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西工大附中高中英语竞赛辅导材料及答案

(2010-07-22 22:10:36)
标签:

高考

陕西

考试

英语阅读

中学生

教育

西工大附中高中英语竞赛辅导材料及答案

 

注:本期竞赛内容选自考研英语辅导资料

 

 

第二部分  翻译练习 

一、翻译技巧

(一)单词的翻译

1.词义的选择与引申

词义的选择是翻译过程中关键的一步。翻译时应根据上下文及搭配词来确定词性及词义,例如heavy一词在下面不同的上下文中有着截然不同的译法。

heavy seas 波涛汹涌的大海a heavy investor 巨额投资者heavy matters of state 国家大事

a heavy drinker 酒瘾极大的人a heavy fog 浓雾heavy responsibilities 重大责任

a heavy heart 沉重的心情heavy traffic 繁忙的交通heavy news 令人忧虑的消息

a heavy truck 重型卡车 heavy industry 重工业(与light industry“轻工业”相对)

This car is very heavy on oil. 这部车耗油量很大。

The snow is falling heavier tonight than last night. 今晚的雪下得比昨晚大。

He is a media heavy. 他是新闻界的重要人物。

There was a heavy fragrance of flowers and lemon trees. 那里有浓郁的柠檬树和花的香味。

This is heavy news to everyone that there will be a war next century. 下个世纪将有一场战争,这对每个人来说都是一个令人忧虑的消息。

This dessert is not bad, but a little heavy. 这种甜点心还不错,就是有点腻。

He is so heavy that he needs extralarge shirts. 他太胖了,需要穿特大号的衬衫。

2.增词法

增词法是在译文中增加一些原文中无其形但有其义的词,目的是为了使译文意义完整而明确,更符合汉语表达习惯。

1)增加表达不同时态的词。

英语中动词的时态靠动词形式的变化或加助动词(will, be, have)来表现,而汉语动词没有词形变化,表达时只能靠增加汉语特有的时态助词或一般表示时间的词,如完成时:曾、曾经、已(经)、…过、…了;进行时:正(在)、在、…着;将来时:将、要、会、就、便;过去时:过去、以前、曾(经)、当时;现在时:现在、目前;完成进行时:一直。例如:

1:Those young people are setting new patterns for the relation of the individual to the society about him.

这些年轻人正在确定个人与其周围社会关系的新模式。(现在进行时)

2:I was, and remain, grateful for the part he played in my success.

我的成功都应归功于他,对此我过去很感激,现在仍很感激。(一般过去时和一般现在时)

3:The real reason why prices were, and still are, too high is complicated, no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.

物价过去很高,现在依然居高不下的真正原因是复杂的,不是两三句话就能圆满解释的。(一般过去时和一般现在时)

4:The teachers find that students were easy to teach, because they succeeded in putting everything they had been taught into practice.

老师们现在发现学生们过去很容易教,是因为当时他们很容易地把所学到的东西运用到实践中去。(一般过去时和过去完成时)

2)增加表示语态的词。

英语多被动句,而汉语多主动句。英语被动句译成汉语主动句时,需增加一些表示被动的词,如:被、由、使、受到、加以、得到、为…所、遭(到)、予以等。例如:

1:We were most impressed by the fact that even those patients who were not told of their serious illness were quite aware of its potential outcome.

这一事实给我们留下了极深的印象:即使是那些没有被据实告知严重病情的病人都很清楚其病情的可能结果。

2:Teaching is supposed to be a professional activity requiring long and complicated training as well as official certification.

教学一般被认为是不仅需要有官方认可的证书,而且还需要长期和复杂训练的一种职业活动。

3:Satellites, however, must be closely watched, for they are constantly being tugged at by the gravitational attraction of the sun, moon and earth.

由于经常受到太阳、月亮以及地球引力的影响,必须密切地观察卫星活动。

3)增加解释性文字。

为了使译文达到通顺的标准,有时需在不改变原文意思的情况下,增加一些解释性文字,如动词、名词、副词等或增加原文省略的内容。例如:

1:I could describe the relations between our two countries as better, essentially franker, than I had ever known them.

