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动画基本原理

(2011-04-21 21:54:51)
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杂谈

角色动画。这个词语能召唤一系列图像,从走路的扫柄和说话的老鼠,到跳舞的虫子和能飞的玩具。它也使我们在半夜时还在计划,绘画,修改,练习,再练习和更多的练习,一个坚苦的,但值得的艺术。

随着计算机的降临,越来越多的人开始接受不可思议的质量和为创建高质量和CG角色动画的工具。然而,高质量不意味着容易掌握。许多顶级动画师花费多年练习去学习这个手艺。在所有的计算机图形和艺术领域内,动画也许是最难的。

动画师不仅必须有技术能力去调整角色,也必须有一个关于时间,观察力,和运动敏锐的感觉。总的来说他必须是一个演员,有一种使物体鲜活和自然的感觉。产生这点要学习不同领域的知识,动画师就能实现不可思议的变化,他们会使无生命的角色变成有生命。

下列所述,是许多职业动画师在他们学习这项艺术的过程中学习和发现总结出来的原理。这些原理既适用于传统的角色动画形式又适用于计算机动画形式。除了某些基本原理外,我也增加了这些原理的新的变化和合并。

这些原理的每一个被定义和解释,用文字和实际的动画例子。这个目的不仅是定义了这个原理是什么,也展示了如何,和何时,在一个真正的动画过程中可利用的原理。在它们中,它们只是原则,指导去学习,练习,和理解。用在与一个演员的感觉相同,它们能帮助你去创建真实的和有趣的角色动画。

动画的12个基本原理

The 12 basic principles of animation are listed below. You may see them in a slightly different form or order in other articles, books or magazines. I have listed them here as shown, because I feel this order facilitates learning them more easily. You can learn one first, then go on to the next building up your skills. I also feel they tend to be related, and flow more easily from one to the other in this order.

动画的12个基本原理列在下面。你也许在其它文档,书本和杂志中看到过不同的格式和顺序。我把它们列成下面的顺序,是因为这个顺序使人更容易学习。你能学习第一个,然后到下一个来构建你的技巧。我也感觉到它们趋向于更有联系,并且更容易地从一个流动到下一个原理在这个顺序上。

  1. Timing 时间
  2. Ease In and Out (or Slow In and Out) 缓入和缓出
  3. Arcs 弧线
  4. Anticipation 预期
  5. Exaggeration 夸张
  6. Squash and Stretch 压缩和伸展
  7. Secondary Action 二级动作
  8. Follow Through and Overlapping Action 完结和交迭动作
  9. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-To-Pose Action 直接向前的动作和POSE到POSE的动作
 10. Staging 分段
 11. Appeal 吸引力
 12. Personality 个性化

By following and knowing when, where and how to apply these basic ideas, and by understanding them, one should be able to create good animation. It is important to note that simply memorizing these principles isn't the point. No one will care whether or not you know this list. It's whether or not you truly understand and can utilize these ideas that matter. If you do, it will show automatically in your work.

下面我们要知道何时,何处和如何去赋予这些基本概念,并理解它们,这样我们就能创建出好的动画。重要的是记住简单记住那些原理不是要点。没有人关心你是否知道这个原理。你是否真正理解它并能统一这些概念在动画中。如果你做到了,这些原理会自动地体现在你的工作中。

1. Timing时间

It may seem kind of silly to even have something as basic as timing on the list. Obviously timing is the essence of animation. The speed at which something moves gives a sense of what the object is and why it is moving. Something like an eye blink can be fast or slow. If it's fast, a character will seem alert and awake. If it's slow the character may seem tired and lethargic.

这看起来是一种无聊,把时间列在原理中。显然时间是动画的基础。某些东东的移动速度能给我们这个物体是什么和这个物体为什么移动的感觉。有些东东如眼睑能运动的快或慢速。如果它是快的,一个角色将看来是警觉的和清醒的。如果它运动的比较慢,那么角色看来是疲劳的和昏睡的。

John Lasseter gave a good example in his famous Siggraph paper using a character with a head that turns left and right. Essentially, he gives different durations for the exact same head turn motions, and shows how it can be 'read' differently based merely on the timing. If the head turns back and forth really slow, it may seem as if the character is stretching his neck. A bit faster it can be seen as saying "no". Really fast, and the character is reacting to getting hit by a baseball bat.

John Lasseter提供了一个好例子在他的著名的SIG论文中使用一个角色头部从左转向右面的例子。基本上,他提供了不同的持续时间,在实际的头部转向运动,并显示了仅仅在时间上不同如何得到不同的解读。如果头部转向后和转向前真的很慢,它也许看来角色在伸长他的脖子。如果有一点快它看来是在说“不”。相当快时,它也许是角色刚被棒球棒击打过。

Having a good sense of timing is critical for good animation. Cartoony motion is usually characterized as fast snappy timing from one pose to another. Realistic tends to have more to do about going between the poses. But both require careful attention to the timing of every action.

