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曾与伦—谁能比我更幸运!有学生如此,人生足矣

(2011-05-10 01:31:51)
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杂谈

分类: 读书会员

Hello Oscar:

 

i tried to translate George Orwell's "the sporting spirit" and all.

 

Atta.1

 

The Sporting Spirit

George Orwell

Dec. 1945

 

translated by

Zeng Yulun

May. 2011

 

 

Now that the brief visit of the Dynamo football team has come to an end, it is possible to say publicly what many thinking people were saying privately before the Dynamos ever arrived. That is, that sport is an unfailing cause of ill-will, and that if such a visit as this had any effect at all on Anglo-Soviet relations, it could only be to make them slightly worse than before.

现在Dynamo足球队短暂的来访已经告一段落了, 这意味着人们在球队到来之前的闲言碎语可以在大庭广众面前重见天日了. 这就是, 运动一直是罪恶的来源. 如果这次来访有何影响于英国和苏联的关系的话, 那也只能是让关系变得不如从前.

 

Even the newspapers have been unable to conceal the fact that at least two of the four matches played led to much bad feeling. At the Arsenal match, I am told by someone who was there, a British and a Russian player came to blows and the crowd booed the referee. The Glasgow match, someone else informs me, was simply a free-for-all from the start. And then there was the controversy, typical of our nationalistic age, about the composition of the Arsenal team. Was it really an all-England team, as claimed by the Russians, or merely a league team, as claimed by the British? And did the Dynamos end their tour abruptly in order to avoid playing an all-England team? As usual, everyone answers these questions according to his political predilections. Not quite everyone, however. I noted with interest, as an instance of the vicious passions that football provokes, that the sporting correspondent of the russophile News Chronicle took the anti-Russian line and maintained that Arsenal was not an all-England team. No doubt the controversy will continue to echo for years in the footnotes of history books. Meanwhile the result of the Dynamos' tour, in so far as it has had any result, will have been to create fresh animosity on both sides. No doubt the controversy will continue to echo for years in the footnotes of history books. Meanwhile the result of the Dynamos' tour, in so far as it has had any result, will have been to create fresh animosity on both sides.

即便是报纸也隐瞒不了真相: 四场比赛中至少两场的气氛让人不快. 在和阿森纳的那场比赛中, 我是听当时在场的人说的, 一个英国队员和一个俄罗斯队员发生了冲突, 观众却把嘘声送给裁判. 在跟格拉斯哥的那场中, 另一个人告诉我, 全场从一开始就毫无规则可言. 然后就有人在争论, 这是典型的英国式民族主义行为, 争论阿森纳队的场上阵容. 到底是不是向俄罗斯人所说的一只全由英国人组成的队伍?还是英国人说的 仅仅是一只联赛参赛队伍”? 不出所料, 每个人的答案都受个人政治倾向的影响. 但是, 倒不是所有人都这样. 这很有意思, New Chronicle 体育报最先站在了对抗俄罗斯人的一边, 生称阿森纳不是一只全英国人组成的队伍, 这就是一个盲目足球热情被过分激起的例子.不容置疑, 这段野史会在人们嘴边咀嚼很久. 与此同时Dynamo队来访的结果, 如果有任何特别的意义的话, 就是为双方都制造了新的民族仇恨

 

And how could it be otherwise? I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance) that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it from general principles.

本来就是如此. 我总是惊讶于人们认为体育运动能增进国家之间的友谊, 还认为不同国家的百姓如果能在足球或者板球场上碰面, 他们就不会倾向于在战场上碰面. 那么多活生生的例子证明了国家之间的体育比赛是互相妒恨的根源(1936年奥运会), 即便是一个人不知道这些例子, 他也可以从大道理上推断出这个事实.

 

Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive. You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved. it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused. Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this. At the international level sport is frankly mimic warfare. But the significant thing is not the behaviour of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators, of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriously believe — at any rate for short periods — that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.

现在的体育项目几乎都具有竞技性质. 参与体育项目就是为了赢: 如果你不拼命, 参与就没意义了. 在村里乡间分拨比赛肯定没有爱国主义性质, 只为高兴或者是锻炼的体育比赛是可能的. 一旦比赛中掺入了国家尊严, 只要你认为你和你代表的集体会因输掉比赛而感到羞愧, 人类内心最野蛮的残酷竞争本性就会显露出来: 只要年轻时代表学校参加过足球赛的人都知道这个.在国家层面上, 体育其实就是缩小版的战争. 但是它的重点不在运动员的表现, 而在于观众的态度: 不仅如此, 在观众的背后是疯狂支持他们过度行为的国家意志, 他们坚定的相信, 即便只是场小比赛, 跑跑跳跳和踢几脚球都是国家的形象的象征.

