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2011职称英语-语法部分

(2011-02-05 14:55:53)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 高级工程师申报

第一讲 英语基本句子结构(1)

 

英汉句子结构比较:

 

例子1:

(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合类C级考题. 阅读判断)

    (1)Petitions(请愿/请愿书)have long been a part of British political life. (2)Anyone who wanted to change something would(就要)get (获得)a list(名单) of signatures(签名) from people who agreed to the idea and either send (送)them to the government(政府) or deliver (递送)them personally(亲自地) to the Prime Minister’s house (官邸)in London.

 

参考译文:

如果有人想改变什么,他就要获得同他持有相同观点的人的签名,然后或者把签名单送到政府部门,或者由他亲自送到位于伦敦的首相官邸。

 

小结:

英语注重句法结构,大部分英语句子都有主谓结构。汉语句子注重表意, 汉语句子结构是通过意义来密切结合起来,汉语句子结构在构成上没有英语句子结构那么严谨。

 

例子2:

她走进屋子,坐在我的旁边。

 

she go into room, sit beside me. ---→

she go into room and sit beside me.

---→ She went into room and satbeside me.

补充:

英语句子严格讲求主谓一致性,一致性包括语法形式一致(即主语的单复数形式要与谓语一致),如:

She is listening(听).

They are listening(听).

The books are cheap(便宜的).

The book is cheap(便宜的).

意义上的一致性(即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致),如:

The police (警方)are investigating(调查).

 


               第一讲英语基本句子结构(1)

补充:

英语句子严格讲求主谓一致性,一致性包括语法形式一致(即主语的单复数形式要与谓语一致),如:

She is listening(听).

They are listening(听).

The books are cheap(便宜的).

The book is cheap(便宜的).

意义上的一致性(即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致),如:

The police (警方)are investigating(调查).

比较:

My family has lived (居住)here(这儿) for ten years(年).

My family are all tall(高的).

还有就近原则(即谓语动词的单复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语),如:

There is a man(男人/人类) at the door(在门口).

There are two people(人) at the door.

 

 

she go into room, sit beside me. ---→

she go into room and sit beside me.

---→

She went into room and satbeside me. 

 ---→

She went into the room and satbeside me.

提示2:

充当介词宾语的名词词语的前面往往需要带定冠词,起限定范围的作用。

 

小结:

大部分英语句子都有主语和谓语的结构。而相比之下,汉语注重的是表意 --- 汉语中不少句子没有句子主语,或有些句子的主语不明显,但句意明确。

如:

出太阳了。

真吓人!  

研究得怎么样了?  

去还是不去?

 

由此可见要看懂英语句子就首先必须要识别出英语句子中的主谓结构。 刚才提到大部分英语句子都有主语和谓语的结构, 这是因为在英语的书面语还可能会出现省略了主语和谓语的省略句结构, 而在英语口语中省略句结构更是常常出现, 如:

I feel better(更好的) than(比)(I was) when  he came(来) to see me.

 

提示3:

省略结构的正确理解是职称英语阅读题中的常考点之一。

How (is it ) about the result(结果)?

 

英语的祈使句结构是典型的无主语句子结构(祈使句用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等)。

如:

Sit down, please.(请坐下 – 命令)

Watch your steps. (走路小心。——警告)

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

 

Ways(方法) to Reduce(减少) Exposure(暴露) to Air Pollution(空气污染)

A report published recently brings bad news about air pollution.It suggests that it could be as damaging to our health as exposure to the radiation from the 1 986 Ukraine nuclear power plant disaster.The report was published by the UK’S Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.But what can city people do to reduce exposure to air pollution? Quite a lot,it turns out.

Avoid(避免) walking(步行) in busy(热闹的)streets(街道)Choose(选择) side streets (小巷)and parks(公园) instead(替代).Pollution levels can fall a considerable amount just by moving a few meters away from the main pollution source—exhaust furies(废气).  Also don’t walk(步行) behind(在...之后) smokers(吸烟者).Walk on the windward(顶风的)side (边)of the street where exposure of pollutants(污染物)can be 50 percent less than on the downwind(顺风的)side.

Sitting on the driver’S side of a bus can increase your exposure by 1 0 percent,compared with sitting on the side realest the pavement.Sitting upstairs on a double—decked(双层电车)can reduce exposure.It is difficult to say whether traveling on an underground train is better or worse than taking the bus.Air pollution on underground trains tends to be less toxic(有毒的)than that at street level,because underground pollution is mostly made up of tiny iron particles(粒子)thrown up by wheels hitting the rails,while diesel(柴油机)and petrol fumes have a mixture of pollutants.

When you are crossing a road,stand well back from (远离)the curb(路缘)while you wait for the light to change。Every meter really does count when you are close to traffic.As the traffic begins to move,fumes can be reduced in just a few seconds. So holding your breath for just a moment can make a difference,even though it might sound silly.
5 There are large sudden pollution increases during rush hours.Pollution levels fall during nighttime.The time of year also makes a big difference.Pollution levels tend to be at their lowest during spring and autumn when winds are freshest.Extreme cold or hot weather has a trapping effect and tends to cause a build—up of pollutants.

 

 


3Reviewing

No smoking. 禁止吸烟.

No parking. 禁止停车

 

(选自2008年度全国职称外语等级考试卫生类C级试卷)

6Anti-Aging(防衰老的) Secrets:Four Ways(方法) to Stay(v. 保持) Young(年轻的)

 

A.  Reduce(减少) Stress(压力)

B.  Avoid(避免) Isolation(与外界隔绝)

C.  Adopt(采用) a Positive(积极地) Attitude(态度) to Life(人生)

D.  Keep(保持) Your Mind(头脑) Active(活跃的)

E.  Maintain(保持) Balance(平衡)

F.  Accept(承认) Failure(失败)

 

英语句子大多含有主谓结构,而一个英语句子到底以什么样的句子结构出现归根究底可以说就是由句子的谓语动词所决定,  如:

 

我走向树林。

 

句子主语

谓语动词

宾语

我(I/me)

Go(走)

树林(the trees)

我(I/me)

be

树林(the trees)

 

---→ I      went(走)     towards(朝...) the trees.

主语     谓语         状语

 

---→ I     was   on my way to the trees.

主语   系       表语

 

小结:

要学好英语,必须掌握常见动词的常用词义和常用法。

 

英语动词分为及物和不及物, 英语中绝大多数的动词都可以作“vi.”或“vt.”使用,但是所表达的语义却不相同,如:

例:He can run very(非常) fast(很快地).

比较:

He runs a company (公司)in Beijing.

 

同一动词即使不不同的语境中均用作“vi.”或 “vt.”,但可能在不同的语境中也会具有不相同的语义,如:

 

同用作及物动词

I saw two people(人) in the room(在房间里).

He  saw the joke(笑话).

 

同用作不及物动词

I live in a city(城市).

Most people want(想要) to live forever(永远).

 


4l         英语的基本句型

 

Ⅰ、主语+系动词+表语(SVP)(S—subject;V—verb;P--predicative)

e.g. The flowers(花)   are    red(红色的).         

主语        系动词  表语(形容词)

 

     e.g. I    am    a worker(工人).

          主语 系动词  表语(名词)

 

    e.g.  The book(书)   is    on the table(桌子).

   主语           系动词     表语(介词短语结构)

 

e.g. He      looks    like his father.

主语     半系动词      表语(介词短语结构)

 

补充:

 

复习中需要掌握的常见半系动词:

Look(看起来好像),seem(似乎), turn(变成),feel(觉得),get(变成),become(变成),sound(听起来),smell(闻起来), go(变成),remain(仍然(是))

比较:

The teacher looked at (看)the blackboard(黑板).

That dog looks dangerous(危险的).

 

     e.g.  The truth(真相)   is    that he is a liar说谎的人).

             主语             系动词            表语(从句)

 

     e.g. What(的) I want to(想要) know(指导)   is    when(什么时候) you

                主语                              系动词        表语

will leave for(出发去...) Beijing?

    

 e.g. It    is   important(重要的)      for him to be careful(仔细的).   

          主语   系动词   表语               真正主语

提示:

形式主语的结构也可能使用 “主系表”结构。

 

比较:

It is really(真正地) nice(令人愉快的) talking to you.

 

It is really nice having talked to you.

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

Petitions

Petitions(请愿,请愿书)have long(长期地) been a part of British political(政治的) life(生活).Anyone who wanted to change something would get a list of signatures from people who agreed to the idea and either send them to the government or deliver them personally to the Prime Minister’s house in London.

    They are always accepted at the door by one of the PM'S officials.What happens then? Nothing much,usually.But petitions have always been thought of as a useful way for those who govern to find out what the people really think.

    That’s why(为什么) the UK(英国) government (政府)Launched(开办) its“e—petition”site(网站) in November 2006.Instead of physically collecting signatures, all(全部)anyone with an idea(想法) has to(不得不) do now(现在) is to make a proposal(提出建议) on the government website(网站),and anyone who supports (支持)the idea is free to(自由地) add (添加)his or her signature(签名)

    The petitions soon started to flow in. The idea (想法)was for the British(英国的) people to express(表达) their constructive(建设性的) ideas.Many chose instead to express their sense of humor.

    one petitioner called on Tony Blair to stop the Deputy Prime Minister eating so much”.Another wanted to expel(驱逐)Scotland from the United Kingdom because Scottish football fast never support England in the World Cup.

    other petitioners called on the Prime Minister to abolish the monarchy.Some wanted to give it more power.Some wanted to oppose the United States.others wanted to leave the European Union.Some wanted to send more troops to Iraq and others wanted them all brought home.Some wanted to adopt the Euro(欧元).Others wanted to keep the pound.

    Yet if some petitions are not serious, others present a direct challenge to government policy.A petition calling on the government to drop plans to charge drivers for using roads has already drawn around 1.8 million signatures.In response to that,a rival petition has been posted in support of road pricing. And that is also rapidly growing.

There are about 60 million people in Britain.So(因此) it is understandable(可以理解的) that the government(政府) wants to find out(查明) what people are thinking(思考)But the problem with(关于...的问题) the e-petition site(电子请愿网站) seems(似乎) to be that the British(英国的) people(人) have about 70 million (百万)opinions(观点),and want(想要) the Prime Minister(首相) to hear (清)all of them.Perhaps he could start a petition asking everyone to lust shut up for a while.

 


5Ⅱ、主语+谓语(不及物动词/不及物)(SV)

e.g. He     has come back. (谓语:不及物动词 + 副词)

主语        谓语

come back:  v. 回来, 恢复

 

      e.g. They   laughed at him. (谓语:不及物动词 + 介词短语结构)

    主语      谓语

laugh at    v. 嘲笑, 因...发笑

 

e.g. He tends to throw the ball too high. (谓语:不及物动词 + 不定式结构+ 状语)

主语        谓语

 

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

Ways to Reduce Exposure to Air Pollution

 

A report published recently brings bad news about air pollution.It suggests that it could be as damaging to our health as exposure to the radiation from the 1 986 Ukraine nuclear power plant disaster.The report was published by the UK’s Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.But what can city people do to reduce exposure to air pollution?   Quite a lot,it turns out(“结果是”/省略了to be)

Avoid walking in busy streets.Choose side streets and parks instead.Pollution levels can fall (降低)a considerable(相当多的) amount(数量) just by moving a few meters away from (远离)the main pollution source—exhaust furies(废气).Also don’t walk behind smokers.Walk on the windward(顶风的)side of the street where exposure of pollutants(污染物)can be 50 percent less than on the downwind(顺风的)side.

Sitting on the driver’s side of a bus can increase your exposure by 1 0 percent,compared with sitting on the side realest the pavement.Sitting upstairs on a double—decked(双层电车)can reduce exposure. It is difficult to say whether traveling on an underground train is better or worse than taking the bus.Air pollution(空气污染) on underground  trains(地铁) tends to(往往) be less toxic(有毒的)than(比) that at street level,because underground pollution is mostly made up of tiny iron particles(粒子)thrown up by wheels hitting the rails,while diesel(柴油机)and petrol fumes have a mixture of pollutants.

When you are crossing a road,stand well back from the curb(路缘)while(当...的时候) you wait for(等待) the light(交通等) to change(变化). Every meter really does(的确) count (重要)when you are  close to(接近) traffic(车流).As(当...的时候) the traffic begins(开始) to move(移动),fumes can be reduced in just a few seconds. So holding your breath for just a moment can make a difference,even though it might sound silly(愚蠢的).

5 There are large sudden pollution increases during rush hours.Pollution levels(程度) fall(下降) during nighttime(夜间).The time of year also makes a big difference.Pollution levels tend to be at their lowest during spring(春天) and autumn(秋天) when winds (风)are freshest(新鲜的).Extreme cold or hot weather has a trapping effect and tends to cause(造成) a build-up(堆积) of pollutants(污染物质).