对于好动画有一个良好的时间感觉是至关重要的。卡通动作通常是个性化的如从一个POSE到另一个POSE如快速的时间滑过。真正的趋向于有一个更多的去做在两个POSE间,但需要在每个动作时间上细心的注意。

I think it was Chuck Jones who said "The difference between the right timing and the almost right timing, is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug."

Chuck Jones说:最大的不同是在正确的时间和几乎正确的时间。也是正确的灯光和灯光错误之间的不同。

2. Ease In and Out (or Slow In and Out)缓入和缓出


Ease in and out has to do with gradually causing an object to accelerate, or come to rest, from a pose. An object or limb may slow down at it approaches a pose (Ease In) or gradually start to move from rest (Ease Out).

缓入和缓出处理导致一个物体从一个POSE逐渐地去加速,或停止移动。一个物体或肢体也许在它要达到一个POSE时会慢下来(缓入)或从停止处逐渐开始移动(缓出)。

For example, a bouncing ball tends to have a lot of ease in and out when at the top of its bounce. As it goes up, gravity affects it and slows down (Ease In), then it starts its downward motion more and more rapidly (Ease Out), until it hits the ground.

例如,一个弹跳的球在它跳到顶部时趋向于缓入和缓出。当他上升时,重力影响它使它变慢(缓入),然后开始下降时动作就越来越快速(缓出)直到它弹跳到地面。

It's important to note that "gradually" here doesn't have to mean slow. It just means the object isn't moving 100% and then in one frame coming to a complete stop. For snappy cartoon motion, you may have ease in and out over only a couple of frames. But even 3 frames of ease in and out may help a limb from looking too stiff or mechanical.

重要的是注意“逐渐地”不意味着是慢下来。它只是意味着物体不是100%的移动并且在一帧处达到完全停止。对于快速的卡通动画,你也许只在一系列帧上缓入和缓出。但甚至三帧的缓入和缓出将帮助一个肢体运动从看来比较生硬或机械转到自然中。

As applied to character animation, you usually use ease in and out for most movemnts. Even if the character is just turning their head, you will probably want a few frames to soften up the start or end of the motion.

作为赋予到角色动画,你通常使用缓入和缓出为大多数的动作。即使角色只是转头,你将也许需要少量的帧去柔化动画的开始或结束部分。

3. Arcs弧线


In the real world almost all action moves in an arc. When creating animation one should try to have motion follow curved paths rather than linear ones. It is very seldom that a character or part of a character moves in a straight line. Even gross body movements when you walk somewhere tend not be perfectly straight. When a hand/arm reaches out to reach something, it tends to move in an arc.


在真实的世界几乎所有的运动都是弧线。当创建动画一个应该有动画跟随路径胜于直线路径。在角色或角色的一部分运动时是一个直线的情况是非常少的。甚至总的身体有时走路时也不是一个完美的直线。当一个手或手臂伸出去拿什么东东时,它趋向运动为一个弧线。

Sticking with the head example, the head rotates in an arc like fashion. That is if a characters head rotates from left to right, at the halfway point, it should actually be dipped or raised slighly depends on where it is looking. This stops the rotation from being perfect linear or mechanical looking.

用一个头部运动的例子,头部的旋转是一个弧线。如果一个角色的头部从左旋转到右,在一半的点上,它应该向下点一下或向上抬一点,由它是看哪里来决定的。这会停止完全直线的旋转和机械的感觉。

4. Anticipation预期

Action in animation usually occurs in three sections. The setup for the motion, the actual action and then follow-through of the action. The first part is known as anticipation.

动画里的动作通常分为三个部分。动画的准备,实际的动作和完结动作。第一部分动作我们称为预期。

In some cases anticipation is needed physically. For example, before you can throw a ball you must first swing your arm backwards. The backwards motion is the anticipation, the throw itself is the motion.

在某些情况下预期是身体上的必须。例如,在你扔一个球时你必须引手臂到身后。这个向后的运动是预其。扔出它是动作。

Anticipation is used to lead the viewers eye to prepare them for the action that follows. Generally, a longer period of anticipation is needed for faster actions. If you think about cartoons, you've probably seen cases where a character zips off screen leaving a puff of smoke. Usually just before the zip, there is a pose where the characters raises a leg and bends both arms as if he's about to run. That's the anticipation pose for the off screen run.

