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[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点

(2011-05-19 15:53:24)
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原文地址:古珠图鉴大盘点作者:元藏
在珠子中间最珍贵的应该是西藏和喜馬拉雅地區的天珠(也可以被称为gzi, ghzi, zi, tzi)。天珠一詞的發音为zee,在某些地區为ž,它代表光明,明亮或光澤。这些古珠被認為是神聖的護身符,市場价值數千美元,它們至今仍影响着西藏/喜馬拉雅地区的精神信仰和習俗。這種裝飾石珠被发现于公元前2500年的美索不達米亞和印度河流域,但是我们至今仍不清楚它們精確的原產地和生產時間。根据已知最早的記錄,可追溯到時間为格薩爾王时期。人們普遍認為,是1000多年前在他統治西藏的时期,介於7和第9世紀。不過也有一些歷史學家認為是唐代(公元600年左右)。类似的古瑪瑙珠在全球許多地方被发现,包括:伊朗,阿富汗,尼泊爾,印度,拉達克,不丹,緬甸,柬埔寨,中國,馬來西亞,巴基斯坦,泰國和越南。

 

The most desirable of all beads in Tibet and the Himalayan regions is the dZi ( which may also be spelled gzi, ghzi, zi, tzi). The word dZi is pronounced zee or in some regions z, it translates as bright, luminous or shine. Ancient beads are considered to be sacred amulets and will readily command thousands of dollars in the marketplace. They play a significant role in Tibetan/Himalayan spiritual beliefs and customs. The practice of decorating stone beads was known since at least 2500 BCE in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, however, it is still unclear as to their 'exact' place of origin and time of manufacture. The earliest known records are thought to date back to the time of King Gesar of Ling. It is widely believed that he reigned in Tibet a little over 1000 years ago, somewhere between the 7th and 9th Centuries CE. However, some historians say he could have lived during the the Tang Dynasty (the 600s). Ancient decorated agates have been sourced in many other locations that include: Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal, India, Ladakh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand and Vietnam.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点

 

 

我們可以看到,貿易天珠和类似的裝飾珠不僅发现於西藏。但是喜馬拉雅地區是發現這些珠的一個最重要区域。事實上它們仍徽衷谏衩刂校^續维持着人們的樂趣和願望。

 

他們是神授的禮物?


西藏人普遍認為,天珠是神聖的起源,并非人造。有人說他們是神掉落的,谁有好邭饩湍軌蛘业剿鼈儭S伸端麄兿嘈派竦膩碓矗鼈儽徽J為是一個非常寶貴的和強大的護身符。珠常常可以在西藏寺廟裝飾最受尊敬的雕像和神聖遺跡前看到。它們被認為會帶來吉祥,辟邪,保護佩戴者的人身傷害和疾病。有人甚至聲稱可以保护藏民免受刀和子彈的攻擊!


We can see that the trade of dZi and other decorated beads was not limited to Tibet. However, it does seem that the Himalayan regions are one of the most important areas for the discovery of these beads today. The fact that they are still shrouded in so much mystery only continues to fuel people's fascination and desire to own them.

 

Are they a gift from the Gods?


Tibetans generally believe dZi are of divine origin and therefore not created by human hands. Some say they are dropped by Gods to benefit those who have the good fortune to find them. Since they are believed to have a divine source, they are considered to be a very precious and powerful amulet. Beads can often be seen in Tibetan temples adorning the most revered statues and sacred relics. They are thought to bring good fortune, ward off evil, and protect the wearer from physical harm and illness. It has even been claimed by Tibetan refugees that they protect the wearer from knife and bullet attacks!