Ⅲ、主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语(SVO)(O--object)

 

     e.g. I    like    reading English     at home.

主语  谓语    宾语(动名词结构)   状语

 

     e.g. We    have leant    that you would visit your parents tomorrow.

  主语     谓语                   宾语从句

   

    e.g. He      planned     to fly                  to Beijing    next week

  主语     谓语       宾语(不定式结构)           状语        

 

补充:

有些及物动词常用不定式作宾语,如:agree(同意), begin(开始), decide(决定), determine(决定), expect(期望), forget(忘记), hope(希望), learn(学会), like(喜欢), love(热爱), mean(打算), offer(自愿), plan(计划), pretend(假装), promise(许诺), refuse(拒绝), regret(遗憾, 抱歉), remember(记住), try(试图), stop(停止), want(想要)等。

 

       

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

 

A New(新)Immigration(移民) Bill(法案)

 

36. One of the reasons for proposing the point system is是

     A.  to give priority to immigrants from China.

     B.  to protect the US from terrorist attacks.

     C.  to increase population.

     D.  to attract skilled immigrants.

37. What do critics on the right say about the proposed point system?

     A.  It opposes(反对) family(家庭) unity(团结).

     B.  It is very difficult(困难的) to apply(申请/运用).

     C.  It does not meet(满足) the needs(需要) of high-tech employers.

     D.  It opposes(反对) American(美国的) values(价值观).

38. Which statement is NOT true of the current system?

     A.  It is kinship(血族关系)-based(以...为基础的).

     B.  It puts pressure on (给...施加压力)the US(美国).

     C.  It attracts(吸引) highly-educated(受过高等教育的) people.

     D.  It draws(吸引) low-skilled(非熟练的) workers(工人).


6Ⅰ、主语+系动词+表语(SVP)

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

Petitions

(最后一段)There are(有) about 60 million people in Britain.(1)So it is understandable(可以理解的) that the government(政府) wants to find out(查明) what  people are thinking(思考).(2)But the problem with(关于...的问题) the e-petition site(站点) seems(似乎) to be that the British people have about 70 million opinions(意见),and want the Prime Minister(首相) to hear(倾听) all of them.Perhaps he could start a petition asking everyone to lust shut up for a while.

Ⅱ、主语+谓语(不及物动词/不及物)(SV)

e.g. He     has come back. (谓语:不及物动词 + 副词)

主语        谓语

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

Ways to Reduce Exposure to Air Pollution

 

(最后一段) There are(有) large sudden(突然的) pollution increases(增加)during rush hours(高峰时间).(1)Pollution levels(程度) fall(下降) during nighttime(夜间).The time of year also makes a big difference.(2)Pollution levels tend to be at their lowest during spring(春天) and autumn(秋天) when winds (风)are freshest(新鲜的).Extreme cold or hot weather has a trapping effect and tends to cause(造成) a build-up(堆积) of pollutants(污染物质).

 

Ⅲ、主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语(SVO)(O--object)

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

 

Ways to Reduce Exposure to Air Pollution

 

(最后一段) There are large sudden pollution increases during rush hours.Pollution levels fall(下降) during nighttime(夜间).The time of year(年) also makes(产生) a big difference(不同).Pollution levels tend to be at their lowest during spring(春天) and autumn(秋天) when winds (风)are freshest(新鲜的).Extreme (极度的)cold or hot weather(天气) has (有)a trapping effect (陷阱效应)and tends to(往往) cause(造成) a build-up(堆积) of pollutants(污染物质).

Ⅳ、主语+谓语(及物动词)+间接宾语+直接宾语(SVOO)

e.g. He   gave(给)    me        a book(书).

主语   谓语       间接宾语      直接宾语

 

     e.g. They  informed(通知)   us         that they might(可能) be           主语    谓语             间接宾语          直接宾语         

late(晚的/迟的).

 

提示:

能用在该结构中的动词较少,复习中需要掌握的有:

call(称呼), tell(告诉) ,advise(通知), inform (通知), give (给), pass (传递), hand (传递), buy(购买)

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

    15.Mary just(刚才) told (告诉)us a very fascinating(吸引人的) story(故事).

    A. strange                  B. frightening

C. interesting              D. difficult

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

Political Spins

 

Last week,US White House spokesman Tony Snow sent journalists digging for their dictionaries.He called(称呼) recent(近来的) criticism(批评) by the former (以前的)President(总统) Bill Clinton“chutzpah”(大胆放肆).With just one sentence,Snow managed to make headlines,a joke and a defense of.President George W Bush.Interestingly, this is how battles are fought and won in US politics—with carefully-worded one—liners(一行字幕新闻)made for TV which often lack substance and clarity(清晰度).

 “The amount of information that candidates attempt to communicate to people is actually geeing smaller and smaller,”said Mark Smith,a political science professor at Cedarville University.This has been accompanied by a changing media environment,Smith said.In 1 968,the average TV or radio sound bite(演讲中的句子或短语)was 48 seconds,according to Smith.In 1996,the average sound bite had shrunk(缩短)to 8 seconds.Thus,politicians wanting publicity try to make their public communication as quotable as possible.

Campaigning politicians also use 30-second TV ads and clever campaign slogans(口号)to boost their messages.Republican presidential candidate John McCain rides to campaign stops in a bus named the” Straight-Talk Express".McCain hopes the name will convince voters he plans to tell people the troth-whether it's in fashion or not.Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton,on the other hand,has chosen the campaign slogan“Let the conversation begin”.She hopes it will help her appear open-minded and friendly.

But one-liners,TV ads and campaign slogans all have a single key ingredient:something commonly called political“spin”.Brooks Jackson, a former journalist and the current(现在的) director(主管,总裁) of the non—partisan(无党派的)website (网站)Fact Check.org,calls spin “just a polite(礼貌的) word for deception(欺骗)”.

 "I do believe that very often politicians believe their own spin,"said Jackson.

 "Strong partisans suffer from a universal human tendency:They ignore the evidence that would force them into the uncomfortable position of having to change their minds and admit that they were wrong."



 

7 Ⅴ、主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+补足语(SVOC)(C--complement) 

 

e.g. We   considered(认为)  him  to a top student(优等生).

       主语    谓语             宾语     宾语补足语

---→

e.g. He    was considered(被认为)  to a top student(优等生).

       主语    谓语                      主语补足语

 

 

  e.g. The news(消息)   made(使)   him   very(非常地) happy(高兴的).

          主语            谓语         宾语    宾语补足语

 

   “形式宾语结构”

e.g. They   find(发现)   it   difficult(困难的)   to answer(回答) the

       主语    谓语        宾语    宾语补足语            真正的宾语

question(问题).

 

提示:

能用于“主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+补足语(形容词)”结构的动词不多,典型的有:

make: e.g. make(使...处于某种状态) me happy(高兴的)

keep: e.g. keep(使...处于某种状态) the trees(树) alive(活着的) 

leave: e.g. leave(使...处于某种状态) the door(门) open(开着的)

 

通常要求带to不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise(劝告), allow(允许), ask(要求), cause(造成), consider(认为), expect(期待), find(发现), imagine(想象), tell(命令), order(命令), want(希望), wish(希望)等。

 

要求不带“to”的不定式作宾语补足语的动词(一般为表示“感觉”或“使役”的动词)有:feel(觉得), have(使, 让),get(使),  hear(听见), let(让), make(使), notice(注意到), see(看见), watch(看)

 

help后面的作宾语补足语的不定式带“to”或不带“to”都可以, 如:

help Mary wash(洗) her clothes(衣服)

help Mary to wash her clothes

 

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合C考卷):

Stop Eating Too Much(不要吃得太多)

 

  Clean your plate! ”and“ Be a member of the clean—plate club! "Just about every kid in the US has heard this from a parent or grandparent.Often,it's accompanied by an appeal:“Just think about those starving orphans(孤儿)in Africa!”Sure,we should be grateful for every bite of food.Unfortunately, many people in the US take too many bites. Instead of staying“clean the plate”,perhaps we should save some food for tomorrow.

  According to news reports,US restaurants are partly to blame for the growing bellies (肚子).A waiter puts a plate of food in front of each customer, with two to four times the amount recommended by the government;according to a USA Today story.Americans traditionally associate quantity with value and most restaurants try to give them that. They prefer to have(让) customers(顾客) complain about(抱怨) too much food(食物) rather than(而不是)too little

    Barbara Rolls,a nutrition(营养)professor at Pennsylvania State University, told USA- faddy that restaurant portion sizes began to grow in the 1 970s,the same time that the American waistline(腰围)began to expand.

     Health experts have tried to get(使) many restaurants(餐馆) to serve(供应) smaller portions((饭菜的)一份). Now, apparently, some customers are calling for this too.The restaurant industry trade magazine QSR reported last month that 57 percent of more than 4,000 people surveyed believed restaurants served portions that were too large;23 percent had no opinion;20 percent disagreed.But a closer look at the survey indicates that many Americans who can’t afford fine dining still prefer large portions.Seventy percent of those earn at least $150,000 per year prefer smaller portions;but only 45 percent of those earning less than $25,000 want smaller.

   It's not that working class Americans don’t want to eat healthy.It's just that,after long hours at low—paying jobs,getting less on their plate hardly seems like a good deal.They live from paycheck(薪金支票)to paycheck,happy to save a little money for next year’s Christmas presents.

 

31. Parents in the United States tend to ask their children

   A. to save food for tomorrow.             B. to wash the dishes.

   C. mottos eat too much.                  D. not to waste food.

32.Why do American restaurants serve large portions?

   A.  Because Americans have big bellies.

   B.  Because Americans associate quantity with value

   C.  Because Americans are good eaters.

   D.  Because Americans are too weak.

33. What happened in the 1970s?

   A.  The US government(政府) called on(号召) its people(人民) to reduce(减少) their weight(体重).

   B.  Health(健康) experts(专家) persuaded(劝说) restaurants(餐馆) to serve(提供) smaller portions((饭菜的)一份) .

   C.  The American waistline started to expand.

   D.  The United States produced more grain than needed.

34 What does the survey indicate?

   A.  Twenty percent of Americans want smaller portions.

   B.  Many low-income Amercing want large portions.

   C.  Fifty-seven percent of Americans want large portions.

   D.  Forty-five percent of Americans want smaller portions

35 Which of the following is NOT true of working class Americans?

   A.  They work long hours.

   B.  They live from paycheck to paycheck.

   C.  They want to save money for presents.

   D.  They don't want to be healthy eaters.

还有一种存在句型: there be 的句型

e.g. There is something wrong here.

e.g. There are two people over there.

 

相关课堂练习(选自2008年职称英语等级考试综合A考卷):

There should be laws(法律) that prohibit (禁止)smoking(吸烟) around children(孩子).

A. forbid(禁止)                      B. advocate(提倡)

C. inherit(继承)                     D. withdraw (收回,撤消)

英语句子中的几个基本句式

 

英语句子中的几个基本句式:陈述句,疑问句,感叹句和祈使句。陈述句分为肯定句和否定句(在be动词后加not或在助动词后加not), 如:

e.g.  He is a worker. 其否定句是:He is not a worker. 

e.g. He likes English. 其否定句:He doesn't like English.

 

疑问句分为一般疑问句,特殊疑问句和反意疑问句。一般疑问句就是把be动词或助动词提到句首,

 e.g. Is he a worker?

e.g. Does he like English?

 

而特殊疑问句就是在句子是由特殊疑问代词或疑问副词引导,

e.g. what do you like? 

e.g. Where are you going?

 


 

8l         Reviewing

e.g. He   gave(给)    me        a book(书).

 

能带双宾语的动词有: buy(购买),bring(拿来), call(称呼), tell(告诉) ,advise(通知), inform (通知), give (给), pass (传递), hand (传递)

 

  e.g. We   considered(认为)  him  to a top student(优等生).

 

通常要求带to不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise(劝告), allow(允许), ask(要求), cause(造成), consider(认为), expect(期待), find(发现), imagine(想象), tell(命令), order(命令), want(希望), wish(希望)等。

 

e.g. There is (有)a book(书) on the table(桌子).

 

职称英语中的长句结构都是在基本句型的基础上增加一些修饰/限定结构而加以扩大, 如:

 

We found(发现) the house(屋子) full(满的).

We found the house full of students(学生) and teachers(老师)      

We found the large(大的) house full of students and teachers listening to (听)an important(重要的) report(报告) 

 

 

英语句子的基本句式

 

英语句子中的几个基本句式:陈述句,疑问句,感叹句和祈使句

 

反意疑问句

反意疑问句是由陈述句和附在其后的附加疑问句组成。若前一部分(陈述句)用肯定式,后部分(附加疑问句)用否定式;若前一部分(陈述句)用否定式,后一部分用(附加疑问句)肯定式,如:

e.g. He is a student(学生), isn’t he?  

e.g. He likes(喜欢) English(英语), doesn’t he?

e.g. He cannot speak(说) English, can he?