预期是用于引导观看者的眼睛去准备动作的发生。通常地,一个长一点的预期动画是为了更快的动作。如果你回想一个卡通动画,你也许看到过一个角色拉长地离开屏幕并带起一阵烟。在拉长离开前,那个角色会有一个POSE,它抬起一条腿和弯曲两个手臂如果它想要跑出。这就是为了离开屏幕跑动的预期。

Generally, for good clear animation, the viewer should know what is about happen (anticipation), what is happening (the actual action itself) and what happened (related to follow through).

通常地,一个好的干净的动画,观看者应试知道什么将要发生(预期),什么正在发生(实际动作本身)和什么已经发生了(相对于完结动作)。

Most body movements of a character require anticipation in some form, especially from rest. For example, before a character takes a step to walk, they must shift their weight on one leg so they can lift the other, another example of anticipation.

角色中的大部分身体运动需要某种形式的预期,特别是从静止时开始。例如,在一个角色开始走路的一步,它们必须移动它们的重量到一条腿上所以它们能抬起另一条腿,这是另一个动作的预期。

5. Exaggeration夸张

Exaggeration is used to accent an action. It should be used in a careful and balanced manner, not arbitrarily. Figure out what the desired goal of an action or sequence is and what sections need to be exaggerated. The result will be that the animation will seem more realistic and entertaining.

夸张是用于去强调一个动作。它应该以一个细心和平衡的方式来使用,不是随意地。我们要想到什么是期望的动作或序列的目标和哪个动作需要被夸张。这种结果将会使动画更真实和更有趣。

One can exaggerate motions, for example an arm may move just a bit too far briefly in an extreme swing. A pose can be exaggerated, perhaps the characters leans just a bit farther than normal. Generally when animating to dialogue, one listens to the track and picks out areas that sound like they have more stress or importance, and then tends to exaggerate poses and motions that fall at those times.

一个能夸张的动作,例如一个手臂也许在暂时上是一个极端的一个摆动位置。一个POSE能被夸张,也许角色的动作只比正常时夸大一点。通常当做说话的动画时,在倾听音轨时,我们要寻找一部分区域,那个时间区域里的声音更有重音或更重要时,这时动作要走向夸张POSE或动作。

The key is to take something and make it more extreme in order to give it more life, but not so much that it destroys believability.

这个关键点是去找到什么并使它更极端去为了使它更自然,但不能太过使它破坏了可信度。


6. Squash and Stretch压缩或伸展


Squash and stretch is a way of deforming an object such that it shows how rigid the object is. For example if a rubber ball bounces and hits the ground it will tend to flatten when it hits. This is the squash principle. As it starts to bounce up it will stretch in the direction it is going. Squash and Stretch was also initially done to prevent strobing due to lack of motion blur. However even in cases where motion blur can be used, there may still be reasons to use it.

压缩或伸展是变形一个物体的方式所以它显示了一个物体有多么硬。例如如果一个橡胶球弹跳并击打在地面时,它将趋向压平它当它击在地面时。这是压缩的原理。当它开始弹跳时它将在它要运动的方向上伸展。压缩和伸展在最初时也是做完的去防止由于大量的运动模糊所产生的滤波作用。虽然在例子中那些地方上能使用运动模糊,那里仍然有原因去使用它。

An important note about squash and stretch, is that no matter how an object deforms, it should still appear to retain it's volume. That is, if a ball flattens down 2 times as much as normal, it will have to get 2 times as wide to keep its volume. If a character or part of a character doesn't maintain volume with squash and stretch, believeability will be lost.

关于压缩和伸展的重点是,不要在乎一个物体如何变形,它将仍然保持它的体积。那就是,这个球在它的纵向上压缩二倍,那么应该在横向上伸展两倍。如果一个角色或角色的部分在压缩或伸展时没有保持质量,可信度将会丢失。

The most obvious usage in character animation is muscles. When a muscle is contracted it will squash and when extended, it stretches. Not every part of a realistic character should have this principle applied. For example, the skeleton or things like eyeballs etc may not really deform much, though the flesh around them may.

角色动画中最明显的用法是肌肉运动。当一个肌肉是当它压缩时被压缩的,当伸展时它是伸长了。不是每个真实的角色部分需要有这个原理来应用。例如,骨骼或如眼球类的东东等也许不会真正的变形很多,尽管可以压缩它。

Most people try NOT to simply use scaling for squash and stretch. Real squash and stretch is usually some part of an object deforming differently that just a simple scale up or down. This presents a challenge to get CG squash and stretch looking as nice as drawn poses, since it's usually a bit tougher to easily animate random shape deformation.

