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[转载]什么是冥想(之四)/ What is Maditation?

(2010-08-06 21:29:05)
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[转载]什么是冥想(之四)/ <wbr>What <wbr>is <wbr>Maditation?
2007年3月25日摄于山地瑜伽长城营地伽

什么是冥想(之四)
作者: Swami Sannyasananda Saraswati (Australia)*
翻译:沙金
(国外瑜伽资料, 仅供参考)

意识的类型Modes of consciousness

对于觉知能力,据称涉及且需要两个完全不同、相互独立的由同时存在的(外在和内在)功能构成的意识模式。斯伯瑞(Sperry)通过对裂脑人的研究认为在他们同一个头颅内可能存在这样的有共同意识的两个意识个体。他发现胼胝体(左右大脑相连的神经纤维)切除术病人仍然保持有高度清晰的意识功能,他们的哑吧右脑半球几乎拥有与负责语言的左半球差不多的内在体验能力。虽然利用不同的认知实验方法,受实验者在质量、方法、和认知机能等方面都有不同程度的体验。结果是右侧大脑“知道”却“说不出来:,而左侧大脑可以“说出来”却不知道(虽然它自认为它知道)。
There are also two distinctly separate modes of awareness thought to be comprised of simultaneously existing functional modes (outer and inner) that are involved in and are necessary for perception. Sperry (1984) considered whether split-brain patients possess these two separately co-conscious selves sharing the one cranium. He found that both hemispheres in commissurotomy patients (those who had the corpus callosum in their brain cut out, often to stop uncontrollable epileptic seizures migrating from one side of the brain to the other) still retain high levels of distinct mental functioning with the mute right hemisphere having an inner experience of much the same order as the speaking left hemisphere. The experience differs in quality, process and cognitive faculties, however, despite utilising different cognitive strategies to do so. The right side ‘knows’ but cannot ‘speak’, while the left can ‘speak’ but does not ‘know’ (it just thinks it knows).

内省和冥想使我们有机会通过让意识向内去探索意识自身的本质。超觉静坐和曼陀罗冥想都是利用意念中的声音或“曼陀罗”来占据通常更强大更具主导作用的有意识活动,从而让更柔和更被动的潜意识浮现出来告诉我们它的秘密。我们的有意识大脑的分析能力如此之强并常常沉浸在维持其自己的认知状态,以至于它看不到幻像背后的真实即它就是为了让我们生活的这个物质世界具有意义而为自己制造的。我们每个醒着的时刻都在关注由无尽的思绪和行动所占据的现实世界,但越来越多的生命中细微的东西却变得不受重视和被忽略了。
The process of contemplation and meditation then allows us to explore the nature and substance of consciousness itself by turning consciousness inward upon itself. TM and mantra meditation tends to occupy the generally stronger and more dominant conscious mind with a mental sound or ‘mantra’ so that the gentler and more passive subconscious mind can unfold and give up its secrets. The conscious mind is so strong in analytical powers and so often absorbed in maintaining the cognitive status quo that it cannot see behind the veil of illusion that it builds for itself in order to make sense of this material world we live in. The more subtle things in life go unnoticed or overlooked in favour of an established reality that is re-created and sustained by endless thoughts and actions each waking day.

意识在西方的思维里通常表示大脑的一种状态或大脑的活动,所以它的存在只不过是以某种方式发挥作用或处于某种状态而已。一个人或者是清醒的或者就是不清醒的,或者有意识或者无意识。然而在东方的思想里,意识具有自主的自我存在的个体或形式的特点,是自发光的、透明的。超个人经验便不必再是幻觉而是确凿的对人类意识本质的深刻理解。冥想成为自我旁观的过程,无论这样的旁观是以来去匆匆的若干堂课程的方式,还是以长期稳定练习的方式,当然真正的效果来源于长时间的不断增加和拓展意识的修炼。
Consciousness in Western thought generally signifies a state of the mind or brain activity and as such appears in the world only when the mind is functioning in a certain way or is in a certain state. A person is either conscious or unconscious and consciousness is either there or not there. In Eastern thought, however, consciousness constitutes a self-existent and autonomous principle of awareness itself as an entity or form that is self-luminous and self-transparent. Transpersonal experiences, rather than necessarily being illusory, can thus be valid insights into the nature of human consciousness. Meditation is the process of self witnessing, whether simply on a session by session basis that comes and goes or on a more stable and permanent basis that can only come from an increased and expanded awareness over time and with practice.