 

对一般疑问句进行回答时使用的yes和no要分别与其后面陈述句的肯定和否定形式一致:

e.g. He is a student(学生), isn’t he?

回答:Yes, he is. (是的, 他是一个学生。)

      No, he isn’t. (不,他不是一个学生。)

 

e.g. He cannot speak(说) English, can he?

回答:No, he can’t. ( 是的, 他不会说英语)

      Yes, he can.  (不, 他会说英语)

 


9感叹句

感叹句通常有what, how引导,what修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,如:


He is a clever boy.

How(多么) clever(聪明的) a boy(男孩) he is!

-----→ How clever a boy (he is)!

 

They are making noise.

What(多么大的) noise(噪音) they are making(产生)!

-----→ What(多么大的) noise(噪音)!

 

主语

 

主语是全句谈论的中心话题。

主语是相对谓语而言的,主语相当于句子的主题,谓语说明主语的情况、提供新的信息。英语句子的语序一般是主语位于谓语之前,但实际应用时,主谓倒置的现象有时也较常见。

例如:(划线部分是主语)

 

1. Mr. Chen is a famous(著名的) scientist(科学家). ( 名词作主语)

 

2. Two-thirds of the students (学生)are boys in our school(学校). ( 名词性的短语作主语)

 

3. They silently(默默地) grasped(抓住) our hands(手). (代词作主语) 

 

4.  To be able to talk with you is a pleasure(快乐的事情). (不定式短语作主语)

 

5. What we shall(讲) do next(其次)is not yet decided(决定). (从句作主语)

 

6. It doesn’t matter(重要, 要紧) whether(是否) she will come or not.
(It 是形式主语, whether...部分是真正的主语)

 


10英语句子主语判断依据:

1.  位于句子开头;

2.  名词性结构(单个名词, 名词短语(还包括动名词结构, 不定式结构,名词性从句)或代词(人称代词主格形式,不定代词,疑问代词(who), it(提示:句子主语是it时要考虑it句型的可能性);

3.  主语后出现了与主语在“人称和数”上保持一致的谓语动词;

e.g. He is going abroad(到国外). (he 与 is 都是单数形式)
e.g. They are playing football. (they 与 are 都是复数形式)

 

但是在一些句子中, 句子的主语需要小心识别,如:

No one(没有人) except(除了) two students(学生) was late(迟的, 晚的).  (主语是no one)

 

提示:

主语中含有附带成份(如: except, along with, together with, including, in addition to 等)时, 要注意识别出句子真正的主语。

 

Each(每个) of us has something(某事) to say(说). 

 

When we’ll go out for camping(露营) has been decided(决定).

 

提示:

不定式(短语), 动名词(短语), 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

 

Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything about it
提示:

用连词or, either.... or(或者…或者), neither….nor(既不....也不...), not only….but also (不但…而且…)等连接的并列主语, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致。

 

谓语

 

谓语说明主语的情况、提供新的信息,谓语的位置相对来说是固定的,它总是位于主语的后面。谓语可以分为简单谓语和复合谓语两类。由一个动词(或动词词组)构成的谓语都是简单谓语。

I like (喜欢)reading(阅读).

Hurry up(赶紧)!

 

复合谓语也可分为两种情况:

第一种是由情态动词,助动词+不带to的动词不定式构成的复合谓语:
What does this word(词) mean(意味)?
I won't do it again(再次).
I'll go(去) and move away(移走) the bag(袋子) of rice(大米).

第二种是由系动词+表语构成的复合谓语。例如:
You look the same(一样).

I feel terrible(糟糕的, 可怕的).

  

例如:(划线部分是谓语)

 

1. His parents are teachers . (系动词和表语一起作谓语)

 

2. We study hard. (行为动词作谓语)

 

3. We have finished reading the book. (助动词和行为动词一起作谓语)

 

4. He can speak English. (情态动词和行为动词一起作谓语)

 

英语句子谓语判断依据:

1.  出现在句子主语的后面;

2.  与句子主语保持人称和数的一致性;

3.  以某种时态的形式出现;

4.  行为动词的前面出现了助动词或情态助动词;

 

课堂练习:

(选自8年综合类C级试卷):(黑色加粗字体结构为句子主语, 蓝色加粗字体结构为句子谓语)

Petitions

    (1)Petitions(请愿,请愿书)have long been a part (部分)of British(英国) political life(政治生活).

(2)Anyone who wanted to change something would get a list of signatures(签名) from people who agreed to the idea and either send(递送)them to the government(政府) or deliver (递送)them personally(亲自地) to the Prime Minister’s house(官邸) in London.

    (3)They are always(总是) accepted (接收)at the door by one of the PM's officials(官员).

(4)What happens(发生) then(然后)?

(5)Nothing much(非常少)(省略happens) ,usually(通常).

(6)But petitions have always(总是) been thought of as (一直被看作)a useful(有用的) way for those who govern to find out what the people really think.

    (7)That’s why the UK government Launched its“e—petition”site in November 2006.

(8)Instead of(不是...) physically collecting(收集) signatures,all anyone with an idea has to do now is to make a proposal on the government website,and anyone who supports the idea is free to add his or her signature.

   (9)The petitions soon started to flow in.(10)The idea was for the British people to express their constructive ideas.(11)Many chose (选择)instead(代替) to express their sense of humor. 

    (12)One petitioner called on  Tony Blair to stop the Deputy Prime Minister eating so much”.(13)Another wanted to expel(驱逐)Scotland from the United Kingdom because Scottish football fast never support England in the World Cup.

    (14)Other petitioners called on the Prime Minister to abolish the monarchy.(15)Some wanted to give it more power.(16)Some wanted to oppose the United States.(17)Others wanted to leave the European Union.(18)Some wanted to send more troops to Iraq and others wanted them all brought home.(19)Some wanted to adopt the Euro(欧元).(20)Others wanted to keep the pound.

    (21)Yet if some petitions are not serious. (22)Others present a direct challenge to government policy.(23)A petition calling on the government to drop plans to charge drivers for using roads has already drawn around 1.8 million signatures.(24)In response to that,a rival petition has been posted in support of road pricing.And that is also rapidly growing.

(25)There are about 60 million people in Britain.(26)So it is understandable that the government wants to find out what people are thinking.(27)But the problem with the e-petition site seems to be that the British people have about 70 million opinions,and want the Prime Minister to hear all of them.(28)Perhaps he could start a petition asking everyone to lust shut up for a while.


11回顾与复习

Real-World(现实世界的) Robots(机器人)

When (conj. 在...的时候)you think of(想起) a robot,do you imagine a shiny(有光泽的),metallic(金属的) device(设备) having the same general(普通的,通常的) shape as a human being,performing humanlike functions,and responding to your questions in a monotone(单调的)voice accentuated(使更明显)by high-pitched tones and beeps?  This is the way many of  us imagine(想象) a robot,but in the real world a robot is not humanoid(有人的特点的) at all.Instead,a robot often is a voiceless ,box- shaped machine that efficiently carries out  repetitive or dangerous functions usually performed by humans. Today’ s robot is more than an automatic machine that performs one task again and again. A modern robot is programmed with varying degrees of artificial intelligence,that is,a robot contains a computer program that tells it how to perform tasks associated with human intelligence,such as reasoning,drawing conclusions,and learning from past.


12谓语动词的时态
英文中看动词可以知道时态(一般有明显的区分),  如:
eats, (be) eating, ate, (has/have/had) eaten

在中文里仅凭谓语动词一般无法了解谓语动词所用的时态,如:
我吃了巧克力。
比较:
别吵了。 
我正在吃巧克力。
我要吃巧克力了。

如:2005年综合C阅读判断的第一题:

For  2,005 years, Ireland has been (一直是)the best place for humans to live in.
    A. right  B. wrong  C. not mentioned
    1. B。 分析:问题句的谓语部分用的是现在完成时态, 该时态表明谓语部分所表示的动作或状态是从过去某个时间开始, 一直持续到现在,并强调对现在所产生的影响。 我们常常用中文中表示持续性的状语结构“一直”来翻译英语的完成时态, 所以该问题句的含义是“在2005年的时间里,爱尔兰一直是最适合人类居住的地方。”  文章中的答案相关句是:Ireland is the best place in the world to live in for 2005, according to a life quality (质量)ranking(排名) that appeared(出现/刊登) in Britain’s Economist(经济学者) magazine(杂志) last week.划线结构用的是一般现在时态,该时态用于描述在2005年的一个客观事实:“爱尔兰是2005年世界上最适合居住的地方” , 显然问题句的时态和句意内容与文章中相关句的事态和句意内容不一致,因此判断问题句的说法错误。

 

职称英语中常用的英语动词时态l
 
Ⅰ、一般现在时
结构形式:
   动词be除第一人称单数用am,第三人称单数用is外,其余一律用are。
   动词have除第三人称单数用has外,其余一律用have。
   行为动词第三人称单数由动词原形+s或es构成,如learns, teaches, goes, studies等主,其余一律用动词原形。
基本用法:
   用于表示客观事实, 真理,现在反复发生或习惯性的动作以及存在的特征、状态等,常与often, always(总是), sometimes(有时), usually(通常), once a week(一周一次), every day(每天), seldom(很少), never(从未)等时间状语连用。

(来自2005年职称英语综合类C级词汇选项部分的句子)

e.g. The earth(地球) moves around(环绕) the sun(太阳).

e.g. He is a physician(内科医生).   
 
   表示按计划或安排好的将来的动作,常使用arrive(到达), be(存在), go(去), start(开始), stay(停留)等动词。
   e.g. There is a dancing party(舞会) tonight(今晚).
   e.g. They arrive (到达)in Beijing tomorrow(明天) morning. 

用在时间或条件状语从句中表示将来的动作。
e.g. When you see (看见)them, we will come to (来到)Beijing.

e.g. If there is anything(任何事) I can do for you, please let me know(知道).

  一般现在时态否定结构:

1) 如果谓语部分是行为动词,在构成否定结构时,需要在谓语结构中的行为动词的前面添加助动词和否定副词:主语是第三人称单数时, 所添加的助动词是does, 其他主语,则在句子中添加助动词 do。

e.g. The earth doesn’t move around/round the moon.
e.g. They don’t arrive in Beijing tomorrow morning.

2) 如果谓语部分是be动词, 在构成否定结构时只需要直接在be的后面添加否定副词not。
   e.g. He isn’t a physician.
   e.g. There isn’t any paper(纸) on the desk(书桌).
  一般现在时态疑问结构:简单提一下:
   e.g. The earth moves around the sun. -- Does the earth move around the sun?
   e.g. He is a physician.  – Is he a physician?
   e.g. They don’t arrive in Beijing tomorrow morning.—Don’t they arrive in Beijing tomorrow morning?


13练习与体会:

(卫生类C/B级文章:smoking)

(1)Smoke(烟) is a mixture(混合物) of gases(气体), vaporized(被蒸发的) chemicals(化学制品), minute(微小的) particles(粒子) of ash (灰)and other(其他的) solids(固体). (2)There is also (也)nicotine(烟碱), which is powerful(强大的) poison(毒药), and black(黑色的) tar(焦油). (3)As (在…的时候)smoke is breathed in(被吸入), (4)all those components(成分) form (形成)deposits (沉淀物)on the membranes(隔膜)  of the lungs(肺).

 

Ⅱ一般过去时

1.  形式

1)  动词be除第一人称单数和第三人称单数用was外,其余一律用were。

2)  动词have一律用had。

3)  行为动词过去时的形式分两种:规则动词和不规则动词。前者由动词原形+(e)d构成,如worked, used, studied, stopped等,后者如made, said, wrote等,属于不规则的构成形式, 须逐个记忆。

过去式/过去分词构成不规则的动词,常见的有:

make –made –made;

say – said – said

write – wrote – written

go – went – gone

do– did – done

leave –left –left

sleep – slept – slept

rise –rose –risen

arise –arose –arisen

drive  --drove –driven

drink – drunk – drunk

take –took –taken

put – put –put

beat –beat – beaten

come –came –come

run –ran –run

choose –chose –chosen

give –gave –given

cut –cut—cut

break – broke –broken

meet – met --met

ring –rang –rung

beat – beat --beaten

 

一般过去时态基本用法

用于表示过去的某时刻或某一时期内的动作或状态。常与表明过去时间的状语连用,如yesterday, then(当时), just now(刚才), two days ago, 或由when或while等引导的表明过去时间的状语从句。

e.g. We met (遇见)him last month(上个月).

e.g. They stayed at home yesterday.

e.g. He was a doctor.

