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伟大的丝绸之路——古丽在乌兹别克斯坦的故事

(2010-09-20 11:40:44)
标签:

乌兹别克斯坦

丝绸之路

阿拉伯文

民间传说

布哈拉

帖木儿

撒马尔罕

旅游

分类: 我的故事

第一部分 介绍

在我的童年时代,有一次我遭到了父母的威胁,至今我依然很清楚地记得妈妈是如何对我说的:“我们要把你送到乌兹别克斯坦,让他们教育教育你!”

 

乌兹别克斯坦是我们的家乡,我的奶奶居住在那边(居住的时间超过了100年),她不识字,也不会写字,但是她经常会自己保存一些乌兹别克斯坦老图书馆的手写体书籍。我那时候非常认真地对待这些书,因为我对阿拉伯文古籍手稿的手写体是一无所知的,这就迫使我在对书籍主题的理解上有着自己的想象。有时候,我总是在想,在每个书页的背后,那些故事的秘密一定是被人们遗忘的,我猜想每个人都会在生活中找到属于自己的财富和幸福的。

 

也许,这个想法在我的童年时代就萌生了,但是它一直影响着我的决定——是否去乌兹别克斯坦,是否我要在这个城市生活、寻找幸福和生活的平和。

 

我发现大多数古老的城市正如它本身:有着他们当地的生活方式,有着古老的传统和习俗。然后我学习了他们的语言,我热爱那里的音乐和民间传说,还有令人难忘的新鲜蔬菜和水果!

 

无论何时,我觉得我都和这个地方有了共鸣。于是,我非常幸运地生活在了乌兹别克斯坦,并且学习了丝绸之路,通过它我发现了我的创造天赋,我有我自己对这个世界和对世界根源的看法。所以,在这样的背景下,我很愿意在你没有游览过像乌兹别克斯坦这样令人惊叹的城市之前,与你分享一些异常吸引我的事情。

 “Great Silk Road – Uzbekistan story from Guli”.

 伟大的丝绸之路——古丽在乌兹别克斯坦的故事 - ccrb - zhongyaxine@126的博客

1 part. Introduction.

Once, in childhood, offended by my parents, I heard how my mother threatened me: I’ll send you to Uzbekistan, where you quickly reeducate!
Uzbekistan is our historic motherland, where lived my grandmother (she has a long life, more than 100 years), was illiterate, could not read and write, but she could save an old library of Uzbek books written by hand. I was so curious in that, ignorance of Arabic calligraphy, on which were written ancient manuscripts, forced me to invent own fantasies on this subject. Well, I always thought that in the pages of these books was to be the story about the mysteries of a forgotten world, guessing that everyone would be able to find prosperity and happiness in life. Perhaps this idea came to me in childhood, influenced on my decision to move to Uzbekistan, to live in this country and find happiness and peace.
I discovered the most ancient countries such as it is, has traditions and customs, the local way of life, learned native language, love music and folklore, the unforgettable smell of fresh greens and fruit!
Whenever each of us make own way of cognition. I was lucky enough to live in Uzbekistan and learn about the Great Silk Road, namely, that subsequently reveal my creative talent, create the root of my world view and understanding. In this article, I would like to share with some facts of Uzbekistan history, which seemed attractive to me for review before a trip to this amazing country.

 
  

第二部分 费尔干纳山谷和“天马”

 

伟大的丝绸之路——古丽在乌兹别克斯坦的故事 - ccrb - zhongyaxine@126的博客

 

很久以前,乌兹别克斯坦就是一个蕴藏着古老闻名的地方。历史指明这样的一个事实:费尔干纳山谷里一个叫做Selengur山洞(发现牙齿、肱骨,还有被称为fergantropom的类人猿骨的后部)和昂仁山谷的Kolbuloq洞中(发现了工具和动物骨头)发现了古人类的遗骸,距今已经700/500至10万年了。

所以,我打算从费尔干纳开始了解对乌兹别克斯坦的历史和知识。费尔干纳山谷最初被描述为是伟大丝绸之路的发源地,中国外交家张骞被汉武帝派去出使大月氏国,目的是为了说服他们联合以来一同抗衡匈奴的草原部落。他们来到河西走廊一带后,被占据此地的匈奴骑兵发现。张骞和随从一百多人全部被俘。匈奴威胁到了中国的北部地区,迫使汉朝修建长城,与此同时还有其他民族包括大月氏族也在修建。外交家张骞的任务持续了13年之久。在这段时间中,他经受了许多磨难,曾经被匈奴捕获数次,然而,这次出使西域,使他了解了许多以前从未发掘过有关中原世界的东西,也使生活在中原内地的人们了解到西域的实况。尤其是他偶然地访问了大宛(费尔干纳),还为游览此地编写了一个详细的著作。

 

在司马迁的《史记》中记载道:汉武帝得到了张骞从大宛部落发来的信息,来自吐鲁番绿洲,敦煌的西部地区——帝国的最后一个据点。这样的一个信息,唤醒了君主对在大宛培育特殊马种的兴趣——阿哈尔捷金马,这是个非常漂亮,耐力强的汗血马,这也是丝绸之路起源的一个非常重要的一点。在中国历史文献中,这种阿尔捷金马被中国人称为“天马”。和“大宛良马”。