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点

 

 

另一種認為是它們是嘉魯達或穹鳥的寶貴糞便,他在天上這些糞掉落下来。在嘉魯達具有特殊的重要性,在密宗藏傳佛教的教義,他有時被視為表現蓮師。在印度教傳說中,鷹被認為是駿馬的毗濕奴,管理整個喜馬拉雅山脈。有這樣一個故事流傳在互聯網上,一個台灣商人逃出墜毀的飛機,当时只有兩個倖存者。他聲稱,這要感謝他戴著天珠。

 

在實踐中藏藥,天珠是混合粉與地面金,銀,珍珠生產丸(提布:白介素布)與強大的治療作用。也有明確的記錄,從公元前12世紀,天珠就被用於藏醫藥。真正的天珠也使用了藏族唐卡,畫家適用於金箔畫重要。這也是說,誰擁有一個純粹的天珠會收到祝福直接從天人。純天珠也被認為是實現長壽,癒合,財富,財富和權力。西藏人民很不容易的才得到他們的天珠。事實上,它已在家庭传了幾代,不会被銷售。這是真正的天珠傳家寶很少出現在市場的另一個原因。

 

Another belief is that they are the precious dung of the Garuda or Khyung bird. These droppings fall to the ground when he flies through the sky. The Garuda has special importance in the tantric teachings of Tibetan Buddhism where he is sometimes seen as a manifestation of Guru Rinpoche. In the Hindu legends, the Garuda is seen as the steed of Vishnu and is recognised throughout the Himalayas. One story doing the rounds on the internet, is that a Taiwanese businessman escaped from a plane crash where there were only two survivors. He claimed that this was thanks to the dZi bead he was wearing.


In the practice of Tibetan Medicine, powdered dZi is mixed with ground gold, silver and pearl to produce medicinal pills (Tib: ril bu) with potent healing properties. There are also clear records of dZi being used in Tibetan medicine from at least the 12th century CE. Genuine dZi are also used by Tibetan Thangka painters to apply gold leaf to important paintings. It is also said that those who own a pure dZi will receive blessings directly from divine beings. A pure dZi is also believed to bring longevity, healing, fortune, wealth and power. Tibetan people do not readily part with their dZi. In fact it is not considered favourable to sell a dZi that has been in a family for generations. This is another reason that authentic heirloom dZi are seldom seen in the marketplace.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点

 

 

實物證據表明,这种裝飾珠是经过化學处理而成的。這種做法流行于公元前2500年的美索不達米亞和印度河流域。據認為,瑪瑙,更可怕的了哂靡惶欠值膕olutuion表面。通過加熱珠糖會caramelise和珠會變成褐色。酸處理的燒糖,把珠黑色。即使是最自然的珠可能已提出一個過程,以提高自然帶中的石頭或變暗的顏色。

 

當購買天珠的眼珠,珠獨特的設計通常具有更大的價值。阿完美和獨特的珠可以命令的最高價格,是來之不易的。常見的裝飾可以包括鋸齒zags,鑽石,圓形,方形,海浪,和條紋。最搶手的基礎顏色通常都在黑褐色,與裝飾被明確界定,並具有良好的對比度。話雖如此,天珠總是極具收藏,不論其顏色,形狀和類型的裝飾。

 

最有價值的天珠被認為九眼天珠,有的甚至說這是有13眼天珠。一般來說,有1珠,3,5,7和9只眼(單數)是最受追捧。雖然具有唯一珠裝飾或是unsual大小有時命令等等。我們是有珠顯示偶數的眼睛。兩眼珠似乎更容易得到,因此通常價格要低得多。接下來,我們天珠是裝飾條紋,這些被稱為葵涌或衝天珠(儘管任何古代瑪瑙珠也可以知道這個名字)。還有天珠的表格被稱為鹿Mik(羊眼)或大Mik(馬眼),塔索天珠(馬牙),老虎天珠(橢圓形裝飾天珠雙條紋)和蓬天珠(發灰/黑色裝飾瑪瑙與網或長壽設計)。最後,我們有未修飾的古代瑪瑙的成交主要來自印度和西亞地區。

 

Physical evidence shows that beads were decorated with chemical treatments. This practice was known since at least 2500 BCE in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. It is believed that agate was made much darker by applying a sugar rich solutuion to the surface. By heating the bead the sugar would caramelise and the bead would turn brown. Acid treatments would burn the sugar and turn the bead black. Even the most natural looking beads may have been put through a process to enhance the natural banding in the stone or darken the colour.


When purchasing a dZi, the eyed beads and beads with unique designs are usually of greater value. A flawless and unique bead can command the highest prices and are not easy to come by. Common decorations can include zig zags, diamonds, circles, squares, waves, and stripes. The most sought after base colour will usually range from brown to black, with the decoration being clearly defined and having good contrast. Having said this, dZi are always highly collectible whatever their colour, shape and type of decoration.