 

Even a leisurely game like cricket, demanding grace rather than strength, can cause much ill-will, as we saw in the controversy over body-line bowling and over the rough tactics of the Australian team that visited England in 1921. Football, a game in which everyone gets hurt and every nation has its own style of play which seems unfair to foreigners, is far worse. Worst of all is boxing. One of the most horrible sights in the world is a fight between white and coloured boxers before a mixed audience. But a boxing audience is always disgusting, and the behaviour of the women, in particular, is such that the army, I believe, does not allow them to attend its contests. At any rate, two or three years ago, when Home Guards and regular troops were holding a boxing tournament, I was placed on guard at the door of the hall, with orders to keep the women out.

就算是一场普普通通的板球比赛也会激起怨恨, 就是因为观众们看中的是国家的荣誉而不是国家队的实力. 比如1921(可能有误, 应为1932-33 - 译者注)澳大利亚板球队来访英格兰, 正如我们所看到的那样, 英格兰人不是在打球而是在打人. 足球比赛更甚: 每个参与者都会受伤, 每个国家都有自己的风格”, 尽管这对外国人来讲不是很公平. 最甚莫过于拳击比赛. 世界上最惨酷的场面就是一个白人和一个有色人种之间展开的拳击比赛, 而且观众有白人同时也有有色人种. 拳击比赛的观众经常很恶心, 尤其是女性观众, 我觉得就算是军事行动, 军方也不会让她们参与的. 不管怎样, 反正在两三年之前, 有一场卫队和常规军之间的拳击比赛, 我负责把守大门, 遵照上级指示, 我不许让任何女的进去.

 

In England, the obsession with sport is bad enough, but even fiercer passions are aroused in young countries where games playing and nationalism are both recent developments. In countries like India or Burma, it is necessary at football matches to have strong cordons of police to keep the crowd from invading the field. In Burma, I have seen the supporters of one side break through the police and disable the goalkeeper of the opposing side at a critical moment. The first big football match that was played in Spain about fifteen years ago led to an uncontrollable riot. As soon as strong feelings of rivalry are aroused, the notion of playing the game according to the rules always vanishes. People want to see one side on top and the other side humiliated, and they forget that victory gained through cheating or through the intervention of the crowd is meaningless. Even when the spectators don't intervene physically they try to influence the game by cheering their own side and “rattling” opposing players with boos and insults. Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence: in other words it is war minus the shooting.

在英国, 运动场上的臭毛病已经够令人讨厌了, 但在一个体育运动和民族主义都是新事物的新兴国家中, 比如印度或是缅甸, 还有比这更激烈的情绪, 在那边的足球赛中, 警察必须站成人墙防止人们冲进场内. 在缅甸, 我就看到过一方极端的支持者冲破警察, 在一个关键的时刻严重妨碍了对方守门员的动作. 十五年前西班牙的第一场大型足球比赛就变成了一场不可控制的骚乱. 只要心中无法遏制的敌意被比赛激起, 按规则比赛这个概念永远都会消失. 人们只想看见胜者为王, 败者为寇的场面, 然后就忘了他们来自于欺诈或是扰乱观众秩序的胜利是没有意义的. 即便是观众们不以身体行动来影响比赛, 他们也会通过给自己支持的队伍加油来提高士气, 通过给另一方的嘘声和谩骂声来扰乱他们. 这种大型比赛和公平竞争完全不沾边, 完全是仇恨, 嫉妒, 浮夸和虐待取乐的代名词, 在体育暴力面前完全无视规则. 换句话说, 体育运动就是没有硝烟的战争.

 

Instead of blah-blahing about the clean, healthy rivalry of the football field and the great part played by the Olympic Games in bringing the nations together, it is more useful to inquire how and why this modern cult of sport arose. Most of the games we now play are of ancient origin, but sport does not seem to have been taken very seriously between Roman times and the nineteenth century. Even in the English public schools the games cult did not start till the later part of the last century. Dr Arnold, generally regarded as the founder of the modern public school, looked on games as simply a waste of time. Then, chiefly in England and the United States, games were built up into a heavily-financed activity, capable of attracting vast crowds and rousing savage passions, and the infection spread from country to country. It is the most violently combative sports, football and boxing, that have spread the widest. There cannot be much doubt that the whole thing is bound up with the rise of nationalism — that is, with the lunatic modern habit of identifying oneself with large power units and seeing everything in terms of competitive prestige. Also, organised games are more likely to flourish in urban communities where the average human being lives a sedentary or at least a confined life, and does not get much opportunity for creative labour. In a rustic community a boy or young man works off a good deal of his surplus energy by walking, swimming, snowballing, climbing trees, riding horses, and by various sports involving cruelty to animals, such as fishing, cock-fighting and ferreting for rats. In a big town one must indulge in group activities if one wants an outlet for one's physical strength or for one's sadistic impulses. Games are taken seriously in London and New York, and they were taken seriously in Rome and Byzantium: in the Middle Ages they were played, and probably played with much physical brutality, but they were not mixed up with politics nor a cause of group hatreds.