大部分人只是简单地为压缩或伸展来使用缩放。真正的压缩和伸展通常是一个物体的某个部分,它不同于只是简单地缩放。这提供了一个挑战去得到一个CG的压缩和伸展,使它看来更好作为一个绘画的POSE。因为它是通常使用有一点生硬去容易地动画随机地变形。

Rigid objects can still squash and stretch in a way. Think of the lamps in Luxo Jr. The lamp itself is a rigid metal object. But before it jumps it anticipates the action by crouching down and bending. That bending is basically squash and stretch.

刚性物体仍然能在一个方式上压缩和伸展。想像一个PIXAR的灯,它本身是一个金属物体,但在它准备跳跃之前,它伏低身子并且弯曲。这个弯曲就是基于压缩和伸展原理的。


7. Secondary Action二级动作

Secondary action creates interest and realism in animation. It should be staged such that it can be noticed but still not overpower the main action. A good example of this is a character at a table acting and delivering their main acting. A side piece of acting business might be the character thumbing their fingers on the table. This isn't the main action say, perhaps it occurs as the other hand is more largely gesturing and your focus is on the face. But it is something that the character is doing/acting that adds a more realistic and natural feel to the animation. As mentioned, it must be staged so that the main action isn't overpowered. It's the kind of thing that is usually more subtle or can be felt more than noticed immediately.

二级动作在动画中创建兴趣和真实。它应该被做出来但它不会太另人注意所以它不会过分影响主要动作。一个好的例子一个在桌边的角色在发表和传递他的演说。在桌边发表的学说时一个小部分是他手部中手指的动作。这说过不是主要动作,也许他发生在另一个手上有更多的POSE但也许你注意了它的脸。但我们加上这些二级动作,会使这个角色的动作或表演更加真实和自然。如上所述,它应该被做出来而且是主要的动作不会被压制。这种事情通常更微妙和不会立即注意到。


8. Follow Through and Overlapping Action完结动作和交迭动作


Follow Through is the same as anticipation, only at the end of an action. It is usually animated as something goes past its resting point and then coming back to where it would normally be.

完结动作如预期一样,仅在一个动作的未段。它是通常动画的如某些东东回到它的静止点并且回到它的自然状态。

For example, in throwing a ball, you put your hand back, that's anticipation, it's the preparation for the throwing action itself. Then you throw the arm comes forward for the main action. Follow Through is then the arm continuing past the normal stopping point, overshooting it and then coming back. The arm has continued or "followed through" on the action it was doing before returning back to rest.

例如,在扔一球的过程中,你将向后引臂,这是预期,这是为扔球动作本身做准备。然后你挥动手臂向前去扔东东,这是主要动作。完结动作是手臂回到正常的起始点,打过头后然后回来。手臂仍然继续或在动作上完结。它将返回到先前静止的状态。

Overlapping Action is an action that occurs because of another action. For example if a dog is running and suddenly comes to a stop, its ears will probably still keep moving for a bit. Another example, if an alien is walking and it has an antenna on it, the antenna will probably sway as a result of the main body motion. This is overlapping action. It is caused because of the main motion and overlaps on top of the main motion.

交迭动作是一个动作的发生是因为另一个动作。例如如果一个狗在奔跑并且突然停止下来,它的耳朵将仍然保持运动。另一个例子,如果一个外星人走路,并且它头上长有一个天线,这个天线随着身体运动而摇摆。这就是交迭运动。它的产生是由于主体的运动和在主体上的交迭运动。

9. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-To-Pose Action直接向前的动作和POSE到POSE的动作

There are 2 basic methods to creating animation. Straight ahead animation is one where the animator draws or sets up objects one frame at a time in order. For example, the animator draws the first frame of the animation, then draws the second, and so on until the sequence is complete. In this way, there is one drawing or image per frame that the animator has setup. This approach tends to yield a more creative and fresh look but can be difficult to time correctly and tweak.

这里有两个基本方法去创建动画。直接向前动画是动画师按照时间的顺序来绘制或设置物体动画。如动画师将绘制第一帧的动画,然后画第二帧,并且如此下去直到序列完成。在这种方式下,这里的每个画面或图像都是动画师绘制的。这个方法趋向一个更有创造力和新鲜的感觉但在时间上可能不会正确并且不易调整。

The other approach is Pose-To-Pose animation. Pose to Pose is created by drawing or setting up key poses and then drawing or creating inbetween images. This is the basic computer "keyframe" approach to animation. It is excellent for tweaking timing and planning out the animation ahead of time. You figure out the key poses, and then the motion inbetween is generated from that. This is very useful when specific timing or action must occur at specific points. You always know exactly what will happen.