 


The most valuable dZi are believed to be nine eyed beads, and some even talk of a thirteen eyed dZi. Generally, beads that have 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 eyes (odd numbers) are the most sought after. Although beads that have unique decorations or are of unsual size can sometimes command much more. Then we have the beads that display an even number of eyes. Two eyed beads appear to be more readily available, so they are usually priced much lower. Next we have dZi that are decorated with stripes, these are called Chung or Chong dZi (although any ancient agate bead can also be known by this name). There are also tabular dZi which are known as Luk Mik (Sheep's Eye) or Ta Mik (Horse Eye), Tasso dZi (Horse tooth), Tiger dZi (oval decorated dZi with double stripes) and Phum dZi (fat grey/black decorated agates with the net or longevity design). Lastly we have the undecorated ancient agates that were traded primarily from India and Western Asia.


[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

據喜馬拉雅民間傳說,一個好地方,找到一個天珠是石頭附近的游泳池或溫泉。珠也表示,可以發現在剛撥領域。其他的故事告訴我們,天珠曾經爬的動物,像蠕蟲。目前,這些人的手感動他們變成石頭(完成穿孔)。藏族甚至聲稱,牛會誤吃這些動物,而在田裡放牧,後來生下他們的形式天珠。

 

還有一個共同的故事,講述了一個男人誰曾經看到其中一個蠕蟲狀的生物。他很快,他的帽子扔到了它試圖趕上它。當他取消了帽子,蠕蟲,奇蹟般變成了美麗的天珠。另一個傳說告訴我們,天珠源自於西藏神山。在古代,一個流據說流下山坡。有一天,一個邪惡的巫師施法後山和流動立即停止。據稱,這是交代,為什麼許多古老的天珠展示裝飾,如山,流凍結到位。許多裝飾據說早於佛教,他們反映了當時人們深刻的關係的性質。的符號,出現在天珠常被比作自然元素,例如水,土和天空。一些珠據說顯示特性的動物都神話和現實-如龍或虎。

 

According to Himalayan folklore, a good place to find a dZi is near to a rock pool or hot spring. Beads are also said to be found in freshly ploughed fields. Other stories tell us that dZi were once creatures that crawled like worms. The moment they are touched by human hands they are turned to stone (complete with perforation). Tibetans even claim that cattle would mistakenly eat these creatures whilst grazing in the fields, and later give birth to them in the form of a dZi bead.


There is also a common story that tells of a man who once saw one of these worm-like creatures. He quickly threw his hat over it in an attemp to catch it. When he removed the hat, the worm had miraculously turned into a beautiful dZi. Another legend tells us that the dZi originated from a sacred mountain in Tibet. In ancient times, a stream was said to flow down its slopes. One day an evil sorcerer cast a spell upon the mountain and the flow immediately stopped. This is said to account for why many ancient dZi display decorations, like a mountain and stream frozen in place. Many of the decorations are said to predate Buddhism and they reflect a time when people were deeply connected to nature. The symbols that appear on dZi are often compared to natural elements like the water, earth and sky. Some beads are said to display characteristics of animals both mythical and real -- like a dragon or tiger.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点   

 

在近20年來,古老的天珠收藏已經流行于亞洲內外。雖然古珠最受追捧,但新做的天珠(見12眼天珠以上)也極具收藏价值。有些罕見的優質新珠在亞洲內外價格還非常高。對被確認為真正的天珠,必須是瑪瑙材质。由玻璃珠,骨,塑料,木材或任何其他材料只是模仿。

 

Although ancient beads are the most sought after, newly made dZi (see twelve eyed bead above) can still be highly collectible. Some of the rarer quality new beads also command very high prices in and outside of Asia. For a bead to be recognised as a genuine dZi, it must be made of agate. Beads made from glass, bone, plastic, wood or any other material are merely imitations.

