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老师想让孩子们知道的事

(2010-09-09 16:15:09)
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育儿

本文发表在http://yueronline.wwwwang.com/content/20108/1171337.shtml网站

老师想让孩子们知道的事

  • 翻译:大连翻译职业学院08英日双语1班 王跃霖
  • 网网网络  阅读[ 评论[0]条  发布时间:2010-8-23  发布人:王跃霖

文章摘要:老师为每个年级学生制定学业目标,当然,现在有许多家长并不知道如果你想让你的孩子和所有人相处的很好,情感方面的发展也是很重要的。

教师孩子成长中的社会感和情感的里程碑。

作者:卡伦莱温

老师为每个年级学生制定学业目标,当然,现在有许多家长并不知道如果你想让你的孩子和所有人相处的很好,情感方面的发展也是很重要的。如果他比班级同学的期待做的更好,他会更加喜欢。如果他没有遇到什么麻烦,他就会和团队里的其他成员相处的很好。了解老师希望孩子在这个年级达到什么水平并给予他们适当的帮助。

幼儿园:做到合群

对于一些刚刚学习独立的孩子,幼儿园对于他们的管理是以与家庭分开为第一大标志的。他们必须能够应付这一天之内发生的每一件事——包括失望或胜利——这些都要靠自己解决。爸爸妈妈都希望自己抱在怀中的襁褓中的婴儿有一天能够成长为可以自力更生学习改变自己并且在其他方面帮助家长的成年人。

在幼儿园的时候要学习成为团队中的一员,与整个团队合作,与其他孩子一起建立一座积木城镇。做到这些其实并不容易,因为我们对于其他孩子来说像是多余的人。他们要学会很多社交技能,比如妥协或者控制自己的冲动情绪,亦或者是不分时间场合地凭他们个人喜好大喊大叫、乱跳等。

给待在幼儿园的孩子分派任务,当孩子们开始对给卡片着色,移动积木建大厦的兴趣渐渐减退的时候。他们就有了新的学习任务,任务很短,但很重要,比如算算术或讲故事,这是为了帮助孩子做到合群的重要活动。

一年级:更重要的事情

面对更多的任务,现在完成任务的能力比在幼儿园的时候显得更加重要,因为在小学一年级的这一年的孩子要学习识字和数学。这就要求他们不能总是玩耍,要放更多的精力在培养能力上。即使十分聪明的孩子也会因为学习而感到烦恼和沮丧。

在一年级孩子要回应老师权威性的提问或等待轮到他们。在幼儿园的时候氛围更加宽松。但是进入了一年级老师会布置更多的课堂作业来完成。对于孩子来说,这就意味着要有更多的时间坐着,还要有必要的自控能力和服从命令的能力。

在一年级的世界里开始发现自我和他人的不同之处。在这个阶段,你的孩子很可能会找到一个和自己相似的充满激情的好朋友。请记住,这样强烈的友谊也许会从一小时持续到一年。

二年级:学习思考

在二年级的时候会学习的越来越抽象的概念,会锻炼一种抽象的思维方式,宁愿去实际操作也不要总是做计算大理石数量的数学,例如——他们应该开始考虑人头数。

在小学二年级老师最希望孩子开始拥有并使用解决问题的能力:能够思考问题并拿具有出可行性的解决方案,对其做出评价并选择其中一个进行尝试。老师们认为孩子们应该学会运用数学和其他学术性的技能和其他孩子打交道。这些善于解决问题的孩子通常会在学校发展的更好。

 

三年级和四年级:良好的工作能力

仅是学习好现在已经不足以让你的孩子很好地完成年级任务了,良好的工作能力对他来说也是至关重要的。老师要看到书面整齐的作业,在数学题中找出自己的错误,并且拥有良好的适当的组织能力。

提前规划好孩子今年三四年级的远程作业。每个星期五晚上进行拼写测试。每两个星期做一份步骤详细的计划报告。由于大部分家长过了像孩子一样的学习最佳年龄,但我们要经常思考以后帮助孩子进步的计划。

培养孩子团结友爱的精神和强烈的团队意识,如“我是这项运动里的一个孩子,所以其他成员是我的朋友。”如果您的孩子很难与其他同学相处,这种精神的培养会遇到困难。

五年级六年级:同伴的压力

在孩子的这个年龄段会遇到来自同伴的压力,同伴的压力会带来很大的影响——在学校有正面的影响也有负面的影响。因此许多孩子会因为日常社交问题而迷失自己或是被社交问题所困扰而退而不前。

学生的情绪通常是多变的,有时很高兴有时很悲伤,有时很爱去学校,有时候又讨厌学校。一个最好的朋友也许一夜之间就变成了最坏的敌人。这一切对学校喜怒无常的情绪症发生在国内的许多家庭的孩子身上。许多老师用一定的课堂环境结构来平衡孩子们在课堂上大的混乱,每星期五的测验,每周二周四的家庭作业等等。

要想有效的通过考试,就要合理地分配学习时间,保证完成一定量的远程家庭作业,学生能长此以往的坚持做这些么?显然不能。

许多学校的部门正在进行不同年级的部门分化,学生们可以从一个教室到另一个教室上课,有不同老师教授不同课程,许多孩子对这种做法的反应是比以前更加容易分神:功课、午餐、外套、鞋子经常被遗忘(是的,是鞋子)。他们经常忘了测试和研究,还可能为此而感到害怕。仍然出类拔萃的孩子为此做出了许多额外的努力,许多新的习惯被养成了。

本文选自《读者文摘》《当您的孩子在学校遇到麻烦》

 

附英文原文:

What Teachers Want Your Child to Know

The social and emotional development milestones teachers expect of children.