另一个方法是POSE到POSE的动画。POSE到POSE是设置关键帧POSE并且绘制或创建中间的图像。这也是基于计算机的关键帧的方法来完成动画。它是非常优秀的去调整时间和计划动画的时间。你画出关键POSE,然后在中间的动作从这点来产生。这是非常有用当指定时间或动作必须发生在特定的点上。你也一直确切的知道什么要发生。

The basic difference is with Pose-To-Pose you plan out, and know exactly what will happen ahead of time, whereas with Straight Ahead, you're not quite sure how things will turn out until you are done. With computers, some people tend to create a hybrid of the two, planning out the overall poses, and then straight ahead animating the stuff inbetween. (See #17, Blocking/Refining below)

最基本的不同对于POSE到POSE方式是你的计划。并且你提早知道什么将要发生,然而对于直接向前的方式,你不确定有多少东东会产生直到你做完。对于计算机,有些人喜欢两种方式的混合,计划大概的POSE,然后直接向前动画中间的东东。

10. Staging演出

Staging is presenting an action or item so that it is easily understood. In general, action is presented one item at a time. If too much is going on the audience will be unsure what to look at and the action will be "upstaged". One important facet of staging is staging in "silhouette". This means that a pose of an object or character can be interpreted even in a black and white silhouette. If you can not "read" the pose of a character in silhouette it is not a strong pose and should probably be changed.

演出是一个动作或项目的预演出所以它容易理解。通常中,动画在一次展示它。如果太多将要进行观众将不确定要看什么并且动作不会被分段化。演出一个重要的方面是分段为大轮廓。这意味着一个物体或角色的POSE能被整合为一个黑白轮廓。如果你不能解读角色的POSE在大轮廓中。它不是一个强烈的POSE并且也许会被改变。

With characters, it is important to really think about whether or not each pose for an action adequately and correctly reads to the audience. You should also make sure no two parts of a character contradict each other (unless it's intended). For example if you're staging a sad pose you may have the character hunched over with his arms hanging at his sides and a high camera angle...but if you give him this big grin on his face it won't fit with the rest of the pose.

对于角色,重要的是真正的考虑一个动作的每个POSE是否被观众充分地和正确的读解。你也应该确定没有一个角色的两部分是彼此矛盾的(除非它是有意的)。例如如果你是表演一个悲伤的POSE你也许应该弯下角色的腰垂下它的手臂并给一个高的摄像机角度。但如果你给他一个大的笑容在面部,那么他就不会和它的身体相对称。

Staging multiple characters is also an important issue. Generally you want to always make sure you know where the audience is looking within the shot. Background characters must be animated such that they are still "alive", but not so much that they steal the viewers attention from the main action. Staging like this is also related to a lot of directing and editing principles. I'd highly recommend reading "Film Directing: Shot by Shot" by Steven Katz for a good book on this type of stuff.

演出多个角色也应该是一个重要的问题。通常你要一直确定你知道观众在镜头里看的是哪里。背景中的角色必须是动画的表明他们的是活的,但不能动作太大防止让观众从主要动作中注意到它们。表演也与大量的导演和编辑原理相关。


11. Appeal吸引力

Appeal means anything that a person likes to see. This can be quality of charm, design, simplicity, communication or magnetism. Appeal can be gained by correctly utilizing other principles such as exaggeration in design, avoiding symmetry, using overlapping action, and others. One should strive to avoid weak or awkard design, shapes and motion.

吸引力意味着一个人喜欢去观看的任何事。这能成为吸引力,设计,简洁,信息或磁力的性质。吸引力能被增强通过正确地统一其它原理如在设计中的夸张,避免对称,使用交迭动作等。动画师应该努力避免无力的设计,形状和动作。

It's important to note that appeal doesn't neccesarily mean good vs. evil. For example, in Disney's animated classic "Peter Pan", Captain Hook is an evil character, but most people would agree that his character and design has appeal. The same goes for Hopper in "A Bug's Life". Even though he's mean and nasty, his design and characterization/personality still has a lot of appeal.

重点是注意吸引力不必意味着好或坏。例如,在迪斯尼的动画作品“小飞侠”,HOOK是一个坏角色,但大部分人同意它的角色和设计有吸引力。在昆虫总动员中的角色HOOPER,即使它是卑鄙和肮脏和,它的设计和个性仍然有大量的吸引力。

12. Personality个性化


This word isn't actually a true principle of animation, but refers to the correct application of the other principles. Personality determines the success of an animation. The idea is that the animated creature really becomes alive and enters the true character of the role. One character would not perform an action the same way in two different emotional states. No two characters would act the same. It is also important to make the personality of a character distinct, but at the same time be familiar to the audience.

