**
英****语****学****术论****文常用句型**

** Beginning**

1. In this
paper。。

2. This paper proceeds as follow.

3. The
structure of the paper is as follows.

4. In this
paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related
concepts

5. To begin
with we will provide a brief background on the

**
Introduction**

1. This will
be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and
a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions
are defined.

2. Details
on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.

3. In the
next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various
situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first,
an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a
fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service
rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are
considered.

**
Review**

1. This
review is followed by an introduction.

2. A brief
summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is
presented in Section 2.

3. In the
next section, a brief review of the .... is given.

4. In the
next section, a short review of ... is given with special regard to
...

5. Section 2
reviews relevant research related to xx.

6. Section
1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action,
while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of
systems and outlines the need for development of possibility
methods.

**Body**

1. Section 1
defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its
importance.

2. Section 1
devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making
logic.

3. Section 2
gives the background of the problem which includes xxx

4. Section 2
discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language
understanding.

5. Section 2
explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed in terms
of fuzzy time window

6. Section 3
discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the
...

7. Section 3
describes the system itself in a general way, including the ….. and
also discusses how to evaluate system performance.

8. Section 3
describes a new measure of xx.

9. Section 3
demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of
xx.

10. Section
3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human
decision.

11. Section
3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision
rules

12. The main
idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes
the xx strategies.

13. Section
3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed
model.

14. Section
4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost variance
investigation.

15. Section
4 gives a specific example of xxx.

16. Section
4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory
process.

17. Section
4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of
Section 2 and 3.

18. Section
4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate
its use on experimental data.

19. Section
5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model
..

20. Section
5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.

21. Section
6 illustrates the model with an example.

22. Various
ways of justification and the reasons for their choice are
discussed very briefly in Section 2.

23. In
Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole
model of human DM system

24. In
Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a
... scheme must satisfy.

25. In
Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness
theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the
domain of discourse is order dense.

26. In
Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical
study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to
construct membership functions.

27. In
Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds
of inference experiments...

**
This Section**

1. In this section, the characteristics and environment under which
MRP is designed are described.

2. We will
provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are
necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.Next
Section

2. The next
section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer
implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.

3. However,
it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the
formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next
section.

4. The three
components will be described in the next two section, and an
example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then
illustrate their use.

5. We can
interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following
sections.

6. The next
section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for
arguments based on xx

**Summary**

1. This
paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration
in section 5.

2. Section 5
summarizes the results of this investigation.

3. Section 5
gives the conclusions and future directions of research.

4. Section 7
provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the
paper.

5. Finally,
conclusions and future work are summarized

6. The basic
questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are
drawn.

7. Section 7
is the conclusion of the paper.

**
Chapter 0. Abstract**

1. A basic
problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate
for the measurement of experimental variables.

2. This
paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics
which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.

3. This
paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.

4. The
method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.

5. The
procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.

6. The
technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx
algorithm.

7. The
usefulness of xx is also considered.

8. A brief
methodology used in xx is discussed.

9. The
analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.

10. A model
is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.

11.
Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are
presented and justified.

12. The use
of the method is discussed and an example is given.

13. Results
of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are
given to illustrate the proposed technique.

14. This
paper analyses problems in

15. This
paper outlines the functions carried out by ...

16. This
paper includes an illustration of the ...

17. This
paper provides an overview and information useful for
approaching

18. Emphasis
is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the
xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are
evaluated.

19. The main
emphasis is placed on the problem of xx

20. Our
proposed model is verified through experimental study.

21. The
experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases
of: xx, xx

22. The
compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise
represented by linguistic variables.

23. A
didactic example is included to illustrate the computational
procedure

**Chapter
1. Introduction**

Time

1. Over the
course of the past 30 years, .. has emerged form intuitive

2.
Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial
world

3. The
advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the

4. The
development of ... is explored

5. During
the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a
variety of directions

6.The
concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent
years

7. There has
been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance with the
advent of ...

8. A major
concern in ... today is to continue to improve...

9. A xx is a
latecomer in the part representation arena.

10. At the
time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx

11. Although
a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the
efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.

12. The
pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965].

13. To date,
none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready
to be used in commercial systems.

**Objective
/ Goal / Purpose**

1. The
purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:

2. The
ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to
utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of
loads, and to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for
xxx.

3. The paper
concerns the development of a xx

4. The scope
of this research lies in

5. The main
theme of the paper is the application of rule based decision
making.

6. These
objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as
to permit ...

7. The
objectives of the ... operations study are as follows:

8. The
primary purpose/consideration/objective of

9. The
ultimate goal of this concept is to provide

10. The main
objective of such a ... system is to

11. The aim
of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability
distribution.

12. In order
to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following
requirements:

13. In order
to take advantage of their similarity

14. more
research is still required before final goal of ... can be
completed

15. In this
trial, the objective is to generate...

16. for the
sake of concentrating on ... research issues

17. A major
goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently
developed procedure for the xx.

18. For an
illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are studied in
presence of fuzzy data: xx.

19. A major
thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for
structuring ..methods

20. This
illustration points out the need to specify

21. The
ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.

22. Chapter
2. Literature Review

23. A wealth
of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for
example, regarding xx

24. A
considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last
decade

25. A great
number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties
associated with xx.

26. There is
considerable amount of literature on planning

27. However,
these studies do not provide much attention to uncertainty in
xx.

28. Since
then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still
under investigation as well in

methodological aspects as in concrete applications.

29. Many
research studies have been carried out on this topic.

30. Problem
of xx draws recently more and more attention of system
analysis.

31. Attempts
to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of

32. Many
complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design
procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.

33. Most of
the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or
probabilistic in nature.

34. The
central issue in all these studies is to

35. The
problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however,
these studies have been based upon classical statistical
approaches.

36. Applied
... techniques to

37.
Characterized the ... system as

38.
Developed an algorithm to

39.
Developed a system called ... which

40. Uses an
iterative algorithm to deduce

41.
Emphasized the need to

42.
Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology

43. A
comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken

44. Much
work has been reported recently in these filed

45.
Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/

Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights

46. Point
out that the problem of

47. A study
on ...was done / developed by []

48. Previous
work, such as [] and [], deal only with

49. The
approach taken by [] is

50. The
system developed by [] consists

51. A paper
relevant to this research was published by []

52. []'s
model requires consideration of...

53. []'
model draws attention to evolution in human development

54. []'s
model focuses on...

55. Little
research has been conducted in applying ... to

56. The
published information that is relevant to this research...

57. This
study further shows that

58. Their
work is based on the principle of

59. More
history of ... can be found in xx et al. [1979].

60. Studies
have been completed to established

61. The
...studies indicated that

62. Though
application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent
years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking.

Problem /
Issue / Question

63.
Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as
manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined
model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration
of multiple aspects.

64. Remedy /
solve / alleviate these problems

67. ... is a
difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved

68. Two
major problems have yet to be addressed

69. An
unanswered question

70. This
problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.

71. An
additional research issue to be tackled is ....

72. Some
important issues in developing a ... system are discussed

73. The
three prime issues can be summarized:

74. The
situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ...

75. There
have been many attempts to

76. It is
expected to be serious barrier to

77. It
offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a
complex

加载中，请稍候......