 

一般过去时态否定结构的构成:

1) 如果谓语部分是行为动词,在构成否定结构时,需要在谓语结构中的行为动词的前面添加助动词did和否定副词, 并且需要把原来谓语部分的过去分词结构还原成动词的原形。

e.g. We met him last month.-- We didn’t meet him last month.

e.g. They stayed at home yesterday.—They didn’t stay at home yesterday.

2) 如果谓语部分是be动词,在构成否定结构时只需要直接在be的后面添加否定副词not。

e.g. He wasn’t out yesterday. 

 e.g. There wasn’t anyone in the room just now. (anyone –anybody)

       

一般过去时态疑问结构:简单提一下:

e.g. We met him last month. – Did you meet him last month?

e.g. He was out. – Was he out?

e.g. he wasn’t out yesterday.—Wasn’t he out yesterday?

 

练习与体会:

(2004年理工Hurricanes(飓风))

(1)Did you know(知道) that before 1950, hurricanes(飓风) had(有) no names(名字)? (2)They were simply(仅仅) given(被给出的) numbers(数字). (3)The first names(飓风的首名) were simply Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, etc. (4)But in 1953, female(女性的) names were given (被给与)because of(因为) the unpredictability (不可预知) factor(因素) of the storms(暴风雨).

 

Ⅲ、一般将来时

1.  形式

第一人称后接:“shall+动词原形”

第二、三人称后接:“will+动词原形”

注:在美国英语中第一、二、三人称都用“will +动词原形”

 

2.  基本用法:

用在表示将来的动作或状态:shall/will + v. (将…)

e.g.They will win(赢). 我们将会赢的。

e.g. He will let (让) you know(知道). 他将会让你知道的。

〔主语为第一人称时〕一般将来时态常翻译为“要,想要, 将要, 打算要”

e.g. We shall (will) go(去) to (往) Nanjing tomorrow(明天) morning. 我们明天早上要去南京。

e.g. we will/shall invite(邀请)you to our party(宴会). 我们想邀请你参加我们的宴会。

e.g. I will/shall be a good boy(孩子). 我要做一个好孩子。

14 1.  表示将来时态的其他形式与用法:

1)“be going to+动词原形”表示很快就要发生的事情或打算要做的事。

e.g. It’s going to rain(下雨).

e.g. We are going to visit(访问)Beijing next week(下周).

2)“be to+动词原形”表示安排好的动作或要求别人去做的事。

e.g. You are not to bring (带来)any materials(材料) to the exam(考试) room.

e.g. He is to see(看) me today. 

e.g. They are to be married (结婚)in May.

marry sb.

be/get married

3)“be about to+动词原形”表示即将发生的或正要做的事。

e.g. The conference(会议) is about to begin(开始).

4)“be+现在分词”有时可表示按计划即将发生的一个动作,但仅适用于少数的某些动词(如arrive(到达) , come(来), go(去), leave(离开), start(开始)等)而且常跟表示很近的将来的时间状语连用。

e.g. Our classmates(同学) are coming to see us the day after tomorrow(后天).

 e.g. The bus is leaving.

 

4. 一般将来时态的否定结构

      e.g. We shall (will) go to Nanjing tomorrow morning. -- We shall (will) not go to Nanjing tomorrow morning.

e.g. It’s going to rain. – It isn’t going to rain.

 

5. 一般将来时态的疑问句结构

e.g. We shall (will) go to Nanjing tomorrow morning. – Shall/Will we go to Nanjing tomorrow morning?

e.g. It’s going to rain. – Is it going to rain?

 

练习与体会:

(理工C级 Look after your Voice)

If you are willing(乐意的) to change(改变), you will soon be able to (能够)say that you will never forget(忘记) these techniques(技术) because they became(成为) a part(部分) of your life(生活).

1.  形式:

1)   现在完成时由助动词have(has)+过去分词构成。除第三人称单数用has外,其他人称一律用have。

2)   过去分词的形式有规则的和不规则的两种。前者由动词原形+(e)d构成,如worked, used, studied, stopped等,后者如made, gone, written, cut等,须逐个记忆。

 

2.基本用法:

1)用于表示动作现在已经完成:

e.g. She has written (写)three books(书) up to now(到目前为止).

2)表示过去发生但对现在有影响的动作。可以不用时间状语,但也可和一些不涉及具体过去时间的副词连用,如already(已经), before(以前), ever(曾经), never(从未), just(刚才), once(曾经), recently(最近) ,yet(还, 尚)等,例如:

e.g. Who has broken (打碎)the window(窗户)?

e.g. We have never seen such(这样的) a film(电影) before.

3) 也可表示过去某时开始的动作一直延续到现在,而且可能继续延续下去, 常和for引导的短语或和since引导的短语或从句连用。

e.g. We have studied (学习)English for more than 10 years.

e.g. He has lived (生活)here since he divorced(同…离婚) Mary.

3. 完成时态的否定结构

e.g. We have seen such a film before. – We haven’t seen such a film before./We have never seen such a film before. /We have rarely/hardly seen such a film before. 

 

练习与体会:

(综合C级The Barbie Dolls)

Barbie has undergone (经历)a lot of changes(变化) over the years and has managed (设法)to keep up with(与…保持一致) current (当前的)时下的trends(趋势) in hairstyles(发型), makeup(化妆) and clothing.


15谓语动词的时态

练习与体会:

(综合C级The Barbie Dolls)

Barbie has undergone (经历)a lot of changes(变化) over the years and has managed (设法)to keep up with(与…保持一致) current (当前的)时下的trends(趋势) in hairstyles(发型), makeup(化妆) and clothing(服装).

 

 

以下还有几种时态也较常出现在职称英语的文章中。

 

Ⅴ、现在进行时

1.  形式:

1)  现在进行时由助动词am, is, are+现在分词构成。第一人称单数用am,第三人称单数用is,其他人称一律用are。

2)  现在分词由动词原形+ing构成,如learning, making, stopping等。

 

2.  基本用法

1)  用在说话此刻正在进行的动作。

e.g. What are you doing here?

2)  表示现阶段正在进行的动作,而说话此刻并不一定在进行。

e.g. We are doing an experiment(实验) this month.(说话时不一定在做实验)。

   

       3. 现在进行时态的否定结构:

       e.g. We are doing an experiment this month. – We are not…

      

       4. 现在进行时态的疑问句结构:

       e.g. We are doing an experiment this month. – Are you doing…

 

提示:

能使用现在进行时态的动词都是可持续的动词(如:read(读), write(写), listen(听)),不可持续性的动词一般不能使用进行时态。

比较:

e.g. He is dying(死).

e.g. The bus is coming(来).

 

考生要注意时态使用中的反常现象,如:

e.g. He is always(总是) sitting(坐)there(那里), crying(哭泣).

e.g. He is being nice(友善的).

 

练习与体会:

(综合A/B级:Importance of services)

These people argue(争辩说) that manufacturing(制造业的) jobs, which have been the economic(经济的) foundation (基础)of America’s middle class(中产阶级), are vanishing(消失). They claim(声称) that factory(工厂) workers are being replaced (替代)with a host of (许多的)low-wage(低收入的) earners(挣钱者).


16过去将来时

由“shall或will的过去式should或would+动词原形”构成。表示在过去某一时刻之后将要发生的动作或情况。 过去将来时态如果出现在从句中, 则主句谓语动词通常是是一般过去时。如:

e.g. We wanted(想要) to know (知道)when the English class would begin(开始).

 

过去将来时的否定和疑问结构:

It would be fine(晴朗的). 天气会晴朗起来

It wouldn’t be fine.

Would it be fine?

 

be going to do...

am/is going to do... →→→→→ was going to do...

are going to do... →→→→→ were going to

 

“be to+动词原形”

       am/is to do ... →→→→→ was to do...

       are to do... →→→→→ were to do...

 

 “be about to+动词原形”

       am/is about to do ... →→→→→ was about to do...

       are about to do... →→→→→ were about to do...

 

 “be+现在分词”

       am/is doing ... →→→→→ was doing...

       are doing... →→→→→ were doing...

 

 

练习与体会:

(综合A/B级:Plants(植物) and Mankind(人类))

From then on(从那时起) humans(人类) would increasingly (日益地)make their living (谋生)from the controlled(被控制的) production(生产) of a few plants(植物)….

make [get, earn] one's living 谋生

 

Ⅶ、过去进行时

过去进行时由“was (were)+现在分词”构成。

表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作,通常带有一个表示过去时间的状语或时间状语从句结构

e.g. We were having a meeting(会议) at two thirty yesterday afternoon.

 

练习与体会:

(卫生2002年C级阅读理解考题:On the Train)

As(在…的时候) he turned out (翻出)his pocket(口袋) to find(找到) enough(足够的) money(钱) he saw (看见)the gentleman(先生) was watching (观察)him with amusement(快乐)高兴地. Donald realized(意识到) that he was in quite(非常) an awkward(尴尬的) situation(境界), but the man was smiling(微笑).


17过去完成时

由"had+过去分词"构成该时态的谓语,各人称都一样。

表示在过去某一时刻或动作之前已经完成的动作,这个表示到过去某一时刻为止的时间状语常用by, before等介词或连词引导的短语或从句来表示。

e.g. By the end of July last year, I had worked (工作)for forty years.

注意:

e.g. I was told(告诉) that the bank(银行) had been robbed(抢劫).

含有after, as soon as, before等连词引导的状语从句的复合句中,由于连词本身已明确动作发生的次序,所以,这个从句也可以用一般过去时表示,不用过去完成时。如:

e.g. Students went out after the bell rang(响). 铃响后同学们出去了

e.g. I informed him of the progress of the work as soon as I arrived here我一到这里就把工作进程告诉了他。  

 

练习与体会:

(综合C级:The Cherokee Nation)

The Cherokees refused(拒绝) to go(离去). They had lived (生活)on their lands for centuries.

 

When the last group arrived in(到达) their new home(家园) in March 1839, more than 4,000 had died(死).

 提示:相临句子之间的时态关系在解题中的巧妙运用

 

2005年职称英语卫生类/综合类C补全短文考题:

from Caribbean Islands加勒比海海岛

(第3段) The Caribbean Islands form a chain that separates the Caribbean Sea from the rest of the Atlantic Ocean. Some of the islands(岛屿) were formed by the eruption (爆发) of ancient(古代的) volcanoes (火山).   ___(46)__.

 

A.     But life on the Caribbean Islands is not always painful.

B.     The earliest name used by Europeans is the Indies

C.     Others are low-lying coral islands that gradually rose from the ocean.

D.     They are Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Hispaniola

E.     Many tourists arrive on cruise ships.

F.     There are countless small islands to bury treasure(财宝) or hide(兽皮) on

46. C。 分析: 利用时态作为直接的答案线索.空格前句使用的是一般过去时态, 根据文章中前后句使用时态通常一致(除非句子中带有特别的时间状语), 所以推测空格处的句子时态很可能也是一般过去时态, 或过去时态的某一种. 因为判断只有C最可能是答案(只有C中出现了过去时态的结构). 空格前面出现了代词some(some指“一些岛屿”), some往往和 others形成一种呼应结构, 而C中就出现了Others, 而且C中的Others也是指“岛屿”,因此肯定了C是答案。

 


18职称英语常见动词时态与其通常对应的时间状语词

 

 

一般现在时态(walk/walks)

always(总是), often(经常), usually(通常), sometimes/at times/ now and then(有时), every/per week(day, year, month) (每/周/天/年/月), once/twice a week(每周一次/两次), seldom/rarely (很少),now(现在) ,never(从不, 决不)

现在进行时态(am/is/are + walking)

(时态通常意义为“正在”)

(am/is/are + v-ing(go,come,drive,fly,travel,arrive,leave,start,set off(出发))表示按照“意图”, “安排”将发生的动作)

 

 

now(现在) at this time(在这个时候), these days(现在, 目前)

 

 

 

 

现在完成时态(has/have + walked)

(时态通常的意义为“已经, 一直”)

already(已经), never(从不, 决不), ever(曾经),just(刚刚), yet(还,仍然),before(以前),“for + 一段时间”, “since + 起点时间/从句(句子使用一般过去时态)”,since then(从那以后一直), so far(到目前为止), up to now(到目前为止)

 

一般将来时(will/shall +  walk)

 

(时态通常的意义为“将, 将会, 将要”)

tomorrow(明天),next week/month/year(下周/下个月/明年), in the future(在未来), “in + 一段时间” ,“when引导的时间状语从句(从句时态为一般现在时态)”,“if引导的条件状语从句(从句时态为一般现在时态)”

Now:
Now we are short of (缺乏) money(钱).
Now he is answering the phone(接电话).

Never:
He never speaks(说) English in public(当众/).
I have never been(去) there.