这个词汇不是一个真正的动画原理,但引用到其它原理的正确应用。个性化决定了一个动画的成功。这个概念是动画的角色真正成为鲜活的和进入角色内心中。一个角色在两种不同的情绪状态下不会完成表演一个动作以同样的方式。两个角色不会表演一样的。这也是重要的去使一个角色具有明显的个性化特点,但在同时观众会觉得亲切。

Personality has a lot to do with what is going on in the mind of the character, as well as the traits and mannerisms of the character. It is helpful to have some background in acting, and certainly taking an acting or improv class as an animator is a good idea.

个性化有大量的工作要去处理在角色的内心中什么是将要做的事情,还有角色的特性和习惯等。它是有帮助的去对于有表演背景的人,并且学习表演对于动画师是一个好想法。 Beyond the 12 Basic Principles超越12个基本原理

The following are principles that are combinations, or additions to the basic 12. They generally require a good understanding and practice of the basics, but are themselves very common, and so deserve to be mentioned separately here.

下面是这些原理的合并,或12个原理的附属物。这通常需要一个基础的好的理解和基本练习,但它们自己是非常通用的,并且应该分开来说一下。

Special thanks to Jeremy Cantor and Ken Cope from whom most of these additions originated. Most of the text for these was written by them directly.


0. Truly understand the Big 12真正理解12个基本原理


I list this as number zero because I think it is absolutely the most important. I find a lot of folks who painstakingly memorize and study the 12 basic principles to the point that they can rattle them off the top of their heads at a moment's notice. However, MEMORIZING a set of rules and UNDERSTANDING a set of rules are two very different things. Understanding means knowing when and where to apply them (if at all) and how much. You don't necessarily want to incorporate all twelve into every performance. Some are simply inappropriate in certain situations. I too often see blind implementation of the rules which result in things like squash & stretch being applied to bowling balls, or too much anticipation given to a cat doing a jump. (Because of its weight to volume ratio and the fact that its skeleton is already in an anticipated pose, a cat doesn't need to crouch before leaping. It simply extends from its already crouched default pose.)

列出个第0条原理是因为我想这绝对是最重要的。我发现大量的人辛苦的记住并学习12个基本原理去指导它们能在头脑中马上想起来。然而,记住这些规则和理解这些规则是两件不同的事。理解意味着知道何时和何地去使用它们并且使用到什么程度。在每个动画中你不需要整合所有的12个动画原理。有些原理在特定的情况下不适用。我也经常在原理上有失误的情况。比如将压缩和伸展原理应用在保龄球上,或太多的原理给一个跳跃的猫。

If a director tells you to make your character look heavier, believe me you are not going to find the answer to doing that by simply reading the list of the big 12. It ain't on there. Rather the answer is found in truly UNDERSTANDING the 12 principles and combining several of them effectively.

如果一个导演告诉你使你的角色看来更有重量,相信我你不会在读这12个原理去寻找答案。它不在那里。真正的答案在你真正的理解12个基本原理并且有效的合并其中的几个。

Once agaim truly understand the big 12. Everything else is using some or all of those 12 principles towards solving trickier problems. I'd almost want to call them parts of speech in an animator's vocabulary. I can name a couple of problems that a working familiarity with the big twelve can help you solve.

一旦真正理解这12个原理。每样事情在使用一些或全部12个上面的原理去机智地解决问题。我几乎要说这些是动画师词汇的一部分。我能提出一系列和工作中相似的问题来用这十二个原理帮助我们来解决。

13. Weight重量


This is really a function of properly addressing 1(Timing), 2(Slow in/out), 3(Arcs), 4(Anticipation), 5(Exaggeration) 6(Sq&Str), 7(Secondary), 8(FollowThru/Overlap) and 10(Staging), but I think it deserves its own category especially since it's something that is very often lacking in a lot of CG character work out there.

这是一个真正的原理的合并,时间,缓入缓出,弧线,预期,夸张,压缩和伸展,二级动作,完结动作和交迭动作和表演,但我想它值得做为一个原理,特别是因为它经常面对,尤其是在CG类的角色动画中出现。

Learn to understand these basics and how to apply them to show weight. 学习去理解那些原理并且如何应用它们去显示重量。

14. Posing (& anatomy)姿势

This is more or less a sub-category of "staging" and "appeal" but, again, it is so important that I think it should be listed separately. Not to be confused with number 9 (pose to pose vs. straight ahead) which merely addresses the difference between the two methods. What I'm talking about is paying close attention to anatomy (understand the underlying structure) and "appealing" poses. Watch out for center-of-gravity placement, off balance problems, too much symmetry and such.