 

Over the past 20 years, ancient dZi have become more desirable in and outside of Asia. We manage to source a small amount of these beads every year but this is certainly not going to last forever. On our website you will find a selection of both ancient and recently created dZi. If for any reason you are not entirely satisfied with your purchase, you may return it for a full refund. We offer you a complete guarantee that our beads are of the highest quality and are authentic.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

阿富汗瑪瑙


還有很多漂亮的biconic的6條帶狀瑪瑙。

200BC - 400AD,阿富汗和伊朗。

最長:55毫米

 

A lot of 6 beautiful biconic banded agates.
200BC-400AD, Afghanistan or Iran.
Longest: 55mm.

 

 

 

阿富汗浮雕


瑪瑙浮雕刻有一貝愛的蛇,阿富汗。
未知年代,可能是新近。
19毫米長。

 

Agate cameo engraved with a shellfish loved with a snake.
Afghanistan.
Unkonwn age, probably recent.
19 mm long.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

阿富汗陶器


2架彩色陶器(彩陶)珠4彈。
帕提亞或波斯薩珊帝國(公元前550年,642年),阿富汗。
平均寬度12毫米。

 

Two stands of colored earthenware (faience) beads with 4 shells.
Parthian or Sassanian Empire (550 BC- 642 AD), Afghanistan.
Average width 12mm.

 

  

 

阿富汗彩陶


還有很多2彩陶垂飾和珠。
帕提亞或波斯薩珊帝國(公元前550年,642年)。
藍色:40毫米長。

 

A lot of 2 faience pendants and a bead.
Parthian or Sassanian Empire (550 BC- 642 AD).
Found in Afghanistan.
Blue: 40 mm long.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

阿富汗黃金


阿金83多珠的肉芽。
20-22克拉,寬7毫米,總重量:34.8gr。
最大的可能是19世紀。

A lot of 83 gold beads with granulations.
20-22 carats, width 7mm, total weight: 34.8gr.
Most probably 19th century.
Afghanistan.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

阿富汗黃金


還有很多的12枚珠的肉芽。
20-22克拉,大珠:13毫米寬,總重量:21gr。
最大的可能是19世紀。

A lot of 12 gold beads with granulations.
20-22 carats, largest bead: 13mm wide, total weight: 21gr.
Most probably 19th century.
Afghanistan.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

瑪瑙吊墜
帶狀瑪瑙(瑪瑙)挂件。
早期的伊斯蘭時期,9 - 13世紀或更早,阿富汗。


69x55mm。

Banded agate (onyx) pendant.
Early Islamic period, 9-13th century or earlier. Afghanistan.
69x55mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

瑪瑙吊墜 Agate pendant
一個美麗的帶狀瑪瑙吊墜(石華)。
早期的伊斯蘭時期9 - 13世紀,阿富汗。
寬度83毫米。

 

A beautiful banded agate pendant (onyx).
Early Islamic period 9-13th century. Afghanistan.
Width 83mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

瑪瑙吊墜 Agate pendant
一個美麗的帶狀瑪瑙吊墜(石華)。
早期的伊斯蘭時期9 - 13世紀,阿富汗。
84毫米寬。

 

A beautiful banded agate pendant (onyx).
Early Islamic period 9-13th century.
Afghanistan.
84mm wide.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

大厦瑪瑙管 Bactrian agate
管狀透明帶狀瑪瑙。
公元前1000年,大夏。
阿富汗,77毫米。

 

A tubular translucent banded agate.
First millennium BC, Bactria.
Afghanistan.
77mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

夏瑪瑙 Bactrian agate
粉紅下降形帶狀瑪瑙。
帕提亞或波斯薩珊帝國(公元前550年,642年)。
發現巴克特里亞,阿富汗。
34高× 20 × 17毫米。

 

A pink drop-shaped banded agate.
Parthian or Sassanian Empire (550 BC- 642 AD).
Found in Bactria, Afghanistan.
34 high x 20 x 17 mm

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

夏科尼利恩 Bactrian cornelian
還有很多25管狀瑪瑙珠。
公元前2000年。
發現巴克特里亞,阿富汗。
最長:49毫米。

 

A lot of 25 tubular cornelian beads.
Second millennium BC.
Found in Bactria, Afghanistan.
Longest: 49 mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

夏青金石 Bactrian lapis lazuli
阿鏈挖掘青金石珠。
巴克特里亞,阿富汗。
公元前第一個千年。
47厘米長。

 