 


19(选自2008年卫生类B/C级阅读理解考题)

第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

    下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

 

第一篇   U.S.Life(寿命)Expectancy(期望)Hits(到达) New(新的) High(高处)

Life expectancy rates in the United States are at an all-time(空前的) high(高点/高处),with people born in 2005 projected(被预计) to live for nearly 78 years,a new federal study finds(发现) .

The finding(调查结果) reflects (反映)a continuing(持续的) trend(趋势) of increasing (越来越多的)life expectancy that began(开始) in 1955,when the average American lived to be 69.6 years old. By 1 995,life expectancy was (是)75.8 years,and by 2005,it had risen to 77.9 years,according to the report released(被发表)  Wednesday.

“This is good news,”said report co-author Donna Hoyert ,a health scientist at the National Center for Health Statistics.“It’s even been news that it is a continuation of trends,so it is a long period of continuing improvement.”

     Despite the upward trend,the United States still has a lower life expectancy than some 40 other countries,according to the U.S.Census(人口普查)Bureau. The country with the longest life expectancy is Andorra at 83.5 years,followed by Japan,Macau,San Marino and Singapore.

     Much of the increase owes to(由于)  declining death rates from the three leading causes of death in the country—heart disease,cancer and stroke.

     In addition,in 2005,the U.S.death rate dropped to an all—time low of less than 800 deaths per 100,000.

     Dr.David Katz, director of the Prevention Research Center at Yale University School of Medicine,said, “News that life expectancy is increasing is, of course,good.But the evidence we have suggests that there is more chronic disease than ever in the U.S.”

    Adding years to life is a good thing,Katz said.“But adding vital life to years is at least equally important. If we care about living well,and not just longer,we still have our work cut out for us.”he said.

 

31. Since 1 955, life expectancy rates(数值)in the U.S. have

  A. moved up and down(一直呈现出起伏变化).    B. been declining(一直在下降)

  C. been on the rise(一直在上升).       D. remained(保持) steady(稳定的)

32. Compared with(被与有最长寿命的国家相比) the country with the longest life expectancy,the U.S. is

  A. nearly 3 years behind.         B. nearly 4 years behind.

  C. nearly 8 years behind.         D. nearly 6 years behind.

33.The increase in (在...方面的增加)the U.S. life expectancy is mostly(主要地) due to(因为)

     A. increasing life expectancy rates in some other countries。

  B. declining death rates from heart disease.cancer and stroke

  C. a rise in the rate of chronic disease.

  D. a declining birth rate.

34. Which of the following(下列的) statements(陈述) is NOT true(真实的)?

     A. The U.S.1ife expectancy is at a,n all-time high.

  B. The U.S. death rate was at an all:time low in 2005

C. The annual death rate in the U.S. is over 800 deaths per 100,000

D. Chronic disease appears to be at an all—time high in the U.S.

35. The expression(结构) “adding vital life to years” in the last paragraph(段落) means

    A. living well.                     B. living longer.

    C. living longer and well.          D living at any cost.


20英语和汉语在被动语意的构成形式上也是完全不同,汉语中通过在动词的前面添加虚词“被”,或者添加“受(到)”, “遭(到)”等表示被动语义的词语来使句子表达出被动的语意;而英语句子的被动语意是通过在句子使用被动语态的结构(be + 动词过去分词)而实现,如:

汉语句子:我被父亲批评了。

(对比)英语句子:I was blamed by my father. (介词 by引出动作“blame”的执行者—“我的父亲(my father)”)

提示:

英语中被动语态结构的构成形式及其所具有的结构意义是考生在语法复习中需要重点关注的地方。

2007年职称英语综合类三个级的考题中就多次出现被动语态的结构, 如:

(2007年职称英语考试综合类(C级)词汇选项试题)

1.  At midnight(午夜), we were aroused by a knock(敲打) at the door(在门上的).(被唤醒)

2.  She was awarded a prize(奖) for the film(电影).(被授予)

3.  Smoking(吸烟) will be banned in all public(公共的) places(地方) here.(将被禁止)

12. Relief workers were shocked by what they saw.(感到震惊)

    2007年职称英语综合C级的15道词汇选项题中共有4道题直接涉及到被动语态结构, 文章阅读部分也是频繁出现涉及到被动语态的句子。

绝大多数的及物动词和及物动词短语都可构成被动语态。不及物动词或不及物动词的短语动词和表示状态的词无被动语态。英语中被动语态的基本结构是: “be + 及物动词的过去分词”, 英语被动语态的结构语意相当于中文中的“被...”,“受到...”,“遭到...”, “感到...” 。

 

Ⅰ、被动语态的构成形式

被动语态是由be (助动词)+过去分词(及物动词)构成。be随主语的人称、时态和数的不同而变化。现将被动语态的各种时态形式列表如下(以provide为例)

 

 

一般时态

进行时态

完成时态

现在

am provided

is provided

are provided

am being provided

is being provided

are being provided

has been provided

have been provided

过去

was provided

were provided

was being provided

were being provided

had been provided

将来

shall be provided

will be provided

 

shall have been provided

will have been provided

过去将来

should be provided

would be provided

 

should have been provided

would have been provided

黑体结构是在职称英语考试中常出现的结构。

注:

1. 被动语态的一般疑问句和否定句的构成:构成一般疑问句时,将主语后的第一个助动词提至句首;构成否定句时,将not加在第一个助动词后,如:

 

Natural gas(天然气) has been found in this area(地区). (肯定句) 天然气已经在这个地区被发现。

Has natural gas been found in this area? (疑问句) 在这个地区发现天然气了吗?

Natural gas has not been found in this area. (否定句) 在这个地区还没有发现天然气。

 

2.     带有情态动词的被动语态的构成:由情态动词can, may, must等加助动词be,再加过去分词构成。这些情态动词没有人称和数的变化, 如:

 

Such(这样的) shops(商店) can be seen everywhere(到处) in the city(城市). 这种商店在这座城市里随处可见。

 

 

Ⅱ、主动句转换为被动句:

英语语态之间的转换容易成为职称英语完成句子题部分的考点, 因此在复习中需要掌握主动语态和被动语态之间的转换方法。 主动句变为被动句是通过这样转换而实现的:

第一步:把主动句的宾语转换为被动句的主语;

第二步:把主动句的谓语换成被动语态;

第三步:把主动句的主语前加by构成短语,放在被动语态的谓语之后。此by...短语根据需要而定,有时可以省略。

  如: We               use          coal       to heat homes.

  动作执行者(主语)  谓语       宾语(动作承受者)  状语

 

  Coal       is used  by  us          to heat homes.

  动作承受者   谓语   动作执行者           状语

 

注:

① 带有介词或副词的短语动词,如call on(号召, 拜访), carry out(执行,完成), look after, take care of等用被动语态时,应视为不可分割的一部分,后面的介饲或副词不能丢掉,如:

主动句:Grandma looks after my younger brother well. 奶奶把我弟弟照顾得很好。

    

被动句:My younger brother is well looked after (by my grandma).我弟弟受到了我奶奶很到的照顾。

 

(选自2006年职称英语考试综合类(C级)考题)

Nice Name But She's So Deadly 

1 More than a million people in the United States were told to leave their homes over the weekend as Hurricane (飓风) Dennis headed to the Gulf coast, after killing at least 15 people in the Caribbean Sea.

2 If you read the news often enough=, you may notice that all hurricanes are given names. Why is that? Remember, there can be more than one hurricane operating at one time. Without naming them, we could get confused about which storm we're talking about.

3 For hundreds of years, hurricanes in the Caribbean were named after the particular religious day on which they occurred. One Australian meteorologist (气象学家) began giving women's names to tropical storms at the end of the 19th century. In 1953, the US National Weather Service, which is responsible for tracking hurricanes and issuing warnings, began using female names for storms. By i979, both women and men's names were being used. One name for each letter of the alphabet (字母表) is selected, except for Q, U and Z.

4 So who decides which names are used' each year? The World Meteorological Organization uses six lists in rotation, so each list is reused every six years.

5 Here's a list of the 2005 Atlantic hurricanes, according to the US National Hurricane Centre: Arlene, Bret, Cindy, Dennis, Emily, Franklin, Gert, Harvey, Irene, Jose, Katrina, Lee, Maria, Nate, Ophelia, Philippe, Rita, Stan, Tammy, Vince, Wilma.

 

23 Paragraph 1      

24 Paragraph 2      

25 Paragraph 3      

26 Paragraph 4      

A Reason for naming hurricanes

B Warning of an approaching hurricane

C Deadly women

D History of naming hurricanes

E Organization responsible for naming hurricanes

F Ways to track hurricanes

 

27 Over a million people were warned not      .

28 The responsibility of the US National Weather Service is      .

29 Hurricanes are given names      .

30 At the end of the 19th century, women's names started      .

   A to track hurricanes and issue warnings

   B to avoid confusion

   C to stay at home

   D to be given to tropical storms

   E to make predictions

   F to kill at least 15 people

 

    该文章后的4道完成句子题中有3道(27题,29题和30题 )涉及到被动语态结构, 而第30题的考点就是考察主动语态与被动语态之间的转换。

30. D. 解析:30题所在的句子说“十九世纪末, 女性的名字开始...”。本题依据是第三段的第二句话:One Australian meteorologist began giving women’s names to tropical storms at the end of the 19th century.(十九世纪末,一位澳大利亚的气象学家开始用女性的名字来给热带风暴命名)。显然答案应该是D(被给予热带风暴)。

主动语态: One Australian meteorologist began giving women’s names to tropical storms

被动语态: women’s names started to be given to tropical names (by One Australian meteorologist)

 

(参考答案:23:B; 24:A; 25:D; 26:E; 27:C; 28:A; 29:B;30:D)

 


21职称英语常见动词时态与其通常对应的时间状语词

 

 

 

 

一般过去时态(walked)

used to do sth.(过去常常...)

e.g. I walked to school last term.

e.g. I used to walk to school last term.

 

yesterday(昨天), yesterday morning (afternoon/evening /昨天早晨/下午/傍晚), just now (刚才), ago (以前) , then(当时) , last + 时间 (如 last week, month, year, Monday/上周/上个月/去年/上个星期一 ), that + 时间 (如 that day, afternoon /那一天/那个下午), 时间 + ago (如 a few minutes ago, two weeks ago , years ago/几分钟以前/两周以前/几年以前)

过去进行时态(was/were + walking)

(时态通常意义为“(当时)正在”)

(was/were + v-ing(go,come,drive,fly,travel,arrive,leave,start,set off) 表示按照“意图”, “安排”在过去某个时间看来将发生的动作)

 

at that time意为“在那时”

表示过去某一具体的时间,如at eight last night,at six yesterday morning

 

 

过去完成时态(had + walked)

(时态通常意义为“当时已经, 曾经一直”)

before(以前), by(到...为止), until(到...为止) , when(在...的时候), after(在...之后), once(一旦), as soon as(一...就...)

(在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句通常使用过去完成时态)

 

过去将来时(would/should/ walk)

 

(时态通常意义为“将, 将会, 将要”)

the next day(morning, year.../接下来的一天/接下来的一个早晨/接下来的一年),the following month(week.../下个月/下周…)

 

 

       非谓语动词结构

 

Depression and the Elderly

We all feel sad at times.However,clinical depression is a serious matter.Clinical depression,sometimes called major depression,is a biologically based brain disorder that affects one’s thoughts,feelings,behavior,and physical health.When people complain that they feel terrible.they have no interest or take no pleasure ln things,have trouble sleeping.1ack energy,have poor appetite,or cannot concentrate,depression Is a definite possibility.

1. Clinical depression,sometimes called major depression,is a biologically based brain disorder that affects one’s thoughts,feelings,behavior,and physical health.

Clinical depression,which is sometimes called major depression,is a biologically based brain disorder that affects one’s thoughts,feelings,behavior,and physical health.

2. Clinical depression,sometimes called major depression,is a biologically based brain disorder that affects one’s thoughts,feelings,behavior,and physical health.

→→→→

Clinical depression,sometimes called major depression,is a biologically based brain disorder affecting one’s thoughts,feelings,behavior,and physical health.