除了讨论足球场上健康真诚的竞争和奥林匹克带给各个国家间的友谊以外, 探究这种现代运动的思维定式的来源显得更为重要. 现在的运动项目大多来自与古代, 但从罗马时期开始到19世纪, 运动竞赛一直没有得到足够的重视. 甚至在英国的公立学校中, 运动热也是从上世纪末才开始的. 公认的现代公学的创始人阿诺德博士认为体育运动就是浪费时间. 然后, 主要是在英国和美国, 运动逐步变成了需要大量资金的活动: 它能够吸引大批观众, 激起观众们野蛮的激情, 和在国家之间蔓延的狂热. 最激烈的运动恰恰传播的最远, 比如足球和拳击. 不可否认, 这种传播是和民族主义的兴起密切相关的, 换句话说, 现代人总是傻乎乎的认为自己属于一个大的集体, 把每件事都看作是尊严和荣誉的竞争. 同样, 有组织的运动项目更容易在城市进行, 在城市社区中, 人们都坐办公室, 或者, 至少可以说是过着精致的生活, 没有什么进行劳动的机会. 在乡村中, 一个年轻人有各种方式来消耗他的能量: 走路, 游泳, 打雪仗, 爬树, 骑马, 和各种残忍的运动, 比如打鱼, 斗鸡, 和诱捕老鼠. 如果一个生活在大城市的人想要释放体能, 或是满足血性的需要, 他就需要参加集体活动. 体育运动不论在伦敦还是在巴黎, 在罗马还是在拜占庭都很受重视: 中世纪的时候, 运动就是残忍的身体竞赛, 但起码这中模式跟政治不沾边, 也不涉及打群架的可能.

 

If you wanted to add to the vast fund of ill-will existing in the world at this moment, you could hardly do it better than by a series of football matches between Jews and Arabs, Germans and Czechs, Indians and British, Russians and Poles, and Italians and Jugoslavs, each match to be watched by a mixed audience of 100,000 spectators. I do not, of course, suggest that sport is one of the main causes of international rivalry; big-scale sport is itself, I think, merely another effect of the causes that have produced nationalism. Still, you do make things worse by sending forth a team of eleven men, labelled as national champions, to do battle against some rival team, and allowing it to be felt on all sides that whichever nation is defeated will “lose face”.

如果你想进一步扩大现有的大规模仇恨的话, 好方法只有一种: 你就想办法让犹太人和阿拉伯人之间踢几场足球赛, 或者德国人和捷克人, 印度人和英国人, 俄罗斯人和北极居民, 意大利人和南斯拉夫人也行, 没场比赛都有十万名来自双方的观众参加. 当然, 我也没有说, 国家仇恨的主要原因是运动. 我认为, 大规模体育比赛只是众多原因中另一个导致民族主义的原因. 尽管如此, 要是通过派遣一只带着全国冠军名号的足球队和他国对手打仗, 然后默许观众相信输掉比赛是一件丢面子的事情的话, 肯定会加重双方的仇恨.

 

I hope, therefore, that we shan't follow up the visit of the Dynamos by sending a British team to the USSR. If we must do so, then let us send a second-rate team which is sure to be beaten and cannot be claimed to represent Britain as a whole. There are quite enough real causes of trouble already, and we need not add to them by encouraging young men to kick each other on the shins amid the roars of infuriated spectators.

因此, 我希望, 我们不该再派一只英国足球队去回访苏联的Dynamos. 如果必须要的话, 我们就派一支注定输球的, 且不能代表全英国的二流队伍去. 问题的原因已经浮出水面, 我们不能再加重问题, 不能再鼓励年轻人互相伤害, 成为愤怒观众咆哮中的一分子了.

 
 

Atta.2

SP
1. disperse money(&...) too liberally. 花钱太大手大脚
2. children dispersed for holidays. 孩子们放假了
3. accustomed phlegm and drowsy tranquility.
平静沉稳深邃的
4. dissenminate sth. to sb. ...宣传...
5. sb. dissented from the majority opinion. 和主流的观点不符
6. concrete examples 活生生的例子
7. habitual touch 惯用的
8. amid all circumstances
9. bring to preeminent 使卓越
10. be downtrodden 遭受践踏
11. bottle sth. up 闷在里面
12. be obliged to sb. 感激某人
13. discreet conduct 办事周到
14. the current history is a history without current.
15. (e.g. the nomads) stirred afresh 动起来了
16. capture his inner mind/reshape him/comform him
17. sound investiment
18. keep to propriety 守礼节
19. assumed control of 重新控制
20. conspried agaist it 背叛 拆台
21. be contingent on 有赖于
e.g. the punctual arrival of an airplane is contigent on the weather
22. an exceptional being 非同寻常的人
e.g. Sheldon Copper
23. be amply repaid
24. lump of clay 身躯
e.g. he's not a mere lump of clay but a feeling creature.
25. facinate visitors 吸引游客
26. induce her to compose herself 让她安静下来
27. apply oneself to sth. 有志于做...
28. mete out cruel punishment 好好整治

 

------------------------------------

ZENG Yulun (Alan)

Beijing National Day School

 

 

曾与伦

北京市十一学校

 

 

 

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