我可以说,我们两国之间的关系比我所知道的以往任何时期都好,其基本特点在于比以前更能坦诚地交换意见。

2:We didnt admit escape was impossible. To do so would have been to surrender one of our few hopes.

我们不认为逃跑是不可能的。如果认为不可能,就等于我们把自己仅存的一点希望也放弃了。

3:The old man was wrinkled and black, with scant gray hair.

那位老人满脸皱纹,皮肤很黑,头发灰白稀疏。

4:He could understand an opposition from some people, but an open one would have dire consequences.

他意识到有些人在反对他,但是如果他们公开反对,那就会产生可怕的后果。

3.减词法

减词法又称为省译法。某些在英语表达中必不可少的词,译成汉语时如照直译出,反而会使译文生硬、累赘,不如省去不译。当然这里所说的减词译法是以不损害原文意思为前提的。英语中的先行词、系动词、代词、介词、连词、冠词、名词复数形式有时可以省略不译。

1:University applicants who had worked at a job would receive preference over those who had not.

报考大学的人,有工作经验的优先录取。(over...not省译)。

2:A fuel is a material which will burn at a reasonable temperature and produce heat.

燃料是一种物质,在适当温度下能够燃烧并释放出热量。(which省译)

3:Thermoplastic plastics become soft if they are heated.

热塑性塑料加热就会变软。(if省译)

4:But for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as well without government aid as they did with it is in itself a huge victory.

穷人在没有政府资助的情况下也能活得不错, 这个事实对多数人来说本身就是个巨大胜利。(as they did with it省译)

4.词类转换法

在英译汉过程中,为了使译文符合汉语表达习惯,有时需要转换原文中的单词词性。如由名词派生出的动词在译成汉语时往往转译为名词,由形容词转化成的副词又常常转译为形容词,而在英语句子中起谓语动词作用的be+介词/副词形式又常被转译为动词等。

1:American in a real sense was an escape from all the injustice that had flourished in Europe.

美国真正摆脱了曾盛行于欧洲的所有不公正行为。(名词→动词)

2:The main reason is the growing complexity and widening scope of presentday research.

主要原因是现代研究内容越来越复杂,研究范围越来越广。(名词→形容词)

3:The sight and sound of our jet planes filled me with special longing.

看到我们的喷气式飞机,听到隆隆的飞机声,这一切令我特别神往。(名词→动词)

4:After a certain point, when most of the relevant facts are in, you find yourself at the mercy of the law of diminishing returns.

过了某一时刻,当大多数有关的事实到手时,你就会发现只能听凭收益递减律的摆布了。(介词→动词)

5:Yet all of history has taught us that the denial of these ultimate results in a paralyzing mass selfishness.

然而全部历史告诫我们,否认这些基本原因就会使整个世界陷于瘫痪的、无处不有的自私自利之中。(名词→动词)

6:In the 1880s the United States was a land sharply divided between the immensely wealthy and the very poor.

19世纪80年代的美国是一个贫富分化极为明显的国家。(动词→名词;副词→形容词)

5.正反、反正译法

英汉两种语言都可以从正面或反面来表达同一概念。正义反译是指英文中某些正面意义的词在译成汉语时从反面来表达,以使译文更符合汉语习惯;反义正译则是指原文中某些表示反面意义的词译成汉语时从正面表达更有效、更通顺。如:Excuse me译为“对不起”要比“请原谅”好,而Are you okay/all right?译成“你没事吧?”要比“你好吗?”更符合汉语习惯。再看下面几个例子:

1:He is an awful liar.

他不够诚实。 (正→反)

2: The next species of intelligent life on the earth will be a creature like ourselves but with a very large head and weak muscles.

地球上下一代智能生命将是类似于我们人类的一种动物:头颅硕大,肌肉不发达。(正→反)

3:The students hesitate when confronted with the vast untouched area of English vocabulary and usage which falls outside the scope of basic textbooks.