 

Ⅰ.动词不定式的形式

1.动词不定式是一种非谓语动词,如to have, to work等, 在句中不能单独作谓语。不定式符号“to”不是介词,无词义。不定式有一般、完成、进行等几种常用的形式,也有主动和被动语态的区别,职称英语考题中不定式的被动语态结构是常见的考点, 以study为例:

 

 

主动

被动

一般式

to study

to be studied

进行式

to be studying

 

完成式

to have studied

to have been studied

 

2.不定式结构中的动词仍然保持动词的特征,可带宾语或状语,构成不定式短语。如:

to do shopping   购物

to come back     回来

 

3.不定式的否定形式是在不定式前面加not, never等,如:

They told me not/never to open the window. 他们告诉我不要打开窗户。

 

4.不定式有时可直接与疑问词连用,如what, when, where, which, whom, why, whether, how等,如:

He wanted to know how to handle such a problem. 他想知道怎样解决这个问题。

He asked when to leave for home. 他问什么时候出发回家。

 

Ⅱ不定式或不定式短语的用法:

不定式在句子中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补足语。

 

1.作主语

不定式或不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数,如:

To serve the people is our duty. 为人民服务是我们的职责。

 

动词不定式短语作主语时,往往放在谓语动词的后面,用引导词it作形式主语。上述两句也可改为:

It is our duty to serve the people. 为人民服务是我们的职责。

 

形式主语的结构在职称英语考题中常见,在职称英语考试中常出现的形式主语的句型有:

It is + n.+ to do

It is our duty to help them. 帮助他们是我们的职责。

 

It takes/took/will take sb.+  time/money + to do

It will take you quite a long time to finish it 你将会花去很长的时间才能完成这项工作。

 

It is +adj.+ for sb.+ to do

It is easy for us to answer this question. 这个问题我们回答起来很容易。(介词for引出不定式结构的逻辑主语)

 


22Ⅱ不定式或不定式短语的用法:

不定式在句子中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补足语。

1.作主语

不定式或不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数,如:

To serve the people is our duty. 为人民服务是我们的职责。

动词不定式短语作主语时,往往放在谓语动词的后面,用引导词it作形式主语。上述两句也可改为:

It is our duty to serve the people. 为人民服务是我们的职责。

形式主语的结构在职称英语考题中常见,在职称英语考试中常出现的形式主语的句型有:

It is/was/has been/had been/ will be/ would be + n.+ to do

It is our duty(职责) to help(帮助) them.

It is/was/has been/had been/ will be/would be +adj.+ (for sb./sth.)+ to do

It is easy(容易的) for us to answer(回答) this question(问题).(介词for引出不定式结构的逻辑主语)

补充:

answer the door v. 去开门(迎客)

answer the telephone v. 接电话

 

It takes/took/will take/would take sb.+  time/money + to do 做...会花掉/花了/将花掉某人...时间/钱

It will take you quite a (相当...的)long time to finish it

补充:

quite a few adj. 相当多(修饰可数名词)

quite a little adj. 许多的(修饰不可数名词)

quite a number of adj. 相当多的

在系动词(be)及半系动词(如:seem, appear, sound, become等)之后,如:

Your main(主要的) task(任务) now is to improve(改进) the quality(质量) of the products(产品).

    He appears(似乎) to have caught a cold.

 

有时be + 动词不定式表示应当、打算、计划做什么的意思。试比较:

Peter is to arrive(到达) at seven this morning.

Our plan(计划) is to finish(完成) the job(工作) at the end of (在...之末)next month(下个月).

提示:

当句子的谓语结构是“be + 动词不定式”时, 如果主语与不定式结构中的动词之间的关系是“动作的执行者与动作之间的关系”,同时句中出现表示将来时间的时间状语结构, 则“be + 动词不定式”是将来时态的一种构成形式, 用于表达“打算、计划”做的事情;否则 “be + 动词不定式”结构属于典型的系表结构:不定式结构充当表语, 用于描述主语的性质, 特征等。在系表结构中,系动词(be)常常翻译为“是”。
23有些及物动词常用不定式作宾语,如:agree(同意), begin(开始), decide(决定), desire(期望), determine(决定, 决心), expect(期望), forget(忘记), hope(希望), learn(学会), like(喜欢), love(爱), mean(打算), offer(愿意), plan(计划), pretend(假装), promise(答应), refuse(拒绝), regret(抱歉), remember(记住), try(试图), stop(停下来去...), want(想要)等,如:

 

The boy decided(决定) not to become(成为) a teacher(老师).

She refused(拒绝) to help me.

 

如果不定式作宾语而又跟有宾语补足语时,要用“it”作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语(不定式)放到补足语后面去,如:

We found(认为, 发现) it impossible(不可能的) to finish the work in such a short time.

I consider(认为) it necessary (有必要的)to collect(收集) sufficient(足够的) data(资料) for our research(研究).

 

形式宾语的结构也是考生在复习中需要重点关注的语法内容。在涉及形式宾语的句子结构中, 句子中真正的宾语除了可以是在句末出现的不定式结构外,还可以是在句末出现的动名词结构和宾语从句,如:

We took it for granted that we would win(赢).(it是形式宾语,句中真正的宾语是位于该句句末的宾语从句)

补充:

   take...for granted 想当然地认为...

We considered it important(重要的) thinking for ourselves. (it是形式宾语,句中真正的宾语是位于该句句末的的动名词结构)

补充:

think for oneself = on one’s own/ 独立地

注意:forget, remember, stop这几个词后面既可以跟不定式结构也可以跟动名词结构,但结构含义差别较大:

forget to do.../忘记要做...

forget doing.../忘记做过...

remember to do.../记住要做...

remember doing.../记住做过...

stop to do.../停下来去做...

stop doing.../停止做...

同时:want, need 这两个动词也是既可以跟不定式结构也可以跟动名词结构,但跟动名词结构时,是用“主动”表示“被动”。

The house wants/needs painting. 房子需要油漆了

23补用来修饰名词,位于被修饰名词的后面。如:

This is the best(最好的) way(方法) to solve(解决) the problem(问题).

There are (有)a lot of (许多的)sheets (传单)to mend(修补).

注:

①常用不定式作定语的名词有:ability(能力), agreement(同意), attempt(尝试,努力), chance(机会, 可能性), decision(决定), determination(决定, 决心), failure(没有(不履行,没做到)), freedom(自由), hope(希望), need(需要), opportunity(机会), plan(计划), promise(承诺), refusal(拒绝), way(方法), right(权利)等;此外,序数词the first(第一), second(第二)以及last(最后), only(仅仅), best(最好)等也常用不定式作定语,如:

He was the only one(pron. 一个人) to realize(意识到) the danger(危险).

 

②用不定式作定语时,它与它修饰的词有时是动宾关系(如上述第例句中的mend和sheets之间的关系),如果不定式是不及物动词,其后面应跟必要的介词。如:

Mary needs a friend(朋友) to play with.玛丽需要有一个与她一起玩的朋友。

There is nothing (pron.没有什么) to worry about. 没有什么值得发愁的。

补充:

He worked for nothing(免费地).

not... for nothing  没有白费

I don’t study(学习) English(英语) for nothing.


 

24通常表示目的、结果、原因等。如:

I will go(去) to see you. (目的)

In 1972 she left home never to return(返回). (结果)

I am sorry(伤心的, 难过得) to hear that. (原因)

注:

①不定式作目的状语,可以在句首,也可以在句末。有时为了强调可用so as to...(以便,为了)或in order to ...(为了...目的)。

Let’s hurry(赶紧) so as to catch(赶上) the last bus.

补充:

catch/get a cold

Did you catch my idea? (catch –understand – follow理解)

All living things (生物)must eat(吃) in order to stay(保持) alive(活着的).

 ②不定式作结果状语可用so (such) ...as to (这样(的) ...以至),too...to(太...以至不能),enough to (足以...)等引出,如:

The rain was so heavy(大) as to make our picnic impossible.

补充:

heavy traffic 车流量大

他有点胖. 

He is a little fat? /heavy?.(on a heavy side)

heavy food 油腻的食物

light food 清淡的食物

a heavy smoker 烟瘾很大的人

a heavy drinker 酒量很大的人

This man is too lazy(懒惰的) to succeed in(在...方面取得成功) business(生意).

③“be+形容词+不定式”的结构中,不定式部分常看作是状语,这类后面通常带不定式结构的形容词有:able(能够的), afraid(害怕的), anxious(渴望的), careful(小心的), determined(决定了的), eager(渴望的), free(自由的), glad(高兴的), pleased(高兴的), ready(情愿的), sorry(抱歉的, 遗憾的), sure(一定的, 必定的), willing(乐意的)等。

有宾语补足语和主语补足语两种。

1)作宾语补足语

有一些及物动词除跟宾语外,还需要有一个成分作逻辑上的补充说明,使得宾语的状态或行为或特征等的意思完整。这个成分称为补足语,用于说明宾语,因此称宾语补足语。不定式可作宾语补足语,如:

Many parents allow their children to make their own decisions.

 

注:

①       通常要求带带有“to”的不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise(建议, 劝告), allow(允许), ask(要求), cause(造成), consider(认为), expect(期望), find(发现,认为), imagine(想象), tell(命令, 告诫), want(想要), wish(希望)等

 

②       要求不带“to”的不定式作宾语补足语的动词(一般为表示“感觉”或“使役”的动词)有: have(让, 使), hear(听到), let(让), make(使), notice(注意到), see(看), watch(注视,看), listen to(听), look at(看)

I saw two men have a quarrel with a woman just now. 刚才我看见两个男人与一个女人发生争吵。

 

③       help后面的作宾语补足语的不定式带“to”或不带“to”都可以。

I help Mary wash her clothes.  我帮助玛丽洗衣服。

I help Mary to wash her clothes. 我帮助玛丽洗衣服。

 

2)作主语补足语

带有宾语补足语的谓语动词变为被动语态时,宾语成了主语,宾语补足语也就相应地成为主语补足语。当动词不定式用作主语补足语时,一律要用带“to”的形式。如:

Their children are allowed to make their own decisions.

 

Ⅲ不定式的逻辑主语

如要表明不定式或不定式的动作发出者(即逻辑主语),就要在不定式前用for+名词(或代词的宾格),如:

Is the road wide enough for two cars to pass?

The conference is too important for you to miss.


 

25(选自2008年职称英语理工类B/C级阅读理解考题)

Sunspots

It's not surprising (令人惊讶的)that sunspots(太阳黑子)were observed (观察)by ancient astronomers (天文学家).The largest soupspoon the sun can be seen (看见)without a telescope.It was not until the invention of the telescope(望远镜)in the early 17th.century,however,that systematic studies of sunspots could be undertaken(着手进行).The great astronomer Galileo was among the first to make telescopic(用望远镜的) observations of sunspots(太阳黑子).

 

make a call v. 访问

make a contribution to v.  对...作出贡献

make a decision  v. 作出决定

make a living  v. 谋生

25补 动名词与动词不定式一样,也是一种非谓语形式,它可以带宾语、状语等构成动名词短语。动名词由动词原形+ing构成,没有人称和数的变化,但有语态的变化,且有一般式和完成式。

以动词study为例:

 

主动

被动

一般式

studying

being studied

完成式

having studied

having been studied

 

 

动名词的用法

动名词(或动名词短语)在句中起名词的作用,可用作主语、表语、宾语(动词或介词的宾语)和定语等。

Talking about it is no use. 讨论这件事情没用。

 Seeing is believing.

 

提示:动名词(或动名词短语)作主语时,有时句中使用形式主语it,如:

 It is no use talking about it. 讨论这件事情没用。

常见的形式主语结构(真正的主语是在句子的结尾部分出现的动名词结构)

It is +no use , no good , fun(有趣), a great pleasure(快乐的事情), a waste of time(浪费时间) 等名词+ doing sth.

It is no use crying.


 

26It is a great fun playing football.

It is + useless, nice , good ,interesting, worthwhile, pointless, expensive 等形容词+doing sth.

It is nice seeing you again.

26补Our work is programming the computer.

注意:

be+动名词(表语)与be+现在分词(构成进行时态)在形式上相同,但在前一种结构中,be是系动词,有词义,而在后一种结构中,be是助动词,只是用来构成一种谓语时态,无词义。这两个结构可根据句子主语与 “-ing结构”中的动词之间的关系加以区分:如果句子的主语是“-ing结构”所体现的动作的执行者,则该“-ing结构”是现在分词结构,该结构连同其前面出现的助动词be,形成英语中的进行时态;否则“-ing结构”就是动名词结构,用于说明主语的状态,性质, 特征等,如:

My favorite sport is skating.

比较:

My brother is skating.

作宾语(动词或介词的宾语)

 They began studying psychology last week.

注:

①       很多及物动词都可用动名词作宾语,常见的只可跟动名词的动词有:avoid(避免), deny(否认), dislike(不喜欢), enjoy(享受...的乐趣), excuse(原谅), finish(完成), keep(保持), mind(介意), require(需要), suggest(建议), can’t help(情不自禁(地)), give up(放弃), insist on(坚决要求)等。

②       常见的既可跟动名词也可跟不定式作宾语的动词有:attempt(努力,尝试), begin(开始), continue(继续), forget(忘记), hate(讨厌), learn(学习/学会), like(喜欢), love(热爱), prefer(更喜欢), need(需要), propose(建议), remember(记住), regret(后悔,遗憾), start(开始), stop(停止), try(努力, 尝试), want(想要, 需要)等。

These dialogues may be used as listening materials. 这些对话被用作听力材料。

 a washing machine   = a machine for washing

a reading room = a room for reading

动名词的逻辑主语

动名词前可以有自己的逻辑主语,作为该动名词所表示的动作的发出者。用作动名词逻辑主语的词类有:物主代词、名词所有格(即名词后加“s”,意为“...的”)、或人称代词宾格。如:

His taking part in (参加)the work will help(帮助) us a lot(非常多).