这多多少少是表演和吸引力原理的子概念,但它也是非常重要所以我想它应该被分开列在这里。不要因为第9个原理而困惑,在两个方法间有很少的差距。当我提出要注意解剖学(理解下面的结构)并且有吸引力的POSE。观察重力的位置,平衡问题,是不是太对称等。

15. Non-symmetrical Posing and Performing非对称POSE和表演

Again, more or less a sub-category of "appeal" and "overlapping action". This is something I'd definitely list under the category of "Most Common Character Animation Blunders" (another topic) and therefore deserves to be on this list. Watch out for poses where the left half of a character is a mirror of the right (Twins) and animations where (for instance) both arms hit their extreme poses on exactly the same frame (also Twins). Break it up.

这个,多多少少是吸引力和交迭动作的子原理。这里有些东东我把它列在一个文章里“大多数角色动画的问题”(另一个题目)因此它应该被列在这里。比较一下角色的左半部分是否是右半部分的镜像,并且角色的两个手臂的动画是否在同一帧处到达同一位置。

Usually if a character takes a pose or moves or stops moving, you don't want every section of the character to start and stop at exactly the same time. If it does, it will seem very rigid or mechanical. This slight breakup of timing is a way to avoid twins in the time realm.

通常情况下一个角色摆一个POSE或停止移动,你不会看到角色的每个部分从开始到结束以完全同样的时间。如果是这样了,它会看来非常硬或机械的。在时间上调整一下会避免这个问题。

For example, if a character is standing and then shift his weight, puts his hand on his hip and the other hand points at the camera, you might break this up so each part occurs at a slightly offset time. Almost every action can be overlapped this way. Another sample would be if a character jumps up and lands on the ground. Instead of having both feet hit at the same time and the arms swing back (a good example of follow through) to counteract the landing also on the same frame, each foot could hit a few frames apart and the arms could continue to move even longer afterwards.

例如,如果一个角色是站着移动它的重量,移动他的臀部抬起他的手指向摄像机,你也许在时间上打碎一点使动作不生硬。几乎每个动画都用这种方式产生交迭。另一个例子里如果这个角色跳起来并且着地。用一个两脚同时着要和两臂一起摆动的例子,另一个是着地几乎是同时帧,足部分别着地,手部运动不太同样的例子相比,后者更自然一些。


16. Plan Ahead在前面计划

Hopefully this doesn't need much elaboration. In general the more planning, and thumbnails, acting, brainstorming etc you can do, the stronger your animation will be.

希望做这点它不需要过多的细节。在通常中更多的计划,或小图,动作,讨论等你能做的,会增强你的动画的。

One other piece of advice I would give anyone trying to figure out how to animate an action or character is, get up and act it out! You should find that if you can get up, and feel and see how the action is, you can animate it a lot easier.

我给动画师的另一个建议要试图画出一个动作或角色是怎么样的,起来并将之应用。你应当寻找如果你做了,你能感觉到并看到动作是怎么样的,这样你能动画它更容易一些。

17. Blocking/Refining模块化/微调

I'd also extend #9 (Straight Ahead vs Pose to Pose) to incorporate a third method of animating (which applies mainly to CG). Blocking/Refining. This is where you get your basic timing and trajectories worked out first. Then you work inward toward the details. Kinda like doing a painting. Broad strokes first to get the overall composition and colors, then use increasingly smaller brushes to hone in on the details overall (rather than finishing one corner then moving to the next).

我也将每9个原理(直接向前和POSE到POSE)去整合为一个第三种动画的方式(主要用于CG类动画)。模块化/微调。这样你在开始工作前有一个基础的时间和运动轨迹。然后你增加细节。有一点象绘画。首先做主要的笔触去获得大的结构和色彩感觉,然后使用小的笔刷去调整细节部分。

Another important note with refining is the method John Lasseter mentioned in his siggraph paper. This consists of animating the root of the hierarchy first, like the torso or pelvis of a character, and then working outwards towards the extremities. Details like fingers are done last. Mostly for computer animation, this allows one to very easily get the broad timing and problems worked out, before there are too many keyframes elsewhere to be adjusted easily. For example, for a walk, one could animate the root of the character moving and bouncing first. Once that is set, add in the legs and spine. Then further refine it to add other details.

另一个重要的部分调整的方法。首先动画的根节点,如角色的上半身或骨盆位置,然后直到身体的未端。细节如手指放在最后做。最常用的计算机动画,比如说走路,动画师应当动画角色的根节点移动和弹跳首先。一旦设置完成,然后是腿部和脊椎骨。最后定义其它细节。

18. Intentionality有意图的

The absence of this item results in characters looking "moved" rather than "moving." I want to see the character move as a result of its own apparent intentionality, not just because that's where the animator put it. This was inspired by an Ollie Johnston quote "Don't move anything unless you understand its purpose."


