是直接渲染保存的,没有任何伽马校正。这幅图像是正确的,伽马2.2已经内置在这图像里,这将限制我们的色调范围在合成阶段。
 
 
 


Output Gamma: 1.0

Fig.05b – Output Gamma: 1.0. This is the render exactly as it is saved out, without any gamma correction. Although it looks strange, this is the result we want. It will be gamma corrected to 2.2 for final output.
Fig.05b -输出伽马:1.0。 这是直接渲染保存的,没有任何伽马校正。虽然它看起来很怪,这是我们想要的结果。它将被伽马校正到2.2作为最终输出。
 

翻译by:ghostxx.com
 

By completing the steps above, we have told 3ds Max to display everything with a gamma of 2.2, but saved the rendered output to disk as Linear.

通过完成以上步骤,我们已经告诉3dsmax中一切调整到伽马2.2,但是渲染输出保存到磁盘的图片是线性的。
 



 

A quick note about Output Gamma: The steps I have outlined assume you are rendering out to a high bit format (explained later in this tutorial). For the best flexibility, you want the most tonal range you can which is why you save out with a gamma of 1.0. If you don't need to do any compositing or color correction, you could set Output Gamma to 2.2. As shown above, the render will look as expected. This could change per project depending on the required output, but I find it easiest to set to 1.0 for everything, and keep my workflow consistent.

一个简短的对于输出伽马的说明:我所描述的步骤建立在假定您正在渲染高位数的图片格式(在这个教程的后面解释这点)。为了得到最好的灵活性,最广的色彩范围,这就是为什么你要保存和伽马1.0。如果你不需要做任何合成或颜色校正,你可以设置输出伽马至2.2。如上所示,呈现看起来会像预期。这可能会改变每个项目取决于所需的输出,但是我觉得最好设置为1.0,让我的工作流程一致。
 



Important/要点:

Because we have told 3ds Max that all textures have a gamma of 2.2, when importing Normal Bump, Displacement or Vector Displacement maps you must specify a gamma of 1.0.

因为我们已经告诉过3dsmax中所有贴图纹理都是伽马2.2,在导入法线贴图,置换贴图或向量置换贴图你必须指定伽马为1.0。
 

 

The reason for this is that these images are based purely on data. This could vary though, depending on how you are generating the maps and what formats they are saved into, so I do recommend trying both manually setting gamma to 1.0 on import and letting 3ds Max assume a gamma of 2.2.

这样做的原因是,这些图像是完全基于本身的gamma。这可能有所不同,不过,这取决于你如何生成这些图片的和你保存的什么格式,所以我推荐导入图片时手动设置伽马到1.0,然后让3dsmax设定伽马为2.2。
 

 

Though you will only need to test this if you are getting unexpected results. In most cases, setting gamma to 1.0 for these types of images is the standard. You can do this directly from the Open window when importing a texture. Just check Override Gamma and make sure it is set to 1.0 (Fig.06).

但是你需要做个测试,如果你在工作中得到了意想不到的效果。在大多数情况下,设置伽马到1.0这些类型的图像是标准的。你可以直接从开着的窗户在导入一个纹理。只是检查覆盖伽马,确保它被设置为1.0(Fig.06)。

1552_tid_fig06.jpg
Fig.06


 

Now 3ds Max knows exactly what to do with our images and renders. But what about our chosen render engine? Does it know how to interpret everything and how we want to save it? Let's check it out!

现在3dsmax彻底知道渲染我们的图片时需要做什么了。但是我们选择的渲染引擎呢?它是否知道如何解释一切,我们要如何设置它?让我们看看!

翻译by:ghostxx.com
 



 

Part 2: Setting up your Render Engine

第2部分:设置渲染引擎


 

Scanline and mental ray

扫描线和mental ray

By default, there is nothing you will have to change for these render engine, unless you are using exposure controls.

默认情况下,没有什么是你将必须改变的当你使用这些渲染引擎的时候,除非你使用了曝光控制。
 



 

V-Ray

To utilize a linear workflow in V-Ray, you will need to change some settings in the V-Ray Color Mapping rollout in the Render Settings (Fig.07):

利用V-Ray渲染使用线性工作流程时,您将需要更改一些设置在V-Ray Color Mapping参数栏里(Fig.07):
 



 

Type: Linear multiply

类型:Linear multiply/线性曝光

as it is truly linear. You can read up on the alternatives here:

这是真正的线性,你可以读读这里的解释:

http://renderstuff.com/best-vray-settings-antialiasing-and-color-mapping-cg-tutorial/#VRay_Color_mapping_rollout

 

翻译by:ghostxx.com
 

 

Clamp Output: Disabled

钳制输出:禁止

 

when saving to a 32-bit file, as clamping the render means you will lose information. This can cause artifacts though in certain situations, so keep an eye out for this.

在保存到一个32位的图片文件时,如果开启钳制输出意味着你将失去一些图片信息。这可能会导致瑕疵在某些情况下,所以注意这点。
 


 

Gamma: 2.2

伽马:2.2

This tells V-Ray to calculate everything for an eventual output to a gamma of 2.2. If it was left at 1.0, you could end up with artifacts from things like GI and antialiasing.

这告诉V-Ray一切计算都建立在伽马2.2的基础上。如果它被设置在1.0,那么最终GI和抗锯齿之类将会不理想。
 


 

Don't affect colors (adaptation only): Enabled

不影响颜色:启用
 

Tells V-Ray that the Gamma: 2.2 we just set is only to be used for calculations, and to not apply it to the final render.

告诉V-Ray伽马:2.2我们将只用于计算,并不把它应用到最后的渲染。
 


 

Linear workflow: Disabled

线性流程:关闭

 

Do not  tick the Linear workflow box. Although it sounds like exactly what we want, it is actually an old, brute-force method of converting a scene, and isn't appropriate here.

不要勾选线性工作流程的选项。虽然这听起来像是我们所想要的,它实际上是一个古老的、强大的转换整个场景的方法,不合适在这里使用。

 

1552_tid_fig07.jpg
Fig.07

翻译by:ghostxx.com
 


 

A note about the V-Ray Frame Buffer: The V-Ray Frame Buffer doesn't take into account the Gamma and LUT display settings in the 3ds Max preferences. To enable correct previewing, you have to turn on the sRGB button on the bottom toolbar of the V-Ray Frame Buffer.

关于V-Ray帧缓存:V-Ray帧缓存没有考虑到在3dsmax偏好设置里Gamma和LUT的设置。为了得到正确的预览,您必须在V-Ray帧缓冲区打开底部的工具栏上的sRGB按钮。


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