By Karen Levine

Teachers have academic goals for each grade, of course, but many parents aren't aware that there are also some important expectations for our children's social and emotional development. If your child meets those expectations around the same time as others in her class, she'll likely do better. If she doesn't, she may have trouble keeping up with the rest of the group. Knowing what teachers expect from grade to grade will help you figure out whether your child might need some extra help and how to work with her teacher to provide it.

Kindergarten: Getting in Step

Emerging independence For some children, kindergarten marks the first big separation from their family. They have to be able to cope with the events of any given day -- both disappointments and triumphs -- on their own, put the urge to see Mom or Dad or a familiar baby-sitter on hold, become more self-reliant and learn to turn to adults other than their parentss for help.

Learning to be part of a group Sitting in a circle, standing in a line and working with other kids to build a block town are part of a typical kindergarten day. These activities are not as easy for children as they seem to the rest of us. They require many social skills, such as being able to compromise and to control the impulse to shout or jump up whenever they feel like it.

Staying on task In preschool, kids can start coloring a picture and move on to building with blocks when their interest wanes. But in kindergarten, they begin learning to stay with a task until it's finished. Very short, focused activities, such as tracing numbers or telling a story, are designed to help kids do that.

First Grade: More Serious Stuff

Stronger task focus The ability to complete a task is even more important now than it was in kindergarten because in most schools first grade is the year instruction in reading and understanding numbers begins. This requires an ability to focus on serious work that may not always be fun. Even smart children may fall behind if they can't focus in this way or become easily frustrated.

Responding to authority First-graders are expected to listen when it's required, wait their turn and do what their teacher asks. The atmosphere in kindergarten is more lenient. But first-grade teachers have much more academic work to cover. For kids, that means more sitting down, more listening and more self-control are necessary.

Seeing their place in the world First-graders are beginning to see themselves and their families in a wider context and recognize differences and similarities. At this stage, your child is likely to discover a passionate "best" friend who is "just like" him. Bear in mind that these intense friendships may last anywhere from an hour to a year.

Second Grade: Learning to Think

Becoming more abstract and conceptual Second-graders are just beginning to think in an abstract way. Rather than always manipulating objects in order to do math -- counting marbles, for example -- they should begin to think about numbers in their heads.

Problem solving Most teachers expect second-graders to start using problem-solving skills: being able to think about a problem, come up with possible solutions, evaluate them and choose one to try. Teachers assume children will use these skills both in academic work like math and in dealing with other kids. Those who are good at problem solving usually get along much better in school.

Third and Fourth Grade: Good Work

Academic polish By now it's no longer enough for your child just to complete a task; how good a job she's done is also important. Teachers want to see work that's neatly written, math that's been checked for errors, and reports that are well organized and well presented.

Planning ahead Children start learning to keep track of long-range assignments in late third grade and fourth grade. A spelling test every Friday means doing a bit of studying each night. A report due in two weeks means mapping out a step-by-step plan. As most parents learn, this ability doesn't come as naturally to our kids as procrastination seems to. Often we don't recognize how much they need our help to develop thinking-ahead strategies.

Cultivating camaraderie Children begin to have a strong sense of themselves in relation to the group, as in "I'm a sports kind of kid, and so are my friends." Trouble may arise if your child has difficulty finding something in common with his other classmates.

Fifth and Sixth Grade: Peer Power

Peer pressure By this age children have developed a huge need to conform, so peer pressure can have a big impact -- both positive and negative -- on school performance. Many children become so distracted by social issues that academic responsibilities take a back seat or get lost in the day-to-day social shuffle.

Changeable moods Typically students are happy one day, miserable the next, love school one day, hate it the day after. A best friend changes to a worst enemy overnight. All this moodiness takes a toll on life in school just as it does on the family at home -- for some kids worse than others. Many teachers rely on a fairly structured class environment to counterbalance kids' internal chaos, with quizzes every Friday, homework every Tuesday and Thursday, and so on.

Study skills Being able to study effectively for tests, apportion study time appropriately and keep track of long-range assignments are now highly important. Can students always do it? Of course not.

Being organized In many schools these grades mark the beginning of departmentalization. Students may start to move around from classroom to classroom and have more than one teacher for different subjects. Many kids react to this shift by becoming even more disorganized and distracted than they were before: forgotten homework, lunches, jackets and shoes (yes, shoes!). They may also panic about tests that they forgot to study for. Make a special effort to stay on top of your child until you're sure she's got the hang of the new routine.

From Reader's Digest's What to Do When Your Child Has Trouble at School

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