没有这个条目它个条目的结果看来为了移动而移动。我要看到这个角色移动为一个自己明显的意图。不只是因为动画师要放在那。这也是动画师说过的:不要移动它除非你知道它的目的。

If everything is moving for a specific reason, the movements are more likely to appear to be externalizations of an internal thought process, your classic personality animation. If the intentions, the goals behind all of a character's movements can be clearly read, there won't be room for any cues that read false. Mastering this makes the difference between a character that has been posed, and one who strikes a pose.

如果每样东东为一个特别的目的移动,这个动作是更象是一个内在想法的过程的客观表现,你的经典个性动画。如果有意图,在所有的角色动画移动的后面的目的是能被清晰的读解,这里没有任何能产生读解失误的情况发生。掌握这点将会使动画很大不同,一个是摆出来的角色,一个是打动人的角色。

With a character's actions and reactions to its environment you can show that it behaves with intentionality, and get inside its thought processes.

角色的作用与反作用到它的环境你能显示它的有意图的行为,并且得到它的思考过程。

More elementarily, if a sleeve should drag when a hand changes direction, and you make no provision for moving it the way it should move, you have violated the intentionality of that sleeve ("wanting" to behave according to its inertia) by making it do something it would not have done ordinarily, making it look like it was something you did instead of the sleeve doing it.

更多的要素,如果一个手臂改变方向袖子将拖动,并且你为了它应该移动的方向作好准备,你应该违反袖子的意图通过做某些事它应该不是通常做过的,使它看来象它是某些东东你应该代替袖子的事情。

19. Isolation孤立

This is really for CG character animation. 这是一个真正的CG角色动画的原理

This comes from a dancer's vocabulary, the ability to isolate, say, a shoulder movement from what the head is doing... or hips from the shoulders. Too frequently, habits acquired from early days, or restricted subsets of animation tools, make us settle for artifacts of setup that hamper the ability to place and time the movement of a body part where and when we want it, merely because its parent is in the wrong place, or moving the parent would disturb too many children and it's too late to revise now. Strange epicycles are the result, instead of good arcs.

这来自一个舞蹈和词汇,孤立的能力,也就是说,当肩部移动而头部是不动的,或者跨部运动而肩部不动。太频繁地,每天完成这个习惯,或限制动画工具的子工具,使我们满足于老的设置,并且妨碍一个身体移动的我们需要的位置及时间,很少是因为它的父节点是错误的地方,或者父节点将打乱太多的子物体并且比较迟地修正它。结果是奇怪的轨迹,代替了好的弧线。

Your planning must be rock solid to animate without the capacity to revise the position and timing of any part of a character without fear of destroying a ton of work. If a puppeteer can move a character's hips, leaving the knees and shoulders in place, as easily as can a pencil animator, why should it be harder in CG? Isolate the timing, as well as the position, from other parts of the character and points in time.

你的计划必须被摇动实体去动画不需要去修正一个角色的任何部分的位置和时间的能力,不用担心破坏一系列工作。如果一个提线木偶能移动一个角色的跨部,抬起它的肩和膝在一个适当的位置,尽量容易地一个铅笔动画师,为什么他在CG上比较困难?弧立时间,同样是位置,从角色和指向时间的其它部分。

20. Snap吸住

Snap is related to #1(timing), and is mostly mentioned in relation to computer animation which many times is considered "floaty" or too loose. For cartoonish animation, most movements or pose changes can occur in only a few frames. With a lot of good ease in/out, a well animated character with snap, will look much more appealing and alive than one that has too much floaty inbetweens.

吸住是与第一个原理有关(时间),相比计算机动画也是最多被说到的,它有许多次被提到很浮或很松。在卡通片中,动画,大多数的移动或POSE的改变只发生在几帧中。有大量的缓入和缓出,一个好的动画的角色能吸住宅区,看来起有更多的吸引力和更鲜活,它比中间帧更浮的效果要好。

Computer animation has a tendency to look very flowing and mushy and it is a good idea to work on timing and editing spline curves to add some snap to your animation. Even realistic animation which tends to have less quick pose to pose movements may still have snap in some cases (for example in hands or in extreme motions).

计算机动画有一个趋势去看到非常平滑及糊的,那么一个好办法是在时间上处理和编辑动画曲线去增加一些吸住在你的动画中,几乎每一个真实的动画它趋向有少的快速的POSE到POSE的运动,也许仍然能在某些例子上吸住(例如在手或在极端位置)。



 

 

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