学生们现在面对大量生僻的英语词汇和惯用法犹豫起来,因为这些都是教材中未涉及到的内容。(untouched反→正,falls outside正→反)

4:Generally, she accepted the family life in all its crowded inadequacy.

通常情况下,她还是能够忍受她那拥挤、寒酸的家庭生活的。(反→正)

5: If he had kept his temper, the negotiation would probably have been a success.

假如他不发脾气,谈判很可能已成功了。(正→反)

6:I went to the bus station to meet my classmate but missed her.

我到汽车站去接同学,可是没有接到。(正→反)

7:The young men of the present day are beyond my comprehension.

我真看不懂现在的年轻人。(正→反)

8 :You couldnt turn on TV without seeing a woman demonstrating a product.

你一打开电视准会看到一个女人在做产品演示。(反→正)

(二)句子的翻译

研究生入学英语考试的英译汉部分绝大多数都是长句、复杂句或是从句套从句的形式。在翻译长句时,首先不要因为句子太长而产生畏惧心理,因为无论多么复杂的句子都是由一些基本成分组成的;其次要弄清英语原文的句法结构,找出整个句子的中心内容及其各层含意;然后分析几层意思之间的逻辑关系;最后按照汉语的特点和表达方式,正确地译出原文的意思,不必拘泥于原文的形式。通过上一章所举的实例可以看出,一个英文句子的翻译并不只是使用一种翻译方法,而是多种翻译方法的综合运用,这一点在英语长句的翻译中表现得尤为突出。

1.英语长句的特点

1)修饰语多;

2)并列成分多;

3)有固定结构;

4)语言结构层次多。

2. 长难句分析法

1)找出全句的主语、谓语和宾语,从整体上把握句子的结构。

2)找出句中所有的谓语结构、非谓语动词、介词短语和从句的引导词。

3)分析从句和短语的功能。例如,是否为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句等;若是状语,它是表示时间、原因、结果,还是表示条件,等等。

4)分析词、短语和从句之间的关系。例如,定语从句所修饰的先行词是哪一个。

5)注意插入语等其他成分。

6)注意分析句子中是否有固定词组或固定搭配。

例:Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.(1995.73)

【分析】本句的主语是Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both,其中tests, other kinds of information, or both是动词use的宾语。本句有两个谓语:depends upon,and (depends) upon。the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability 和such factors as cost and availability是本句的两个宾语,其中现在分词concerning引出的分词短语作experience的后置定语。句中的in a particular situation是地点状语,therefore是关联词,在句中为插入语。因此本句的主干是Whether to use...depends upon the evidence from experience...and upon such factors...

【译文】因此,在某一特定的情况下,究竟是采用测试还是采用其他种类的信息,或是两者同时使用,须凭有关相对效度的经验而定,也取决于诸如费用和有无来源等因素。

3.长句的翻译方法

英语习惯用长句子表达比较复杂的概念,汉语则不同,常常使用若干短句做层次分明的叙述。因此,在做英译汉时,要特别注意英语和汉语之间的差异,将英语的长句分解,翻译成汉语的短句。翻译较长的英语句子时,一般采用下列方法:

1)顺译法。

当英语长句中内容的叙述层次与汉语基本一致时,可以按照英语原文的顺序译成汉语,但并不是每个词的顺序都毫无改变地死译。

1:Although such authors usually attempt to picture a society in which mankinds strongest demands are met, they more often construct a kind of society which would enable them to fulfill their own desires.

虽然这些作者通常试图描绘这样一种社会,在那里人类最强烈的需求能得到满足,但更多的情况下是勾画出某种能够满足他们自身愿望的社会。

2:This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to combine agriculture in the highenergy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.   

这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量消耗这种美国耕作方式继续下去,而这种耕作方式使投入极少数农民就可获得高产成为可能。

3:However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the worlds more fascinating and delightful aspects.