We are looking forward to(期待) Betty’s coming.

 She doesn’t like my father and me interfering in (干涉)her affairs(事情).


 

27动名词前可以有自己的逻辑主语,作为该动名词所表示的动作的发出者。用作动名词逻辑主语的词类有:物主代词、名词所有格(即名词后加“s”,意为“...的”)、或人称代词宾格。如:

His taking part in (参加)the work will help(帮助) us a lot(非常多).

We are looking forward to(期待) Betty’s coming.

 She doesn’t like my father and me interfering in (干涉)her affairs(事情).

27补分词也是一种非谓语动词,在句中不能单独作谓语,没有人称和数的变化,它可以带宾语、状语和表语构成分词短语。分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。

1.    现在分词和过去分词的构成

A.现在分词由原形动词+ing构成,

(+ ing)            play (玩,扮演, 进行比赛) - playing

(去掉末尾的e+ ing)take (拿走, 获得,占领)- taking

(双写末尾辅音字母+ ing)stop (停止) – stopping

(把ie改为y + ing)lie (说谎,躺,位于)- lying


B.过去分词分两类,一类是规则动词,由原形动词+ed构成, 如:

start – started - started

excite – excited - excited

copy – copied - copied

stop – stopped - stopped

另一类是不规则动词,如come, spoken, written等,需记忆。

 

不规则变化(考生需要掌握以下进行不规则变化的动词)
1.动词原形、过去式和过去分词完全同形
cut(切, 减少) - cut - cut
hit(打)- hit - hit
hurt(伤害) - hurt - hurt
put(放)- put - put
let(让, 出租)- let -let
shut(关) - shut – shut
cost(花费)- cost - cost
set(放, 设定) - set – set

2.过去式与过去分词完全同形
find(找到) - found - found
pay(支付) - paid - paid
leave(离开, 使保持...状态)- left -left
lend(借出)- lent -lent
meet(遇见)- met - met
keep(保持) - kept -kept
lose(丢失) -lost -lost
teach(教) -taught -taught
sit(坐) - sat –sat
lead(引导)- led - led
win(赢)- won – won

say(说,讲) – said – said

spend (花费) – spent – spent  

3.动词原形与过去分词同形
come(来) - came - come
run(跑, 管理,开动) - ran - run
become(成为) -became - become

4.动词原形,过去式,过去分词形式完全不同

be (是, 在)– was - were
give(给) - gave – given
fly(飞) - flew – flown
drink(喝) - drank – drunk
see(看见)- saw - seen
go(去) - went - gone
know(知道)- knew – known 
wear(穿)- wore – worn 
speak(说) - spoke – spoken

write(写) – wrote - written

注意:lie有规则变化和不规则变化两种,含义不同
lie – lied - lied(说谎)

lie – lay - lain(躺,位于)
注意:hang 有规则变化和不规则变化两种,含义不同
hang – hanged - hanged(处绞刑)

hang - hung - hung(挂,吊)



2.    分词的时态和语态

现在分词有一般式和完成式,并有主动和被动语态。过去分词则只有一种形式,现以动词study为例:

 

主动

被动

现在分词

一般式

studying

being studied

完成式

having studied

having been studied

过去分词

 

studied

 


 

28A   在时态上,通常现在分词表示进行,过去分词表示完成,如:

the developing countries发展中国家 (-ing/正在)

the developed countries发达国家     (-ed/已经。。。了)

B.在语态上,通常现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动,如:

a moving film一部感人的影片(-ing/主动/“令人...的”)

the moved audience受感动的观众(-ed/被动/“被...的”)

28补在句中可作定语、状语、补足语和表语

1.    作定语

可放在被修饰的名词的前面或后面:

A.单个现在分词作定语时,放在被修饰的词的前面;单个过去分词作定语时,放在被修饰的词前,但有时为了强调,也可以放在被修饰的词的后面,如:

The growing (正在生长的)plants(植物) in our garden(花园) need(需要) more sunlight(阳光) and water.

B.分词短语作定语时,一般总是放在它所修饰的词之后,例如:

The house(房子) standing(屹立在...的) at the corner of the street(街道)was built(建造) in 1980.


 

29分词或分词短语可作状语,说明谓语表示的动作发生的时间、条件、原因、结果、伴随情况、行为方式或对谓语加以补充说明等。

1)     表示时间、条件、原因的状语一般放在句子开头或中间,表示结果则放在句末,有时为了强调或明确分词或分词短语所指的是时间,前面可加when, while,所指的是结果,前面可加thus, 如:

 Finding(发现) no one at home, he left(离开) the house in a (bad) temper(脾气, 性情).(现在分词结构在句中作原因状语)

He always studies(学习) hard(努力地), thus becoming(成为) a top student.(副词thus所在的分词结构在句子中作结果状语)

Given(给) the opportunity(机会) he might well have become an outstanding(杰出的) engineer(工程师).(过去分词结构在句中作条件状语)

 

2)     表示伴随情况、行为方式或补充说明。这种分词短语一般不能用状语从句代替,它通常放在句末,但也有放在句首的。如:

 She went down(沿着...向下走) the steps(台阶) into the kitchen(厨房), followed(跟随) by her little daughter(女儿).  (过去分词结构在句中作状语, 表示伴随状态)

Sitting(坐) on a stone(石头), the frog(青蛙) is waiting for (等待)something to eat(吃)(现在分词结构在句中作状语, 表示行为方式)

 


30分词或分词短语用作状语时,一般说明句子的谓语,分词所表示的动作或状态的主体,一般是句子的主语,但有时分词或分词短语作状语时,还可带自己的动作主体,一般用名词或代词表示,放在分词前面。这种结构称为分词独立结构,如:

The work(工作) done, they put away(放好) their tools(工具) and left the workshop(车间).

His health(健康) failing(衰退), he decided(决定) to retire(退休) from office(办公室). 

分词独立结构有时还可由介词with, without引出,通常用于补充说明或表示伴随情况,翻译时可根据上下文译为“随着…”,“…之后”,“由于”等,有时也可不译出,如:

With summer(夏季) coming on(来临), it’s time to buy(购买) air conditioners(空调).

30补分词或分词短语可作补足语。要求分词或分词短语作补足语的常见的动词多为“感觉”和“使役”动词,有feel(感觉), find(发现), get(让, 使), have(让, 使), hear(听见), imagine(想象), keep(保持), make(让, 使), notice(注意到), see(看见), smell(闻见),  watch(看,注视)等。

1) 作宾语补足语

 He heard the clock(时钟) striking(敲) six. 他听见时钟正在敲6点。

 

 2) 作主语补足语

把上述句子改成被动语态,原来的宾语补语就成为主语补足语了。

 The clock was heard striking six. 时钟被听见正在敲6点。

 

注:

在“have+宾语+宾语补语”的结构中,宾语补语所表示的动作往往是由别人来完成的。如:

 I had my tape recorder(录音机) repaired(修理).

分词或分词短语可在系动词(如be, become, get, remain, seem, stay等)之后作表语。如:

John’s stories(故事) are amusing. 约翰的故事令人发笑。

说明:用在系动词后面作表语的分词,其中大部分已被看作形容词

 

amazing adj.令人惊讶的

(amazed adj. 感到惊讶的,吃惊的)

boring adj. 令人厌烦的

exciting adj. 令人兴奋的

excited adj. 激动的

missing adj. 失踪的, 不在的

rewarding (A级) adj. 有报酬的, 值得做的

shocking (A级)adj. 令人震惊的,非常糟糕的

(shocked adj.感到震惊的, 震惊的)

surprising adj. 令人惊讶的

(surprised adj. 感到惊讶的)

过去分词没有时态形式的变化。现在分词分一般式和完成式,一般式表示的动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时或几乎同时发生。

现在分词完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,在句中常常用作状语,表示时间或原因。如:

Having heard the story before, she didn’t want(想要) to hear it again(再次).(现在分词结构在句中充当状语, 表示原因)


 

31从句结构

 

(选自2008年度全国职称外语等级考试综合A级试卷)

 

A New Citizenship(公民的身份) Test(测试)

 

  Last week, a sample(样品) of the new US citizenship(公民身份)exam was released(释放,发表) (过去分词/与助动词was一起构成被动语态)by the US Citizenship and immigration(移民) Services(US-CIS). It will be tried out (过去分词结构/与助动词be一起构成被动语态)in 10 cities early next year to replace(代替) the current(现在的, 流通的) test(不定式结构/在句中作状语)in 2008. Instead of(不是) asking(询问) how many stripes(条纹) the US flag(国旗) has(动名词结构/在句中作介词of的宾语), as(正如) the current test does, the new one asks(问) why there are 13 stripes. Instead of(不是) having to(不得不) name(说出...的名字) the branches(分支机构) of government(政府)(动名词结构/在句中作介词of的宾语), an applicant(申请者) is asked (被要求)to explain(解释) why there are three(不定式结构/在句中作主语补足语).

 


32l         名词性从句

主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句在句中的作用相当于名词通常在句中所起的作用,因而这四种从句统称为名词性从句。职称英语考题中主语从句与宾语从句出现频率最高,其次是表语从句和同位语从句。

引导这些从句的词主要有三类:

1.  从属连词:that (无词义),whether (是否),if (是否)

2.  连接代词:who(谁), whom(谁,who的宾格), whose(谁的), what(什么, ...的(东西, 事情)), which(哪个)

3.  连接副词:when(什么时候), where(在哪里, ...的地方), why(为什么), how(怎样)

 

32补主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句在句中的作用相当于名词通常在句中所起的作用,因而这四种从句统称为名词性从句。职称英语考题中主语从句与宾语从句出现频率最高,其次是表语从句和同位语从句。

引导这些从句的词主要有三类:

1.  从属连词:that (无词义),whether (是否),if (是否)

2.  连接代词:who(谁), whom(谁,who的宾格), whose(谁的), what(什么, ...的(东西, 事情)), which(哪个)

3.  连接副词:when(什么时候), where(在哪里, ...的地方), why(为什么), how(怎样)

Ⅰ、主语从句

当句子的主语是从句结构时, 谓语部分应该使用单数的形式, 如:

Which design(设计) is more practical(切实可行的) (主语从句)is in question(在讨论中).

 

按照英语习惯,如果句子主语是从句结构(主语从句)则可用it作形式主语,放在句子主语的位置上,而将主语从句放在句子后面部分,上面的句子可以改为:

 

It is in question which design is more practical. 哪个设计更切实可行还在讨论中。

 

Ⅱ、宾语从句

宾语从句可以作动词或介词的宾语。

I wonder(想知道) whether (if) the refrigerator(冰箱) is large(大的) enough(足够).(充当动词wonder的宾语)

 

He informed(通知,告诉) us of how he would handle  the problem(问题).(充当介词of的宾语)

 

注:

1. 引导宾语从句的连词“that”在口语和非正式文体中常可省略。

2.    whether和if都可以表示“是否”的意思,在口语中常可以互换,但如果作为介词的宾语,或后面跟有“…or not”,或引出主语从句时,则只用whether而不用if,如:

 It all depends on(取决于) whether we can get their cooperation(合作).

 

 Tell(告诉) me whether you like the handbag(手提包) or not.


 

33Ⅲ、表语从句

表语从句与系词(以及半系动词)一起构成主句的谓语结构。

 My problem(问题) is how we can reduce(减少,降低) this high(高的) temperature(温度).

 

It seems that it is going to rain(下雨).

It seems/ seemed that...好像/似乎...

 

The cloth(布) feels(摸起来) as if(= as though/好像) it were made of silk(丝绸).

 

33补Ⅳ、同位语从句

同位语从句用以说明名词的内容,使之明确而具体化。常带同位语从句的名词有conclusion(结论), doubt(怀疑), fact(实事), fear(担心), hope(希望), idea(想法), news(消息), opinion(观点), suggestion(建议)等。从句通常由that引导,有时也可由whether, what, when, where, why, how等引出。

There is no doubt that he will succeed(成功).

 

My opinion that no action(行动) need be taken yet(还) is shared(共有, 共享) by most(大多数) of us here(这儿).