 

 

它应该在古代的时候已经被记载了,那时候中国在马的供应上有问题。正巧皇帝在筹划一场与北部邻国的持续战争。用同样的牧民报复性地打击无数的骑兵,这是中国人在培育马种上的一个非常重要的缺陷:他们持有的汗血马与普通的马种相比,马的体能没有太大差别。然而,狡诈的匈奴当然会切断毗邻北部地区汗血马的供应,从而使皇帝打消了中国想要打胜仗翻身的可能性。

 

为争夺汗血马种,中国汉代发生过两次血腥战争。汉武帝派百余人的使团,带着一具用黄金做的马模型前去大宛国,希望以重礼换回大宛马。经过4000多公里陆地行军,到达大宛国首府贰师城(今土库曼斯坦阿斯哈巴特城)。大宛国王爱马心更切,不肯以大宛马换汉朝的金马。汉使归国途中金马在大宛国境内被劫,汉使被杀害。汉武帝大怒,作出武力取马的决定。

 

公元前102年汉武帝命李广利率领骑兵数万人,到达大宛边境城市郁城,但并未攻下,只好退回敦煌。回来时人马只剩下十分之一二。3年后,汉武帝再次命李广利率军远征,带兵6万人,马3万匹,还带了两名相马专家前去大宛国。然而,就在这个时候,中国人展现了军事艺术的奇迹:除了他们在对工程任务作出了相应的传统措施以外,还让一条河流去喂养这个镇的人民。然后,冲锋枪袭击了城墙,中国人在城墙外防守。这个时候,一个德高望重的人刺杀了Erishi的王子,和他们展开了激烈的战争并且派人把他的头颅带回到汉朝阵营,建议停战。本质是这样的,如果再让这样一场毫无意义的围剿持续进行着,那么作为城市的捍卫者,是充满力量的,而且不远就是康居城的军队,他们随时都能攻打汉朝的军队,但是,费尔干纳的居民说,如果这样一直下去,所有有价值的好马都会被毁掉,这样一来,就剥夺了汉朝进攻的主要意义。在本战中,只要汉朝肯停战,大宛人民就愿意将“天马”(汗血马)献给汉朝,并愿意无条件地听从汉朝的指令。

 

这时,李广将军和他的将士决定用更明智的办法将费尔干纳围困,目前还没有一个合适的方案,但是在汉朝军营的附近真的发现有间谍存在。

300匹“天马”已经被私人挑选并献给汉朝的将军。作为补偿,胜利者也可以得到普通的马匹,一共3000匹,另外,费尔干纳每年还要给中国奉献两匹“天马”。

在这个时期,中国汉朝持续不断地从费尔干纳得到汗血马,于是渐渐地,当地马种的质量也变得好了起来。在后面的时间里,中国军队在这些质优马匹帮助下获得了许多胜利。带着翅膀的青铜制的马在甘肃U-wei附近被中国将士发现(公元前2世纪),明确地指证了汗血马的最初起源在费尔干纳。

至于汗血马,现代的科学家发现引起“汗血”的原因是一种特殊的寄生虫,尤其在中亚地区存在很久了。

伟大的丝绸之路——古丽在乌兹别克斯坦的故事 - ccrb - zhongyaxine@126的博客

 

科学家现在仍旧不能准确地决定Ershi城的具体位置。在1948年,在著名的考古学家Bernstam的学术论文上提出这样的假说:Ershi城坐落在安集延南部的Marhamat区。他的其中一个论点涉及到了这个特殊地区,在阿拉万岩石上与岩石画密切相连。在1891年发现的这个山洞,在它的墙面上发现有古人狩猎的画面,但是不知道作者是谁,大约在公元前一世纪。上面的人物骑着马,协同的还有一匹母马,这是汗血马与中国纯种马的完美组合。

 

费尔干纳山谷在16世纪的时候曾经很荣幸地被食人魔老巴布统治过。他只有1岁左右的时候就成为了安集延的统治者了,他的父亲去世后,随后他便建立了一个中央集权国家,连接撒马尔罕和布哈拉。1525年,他在印度新德里发动了一场抓捕运动。于是他便建立了一个巴布尔式的新王朝-伟大的蒙古,持续了有300年。巴布尔告诉了他儿子他的一个愿望,他说他要他的民族必须尊重印度的民族和风俗。在这里我指出一点,泰姬陵是由巴布尔的孙子兴建的。巴布尔无法维持他在撒马尔罕和布哈拉的权利了。

以下介绍的这些古代城市——是我们旅程的另一个关键点。

 

 

2 part. Ferghana Valley and “shanma” horses.