 

瑜伽Yoga

瑜伽是一门繁杂而充满细节的科学,充满了理论上的和哲学上的内容以及实践中的身体练习方法,使人对自我的真实本性变得更具意识。瑜伽为拓展意识的过程提供了基础。作为瑜伽基础的吠檀多哲学将意识-身体互动视为不可分割的一个整体,而人的意识和身体只不过是一个潜在的超越一切和联结一切的意识结构的幻觉显示。“超然”暗示着一个无法通过智力理解的属于直觉的领域,它只能是“当下”(或“存在”)
Yoga is an intricately detailed science that expounds both in theoretical and philosophical detail, and also in practical, physical methods, ways in which a person can become more aware of the true nature of the self. Yoga provides the groundwork and the basis for beginning the process of expanding awareness. The Vedantic philosophy upon which yogic science is based treats the mind-body dynamic as an inseparable whole where the mental and the physical are regarded as illusory reflections of an implicit, transcendent, structural unity of consciousness binding all that exists. Transcendence implies an intuitive realm that cannot be known intellectually, but can only ‘be’ (Paranjpe 1985; Castillo 1985).

东方的瑜伽世界观也得到了量子理论和粒子物理学的支持:“灵魂是思想,它的出现使人拥有生命而它的缺失则使生机勃勃的东西变得死气沉沉。。。虽然灵魂的出现是有迹可寻的,但却无法通过通常的五种感觉感知。灵魂通过一种。。。我们称之为意识的机制显现。意识的操作通过欲望(如动机) 这个程序进行。。。身体的运动神经开始活动则机械运动完成。这样我们看到欲望在身体内[出现],当它触发了大脑后,电化学、生理学及其它的身体机能便开始操作了。。。欲望并不是展示意识的必要条件,但意识在物质性的世界是通过欲望运做的”。(Mitra 1993)
The Eastern yogic perspective is also supported by Quantum Theory and Particle Physics: “The soul is that cause, the presence of which keeps one alive and its absence reduces an animate being into an inanimate object . . . Though the presence of the soul is evident, it cannot be directly perceived by the usual five senses. The soul’s manifestation is through a conscious mechanism . . . known as consciousness. The operational procedure of consciousness is through desire, (i.e. motivation) . . . the motor action of the body starts and the mechanical work is done. Thus we see that desire [manifest] in a physical entity which, when it triggers the brain, electrochemico-physiological and other physical processes start operating . . . Desire is not essential for the demonstration of consciousness although consciousness operates in the physical world through desire.” (Mitra 1993)

意识毫无疑问是所有感知体验的前提条件。我们不仅通过观察的方法体验我们周围的外在和内在的世界,我们也拥有我们就在这个世界里的意识,无论意识到的是内在的还是外在的世界,而且我们也对自己的意识拥有觉知。我们可以内省,甚至与其它有意识的人讨论各种意识状态。Consciousness is definitely a prerequisite for all perceived experience. We not only experience the world around and within us, by a process of observation, we are also conscious of ourselves in that world, whether it’s the inner world or the outer world that we are aware of, and we are also conscious that we are conscious. We can contemplate and even discuss the various states of consciousness with other conscious beings.

你不能从大脑或神经系统或者计算机电路的量性运算中得到意识的质的方面的东西,如对红颜色的体验、对疼痛或冲动的主观感受等等。意识依赖复杂的大脑和神经系统来表达自我但却并不依赖它们而存在。数学计算无法解释意识(McGinn 1991)。如果意识依赖计算,那么超觉静坐及其它的冥想方法和内向性的分析如何工作?是通过旁观大脑的计算和运转吗?我们可能,哪怕是理论上,制造一台拥有可以等同于人类意识的具有“意识”状态的机器吗?它可以自己选择冥想或沉思:“我思,故我在”吗?我认为不可以!那样的一台机器可能进行任何形式的有意义的沉思冥想吗?我想不能。
You cannot get the qualitative aspects of consciousness though, such as the experience of the colour red, subjective feelings of pain or intention, from the quantitative computations of the brain and nervous system or electronic circuitry of a computer. Consciousness depends on the complexities of the brain and nervous system to express itself but not to exist. Computations do not explain consciousness (McGinn 1991). If consciousness was dependent on computations, how then would TM and other styles of meditation and introspective analysis work, by witnessing the computations and machinations of the mind? And could we, even theoretically, construct a machine that would have ‘mental’ states that could equate with human consciousness? Could it choose to meditate or to contemplate: “I think, therefore I am”? I think not! Could such a machine practice any form of meaningful contemplative meditation? I think not!

那么冥想,无论是主动的好是被动的,是一个意识向内看并作用于其自身的过程。
Meditation then, either active or passive, is a process whereby consciousness looks in and acts upon itself.

 

完(the end)

 

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