A strand of excavated lapis lazuli beads.
Bactria, Afghanistan.
First millennium BCE.
47 cm long.
Central bead: 15x15x16mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点  

 

夏獅子 Bactrian lions
很多6方解石別具風格的獅子各種顏色的珠子。
巴克特里亞,阿富汗。
公元前第一個千年。
水晶:23毫米長。

 

Lot of six calcite stylised lion beads of various colors.
Bactria, Afghanistan.
First millennium BCE.
Crystal: 23mm long.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

班蔣珠 Ban Chiang beads
玻璃鏈。
泰國(班蔣文化)。
公元世紀初,更早。
6台12鏈可用。
每個鏈約46cms。

 

Glass strands.
Thailand (Ban Chiang culture).
Early centuries AD, possibly earlier.
6 sets of 12 strands available.
Approx. 46cms each strand.
Price for 12 stands.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

帶狀瑪瑙 Banded agates
2了很多單位帶瑪瑙(石華)和自然湧天珠。
帕提亞或波斯薩珊帝國(公元前550年,642年)。
發現巴克特里亞,阿富汗。
頌天珠:19毫米。

 

A lot of 2 flat banded agates (onyx) and a natural chung dzi.
Parthian or Sassanian Empire (550 BC- 642 AD).
Found in Bactria, Afghanistan.
Chung dzi: 19mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

帶狀瑪瑙 Banded agates
阿多33球帶瑪瑙(瑪瑙)。
公元前1000年或更早,印度,伊朗。
最大的直徑:14毫米,最小:11毫米。

 

A lot of 33 spherical banded agates (onyx).
First millennium BC and earlier, India to Iran.
Biggest diam.: 14mm, smallest: 11mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

帶狀瑪瑙 Banded agates
阿多61球帶瑪瑙(瑪瑙)。
公元前1000年或更早,印度,伊朗。
最大的直徑:11毫米,最小:八點五毫米。

 

A lot of 61 spherical banded agates (onyx).
First millennium BC and earlier, India to Iran.
Biggest diam.: 11mm, smallest: 8.5mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

帶狀瑪瑙 Banded agates
還有很多下降的4形珠:一帶狀瑪瑙,2瑀和蝕刻瑪瑙。
帕提亞或波斯薩珊帝國(公元前550年,642年)。
發現巴克特里亞,阿富汗。
左:26毫米長。

 

A lot of 4 drop-shaped beads: a banded agate, 2 sardonyx and an etched cornelian.
Parthian or Sassanian Empire (550 BC- 642 AD).
Found in Bactria, Afghanistan.
Left: 26mm long.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

帶狀瑪瑙 Banded agates
9了很多單位和帶狀瑪瑙珠吊墜。
帕提亞或波斯薩珊帝國(公元前550年,642年)。
發現巴克特里亞,阿富汗。
圆珠1:26 x 24毫米。

 

A lot of 9 flat banded agates beads and pendants.
Parthian or Sassanian Empire (550 BC- 642 AD).
Found in Bactria, Afghanistan.
Square one: 26 x 24mm.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

帶狀瑪瑙 Banded agates
阿鏈帶狀瑪瑙(瑪瑙)金間隔。
公元前1000年或更早,印度,伊朗。
发现于阿富汗,85厘米長。

 

A strand of banded agates (onyx) with gold spacers.
First millennium BC and earlier, India to Iran.
Found in Afghanistan.
85 cm long.
Central bead: 38mm wide.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

帶狀瑪瑙先令 Banded agates
還有很多的三股帶狀瑪瑙(瑪瑙)。
公元前1000年或更早,印度,伊朗。
41,41和44厘米長。

 

A lot of 3 strands of banded agates (onyx).
First millennium BC and earlier, India to Iran.
41, 41 and 44 cm long.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

 

藍瑪瑙 Blue agates
還有很多藍玉髓珠,有些要素琥珀,綠松石和一個支離破碎的天珠。
发现于阿富汗,公元前一千年。
環珠:26毫米長。

 

A lot of blue chalcedony beads, with some elements of amber, turquoise and a fragmented dzi.
Found in Afghanistan.
First millennium B.C.E.
Central bead: 26 mm long.

 

[转载]古珠图鉴大盘点 

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