然而,世界就是如此,完美的体系一般而言是无法解决世上某些更引人入胜的课题的。

2)逆译法。

英语一些长句的表达次序与汉语表达习惯不同,甚至完全相反,此时必须从原文后面开始翻译。如:①汉语多前置定语,而英语多后置定语或定语从句,所以翻译时定语从句常翻译成汉语的“的”字结构,作前置定语。②关于状语从句,英语习惯是先主句后从句,而汉语则习惯于先从句后主句,所以翻译时常用逆序法。

1:Long after the 1998 World Cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing the disputed refereeing decisions that denied victory to their team.

尽管1998年世界杯已成为过去,失望的球迷仍在责骂那些有争议但确实使他们的球队没能获胜的裁判的决定。(定语从句前置)

2:Even a skilled writer probably could not describe all the features that make one face different from another.

即使是老道的作家也很可能不能描述出那些区分人脸的全部特征。(定语从句前置)

3:In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted cannot be well defined.

一般地说,当所要测定的特征能精确地界定时,测试最为有效;而当所要测定或预测的东西不能明确地界定时,测试的效果则最差。(时间状语从句先译)

3)分译法。

有时英语长句中主语或主句与修饰词的关系并不十分密切,翻译时可以按照汉语多短句的习惯,把长句的从句或短语化分成句子,分开叙述。有时为了使语意连贯,需要适当增加词语。

1:The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use.

石油供应可能随时被切断;不管怎样,以目前这种石油消耗速度,只需30年左右所有的油井都会枯竭。

2:Can we anticipate a day when secretaries will be an even mix of men and women—or when the mention of a male nurse will no longer raise eyebrows?

我们能否预见到这么一天,那时做秘书工作的人员男女各占一半,或者有人提起某个男人做护士工作时,人们不再感到诧异?(限定性定语从句分译)

4)综合法。

上面我们讲述了英语长句的逆译法、顺译法和分译法,事实上,在翻译一个英语长句时,并不只是单纯地使用一种翻译方法,而是要求我们把各种方法综合起来使用,这在我们上面所举的例子中也有所体现。尤其是在某些英语长句单纯采用上述任何一种方法都无法译出时,就需要我们仔细分析,或按照时间的先后,或按照逻辑顺序顺逆结合、主次分明地对全句进行综合处理,以便把英语原文翻译成通顺的汉语句子。

1:It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner of working but that the latter is a much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.

并不是说面包师或卖肉的人所用的磅秤在构造原理或工作方式上和化学家所用的天平存在差异,而是说与前者相比较,后者是一种更精密得多的仪器,因而在计量上必然更准确。(It is not that...; but that...为并列表语的句型,意为“不在于…而在于…;不是说…而是说…”)

2:There is just the same kind of difference between the mental operation of a man of science and those of an ordinary person as there is between the operations and the methods of a baker on a butcher weighing out his goods in common scales, and the operations of a chemist in performing a difficult and complex analysis by means of his balance and finely graduated weights.

科学家与普通人的思维活动的区别,无非是面包师或屠夫的操作与化学师操作的区别:前者用普通的秤来称货物,而后者则用天平和分得很细的砝码来进行艰难而复杂的分析。(分译、顺译、逆译)

3:Television keeps one informed about current events, allows one to follow the latest developments in science and politics, and offers an endless series of programs which are both instructive and entertaining.

电视使人了解时事,熟悉科学、政治领域的最新发展,并能源源不断地为观众提供各种既有教育意义又有趣的节目。(顺译、合译)

4:Money tempts me less than things, because between money and possession of the desired object there is always an intermediary, whereas between the things itself and the enjoyment of it there is none.

对我来说,东西比金钱更有诱惑力,原因是在金钱与我想得到的东西之间总存在一个媒介问题,而在东西本身和它们带来的快乐之间却不存在这层关系。(原因状语从句、定语从句分译)

5:There are several reasons why he no longer appears to be the magician the world press had made him out to be, an illusion which he failed to discourage because, as he would admit himself, he has a tendency toward megalomania.

国际新闻界曾经把他渲染成魔术师一般的人物,他也没有阻止人们制造这种错误印象,因为他自己也承认有一种自大狂的倾向。现在他不再像这样的人了,这里面有几个原因。(原因状语从句、定语从句分译、逆译)

   

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