伟大的丝绸之路——古丽在乌兹别克斯坦的故事 - ccrb - zhongyaxine@126的博客 
 
 

 
Since long time, Uzbekistan was the place of inhabit of ancient civilization. History indicate to the fact that the ancient people found in a cave Selengur in the Ferghana Valley (found teeth, humerus, the posterior part of skull anthropoid called "fergantropom) and Kolbuloq in the Angren (found tools and animal bones) are 700 / 500 - 100 thousand years ago.
Therefore, I propose to begin our knowledge about Uzbekistan from Fergana. The Ferghana Valley was first described a pioneer of the Great Silk Road, Chinese diplomat Jian Lin in the II century BC Han emperor Wu Jian Lin sent to the Yueh-chih, in order to persuade them to join in military action against the Xiongnu steppe tribes, known later under the name of the Hun (Hun). Xiongnu terrorized northern China, forcing Han to build the Great Wall, and expelled from their homes a number of other nations, including those mentioned Yueh-chih.
Diplomatic mission of Jian Lin was delayed for 13 years. During this time he had suffered many misfortunes, held prisoner by the Hsiung-nu, however, have learned a lot about the unknown to the Chinese world. In particular, he had occasion to visit Davan (Ferghana), what about he has compiled a detailed description.
In his book, "Shijie, Chinese author, Sima Qian said that the Emperor Wu (Wu-chi) received from Jian Lin information on the state of Davan, lying in the Turfan oasis, west of Dunhuang - the last outpost of the empire. Breaking news, awaken interest of monarch have been breeding to Davan special breed of horses - beautiful, durable and sweating blood, that the alleged evidence of their celestial origin. The Chinese call these horses "heaven" - "shanma”

 

 伟大的丝绸之路——古丽在乌兹别克斯坦的故事 - ccrb - zhongyaxine@126的博客

It should be noted that at this time, in China was problem of horses. Empire was engage in a continuous war with northern neighbors, nuisance to her regular raids. Apply the same nomads retaliatory strike was possible only with a numerous cavalry, which was eliminated in the absence of development of horse breeding by Chinese: their possession breed of horses did not differ by physical qualities. Malicious Xiongnu, of course, cut off the supply of horses from the adjacent northern areas, thereby denying China the possibility of revenge.
That's why Wu came at the excitement and in 104 BC hastily sent to the capital city of Davan, Ershi, embassy, led by aristocrat Jae Lin, who was charged with persuading, to take Chinese citizenship and immediately sell the "heavenly" horses for the Chinese army.
In 102 BC Li Guang appeared under the walls of Ershi with an army of 30,000 horsemen and 60,000 infantry. Nevertheless, Farghana citizen refused to surrender, as they were confident in their impregnable city, which took not only the strong fortress walls, and spacious citadel. However, the Chinese showed miracles of military art: in addition to conventional measures they have made significant engineering work and brought the river that fed the town. Then the assault guns struck the wall gap and Chinese took over the outside of the city. At this moment, noble men of the city Ershi killed Prince Mugu, guilty of a conflict, and sent his head to the Chinese camp with a proposal for an armistice. The Essence was that, continuing the siege of pointless, as the defenders of the city are full of strength, and nearby is the army of the Kangju State, which ready to hit the Chinese army at the right time. In addition, said Farghana citizen, in case of the fall, all the valuable horses will destroy, depriving the Chinese of the main trophy. In case of the armistice davan people were willing to give Han "shanma" and generally obey the will of the emperor.
Li Kuang Lee and his generals decided that the proposal would be wiser to take Farghana, since the outcome of the siege is unclear, but the near by camp, they really were spotted kangyuy spies.
300 Chinese "heavenly" horses have been personally selected and presented to han generals from submitted them to the herd, after the siege. As compensation to the winners was given as 3000 heads of ordinary horses, in addition, Fergana was required annually to send to China on 2 "heavenly" horses.
Since this period, China has regularly received from Fergana valuable breed of horses that gradually improve the local horse breeding. In later centuries, Chinese troops had achieved many victories through quick and sturdy horses. Exterior bronze winged horses found in the burial of the Chinese general near the U-Wei in Gansu (II century BC), certainly points to the Ferghana origin of their breed.
As for the bloody sweat, the modern scientists discovered that the cause of "bloody sweat" was a special kind of parasites, typical for this region of Central Asia so far.

Scientists still can not accurately determine the location of the city Ershi. In 1948, the famous archaeologist - Academic A.N. Bernstam - put forward the hypothesis that Ershi was located at Marhamat district in the south of the Andijan region. One of his arguments in favor of this particular area (as the title of the ancient capital of the claim with dozens of such settlements) was associated with rock paintings in Aravan rock. Here in 1891 was discovered the cave, where on the walls have been discovered image of hunting scenes of the unknown author of about I in. BC - I century AD. The figure appears on a horse and a mare with foal, perfect forms which suggest relationship with thoroughbred horses from the Chinese chronicles.
The Ferghana Valley has been glorified by the local “khan” (ruler) Bobur 16 th century. Being a 1 year old baby, he becomes the “khan” of Andijan, after the death of his father and subsequently creates a centralized state, linking Samarkand and Bukhara. In 1525 he makes a campaign against India and captures Delhi. They founded a dynasty of Babur - Great Mongols, which lasted over 300 years. Bobur has left last will to his son, described that he has to respect the customs and traditions of India. By the way, the Palace Taj Mahal was built by Bobur’s grandson. Bobur was unable to maintain their power over Samarkand and Bukhara. These ancient cities - next point of our journey.

 

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