        状语从句

   在复合句中起状语作用的从句叫状语从句,可表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步等意义。

 

I. 时间状语从句

时间状语从句通常由when(在...时候),whenever(每当),as(当...时候,随着...),while(在...期间),before(在...以前),after (在...之后),since(自从...以来),as soon as (一...就),until(till) (直到...才)等连词引导, 如:

A well-mannered(有礼貌的) person never laughs at (嘲笑)people when they are in trouble(麻烦).

 

While Betty was getting dressed穿衣服), she kept looking at (看)the clock.

 

The fields(天地) don’t require(需要) irrigation(灌溉) until weather(天气)is dry.


34II. 地点状语从句

地点状语从句通常由where (哪里,在...地方),wherever( 无论什么地方)等连词引导, 如:

When previewing(预习) a new lesson(功课), make marks(标记) where you have questions(问题).

 

Please take this suitcase(手提箱) and put(放置) it wherever you can find enough(足够的) space(空间).

 

III. 原因状语从句

原因状语从句通常由because (因为),since(既然,由于),as (因为,由于)等连词引导:

 

We didn’t go to (去)that restaurant(餐馆) again because the service(服务) was poor.

 

Since numerous(众多的) objections(反对的话语) were made, the plan(计划) was not accepted(接受).

 

As Venus is the brightest(最亮的) planet(行星), we can sometimes(有时) see (看见)it in the daytime(白天).

 

IV.目的状语从句

目的状语从句通常由that (为了,以便),so that(为了,以便),in order that(为了,以便),lest (以免,以防)等连词引导:

The material(材料) for building(修建) the bridge(桥梁) must be very strong(坚固的) so that it may not break(断裂) in use(使用).

 

Please remind(提醒) me of it again(再次) tomorrow(明天), lest I (should) forget(忘记).

 

V. 结果状语从句

结果状语从句通常由so that(以至于...), so...that(如此地...以致),such...that(这样的...以致于)等连词引导,表示结果,如:

 

So many(许多的) people applied for (申请)the job(工作) that he spent(花) the entire day giving interviews(面试).

 

It was such a worthy(有价值的) cause(事业) that we contributed(捐献) a generous amount(数量) of money(钱).

 


35l         状语从句

   在复合句中起状语作用的从句叫状语从句,可表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步等意义。

 

I. 时间状语从句

时间状语从句通常由when(在...时候),whenever(每当),as(当...时候,随着...),while(在...期间),before(在...以前),after (在...之后),since(自从...以来),as soon as (一...就),until(till) (直到...才)等连词引导, 如:

 

II. 地点状语从句

地点状语从句通常由where (哪里,在...地方),wherever( 无论什么地方)等连词引导,如:

 

III. 原因状语从句

原因状语从句通常由because (因为),since(既然,由于),as (因为,由于)等连词引导:

 

IV.目的状语从句

目的状语从句通常由that (为了,以便),so that(为了,以便),in order that(为了,以便),lest (以免,以防)等连词引导:

 

V. 结果状语从句

结果状语从句通常由so that(以至于...), so...that(如此地...以致),such...that(这样的...以致于)等连词引导,表示结果,如:

 

VI.条件状语从句

条件状语从句通常由if (如果),unless(除非,若不),suppose(supposing)(假设),provided(假若),in case(如果,万一), as(so)long as (只要)等连词引导,表示假设条件, 如:

If the car is powered(供以动力) by electricity(电), there will be less pollution(污染).

 

Unless you study(学习) hard, you won’t get a scholarship(奖学金)

 

Provided/Suppose/Given there is no opposition(反对), we shall hold the meeting (会议)here.

 

The mass meeting will be put off(推迟) in case it rains(下雨).

 

36l        VII. 让步状语从句.

让步状语从句通常although(though)(虽然),as(虽然),while(虽然),even if (though)(即使),however(不管怎样),whatever(不管,无论什么),no matter what(how, where, when)不管什么(怎样\哪里\何时),whether...or (不管…还是)等连词引导, 如:

 

He will not reveal the secret(秘密) though he knows(知道)it.

 

The galaxy(银河系), vast(辽阔的) as it is , is only a small island(岛屿) in the endless(无止境的)universe.

 

While this is true of(对。。。适用) some, it is not true of all.

 

We’ll carry our experiment(实验) through(进行) no matter what obstacles(障碍) we should have in our way. 不管在我们道路上有什么障碍,我们一定要把试验进行到底.

 

However hard(努力地) you try, you won’t be able to (能够)do it alone(单独地).

 

(不管…还是)Whether you like(喜欢) it or not, you’ll have to (不得不)do it.


37l         定语从句

在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句称为定语从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句必须放在先行词之后。根据定语从句与先行词的密切程度可分为限制性和非限制性定语从句。

引导定语从句的词有两类:                          

1、  关系代词:which, that, who, whom, whose

2、  关系副词:when, where, why

 

限制性定语从句与先行词关系密切,如去掉从句,句子的意思就不完整,不明确。从句与主句之间不用逗号隔开。把限制性定语从句翻译成定语时,通常可以把引导定语从句的连接词译成中文中标志定语结构的虚词“的”,如:

Did you see the letter(信) that I sent(寄) him? 你看到我寄给他信了吗?

 

Ⅰ关系代词引出限制性定语从句

which, that代替事或物,在从句中做主语,宾语(作宾语时可省略), 表语。Who, that代替人,在从句中who做主语,whom作宾语(可省略)。Whose代替人或物,在从句中做定语。如:

 

The road(道路) which (that)leads to (通往)the small town (城镇)has been widened(加宽). (which或that 在从句中做主语)

 

I want(想要) the book(书) that(which) you borrowed(借) from the library(图书馆).(that或which在从句中作宾语)

 

Students(学生) who (that)study hard are usually(通常) successful(成功的).(who或that在从句中做主语)

 

2.     The man whom(that )you are talking to is the dean(系主任) of our department(系).(whom, that 在从句中作宾语)

 

3.      There have been only a few scientists(科学家) whose work(工作) has changed (改变)man’s total(整个的) view(看法) of the world(世界).(whose指人,whose所在的结构在从句中做主语)

补充:

1. 关系代词which, who, whom, that如果在从句中作宾语,可以省略。

1.  关系代词在定语从句中做主语时,从句中谓语动词的人称和数必须与先行词一致。

2.  在下列情况下一般用that做为定语从句的引导词:

A.先行词为all(全部), everything(每件事情/动词), nothing(没有), anything(任何事/东西), little(少许)等不定代词时,如:

Everything(that)we saw at the exhibition(展览会) was very interesting(有趣的).

 

B、先行词为序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时。如:

 The first(第一) thing(that)you have to do is to register(登记注册).

 

 This is the most exciting(令人兴奋的) football(足球) game(比赛) (that) I have ever seen(看).

 

Ⅱ关系副词引出限制性定语从句

关系副词when指时间、where指地点,why指原因,它们引出的定语从句分别用来修饰表示时间、地点、原因的先行词如day(天), time(时间), place(地方), building(建筑物), reason(原因)等。这些关系副词在从句中均做状语,如:

 

    Air(空气) conditioning(调节) is very important(重要的) in some industries(工业部门) where special(特殊的) conditions must be kept(保持). 

 

Do you know the reason(原因) why things(东西) don’t fall off(掉离) the earth(地球)?

 

Ⅲ介词+which(whom)引出限制性定语从句

这种定语从句在修饰人时,介词后只用whom,修饰物时只用which,而不用that,如:

    The man with whom I share(共享)the room(房间) is a young(年轻的) teacher(老师).

 

   This is the shelf(书架) on which I keep(保存) my books(书).

 

2.非限制性定语从句

非限制性定语从句与先行词的关系比较松散,从句只对先行词附加说明,没有该从句句子的意思仍然完整。主句与从句之间常用逗号隔开, 翻译时一般分译成两个句子。所用关系代词与限制性定语从句基本相同,但that一般不用于非限制性定语从句。 如:

 

The professor(教授) introduced(介绍) me to his students(学生), most of whom were from abroad(海外). (whom指代his students)

 

They rowed(划船) across the Atlantic(大西洋), which had never been done(做) before. (which指代前面整个句子的内容)

 


38判断从句性质方法:

1 依据从句在句中的位置特点(尤其适用于名词性从句及定语从句);

e.g. He said(v. 说) that he would come(来).

 

e.g. Did you see the letter(n. 信) that I sent(寄) him?

 

2.  依据连接从句的连词使用特点(e.g. because, although, though, before, after, until/till, lest, in order that, unless, as(so) long as, in case, however)

e.g. I do it because I like(喜欢) it. 我做这件事是因为我喜欢。

 

3.  依据从句的句子结构特点(如引导从句的连词是否在从句中充当某个语法成分)

e.g. He said(v. 说) that he would come.

 

e.g. Did you see the letter(n. 信) that I sent him?

 

e.g. He can run as fast(很快地) as I can.(as...as.../与...一样地...)

 

4. 从句与主句在意义上的相互关系;

e.g. I met(预见) her while(在...期间) I was at school(在学校).

 

e.g. You like tennis(网球), while I'd rather(宁愿)  read.

(选自2008年理工类A级概括大意与完成句子考题)

 

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2~5

段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

The Supercomputer(超级计算机) Network(网络)

Recently, Ten laboratories run by governments in different parts of the world have become linked.Their computers(计算机) have been connected(连接) so  they can“talk”(谈话)to each other(彼此). This may not seem(似乎) very dramatic(令人激动的) news(消息),but it is the beginning(开始) of a development(发展) that will increase(增加) the power of the Internet(因特网) tremendously(非常地).

The Internet is an interconnected(互联)system of networks that connects(v. 连接) computers(计算机) round the world and facilitates(促进) the transmission(传输) and exchange(交换) of information(信息). The way that you use(使用) the Internet is by accessing(进入)this network.This depends on(取决于) the power that your system(系统) allows(允许) you to use.The power of your computer is responsible for (决定)how fast(很快地) you can download(下载)files(文件),how much data (数据)you can store(存储),etc.If your computer is old(旧的) and slow(慢的), accessing(使用) the information(信息) can be very difficult(困难的). 

 


39  强调句, 倒装句,虚拟语气的结构,it句型等特殊句子结构有时也会出现在职称英语阅读理解考题中, 这些结构中所涉及到的从句结构是考生在复习中需要了解的内容。

1 强调句

强调谓语的方法:在谓语动词前面加助动词(do/does/did)

e.g.I am a student.

e.g.I do be a student.

e.g.He liked music(音乐).

e.g.He did like music.

 

基本句型1:It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who ...  (被强调部分为句子的主语,宾语,表语或状语 )


e.g.It was they that (who ) cleaned(打扫) the classroom(教室) yesterday(昨天).

e.g.It was in the street(街道) that I met(遇见) her father(父亲).

 

比较:

e.g.It is certain(确信无疑的) that they will win(赢).

e.g.It was they that cleaned the classroom yesterday.

 

识别强调句型与it句型的方法:

如果是强调句型,把强调句型的基本框架结构(It is/was ... that/who)划掉后应该是一个完整无缺的句子;

如果是it句型,把it句型中出现的(It is/was ... that/who)划掉后,将会出现不完整地句子结构;

强调句型2:It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ...( “直到...才...”)

e.g. It was not until she took off (取下)her dark glasses (墨镜)that I realized(意识到) she was a famous(著名的) film(电影) star(明星).

 

英语中,通常是主语在谓语动词的前面, 是“主语+谓语”结构,这叫陈述语序,也称为正常语序, 如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前, 就称为倒装语序。有的倒装语序把整个谓语动词放在主语之前, 称为完全倒装,有的只是谓语动词的一部分(通常是助动词情态动词,系动词be或谓语的一部分)放在主语之前, 称为部分倒装。复习中考生主要需要了解部分倒装结构的构成形式

 

部分倒装

1.否定词或具有(半)否定意义的词语置于句首作为句首状语时,一般必须采用部分倒装语序。具有否定或半否定意义的词和词组有:no(不,没有) , never(从不, 决不), seldom(很少), little(很少的), few(很少的), rarely(很少地), hardly(几乎不), never before(从不), no longer(不再), no more(不再), not until(直到...才), in no way(决不), in/under no circumstances(决不), in no case(决不), hardly...when(一...就...), scarcely...when/before(一...就...), no sooner...than(一...就...)等,如:

e.g. Never before have I seen(看见) such a  wonderful(奇妙的) park(公园).

e.g. No sooner had I gone out(出去) than it rained(下雨).我刚出去,就下雨了。

e.g. Seldom have I met(遇见) him recently(最近). 最近我很少遇见他。

e.g. Under no circumstances will we be the first(第一) to use nuclear weapons(核武器).

“only(仅仅) + 副词、介词短语、状语从句”位于句首,即当句首状语由only修饰时,需要采用部分倒装, 如:

e.g. Only in Beijing have I seen(看见) so beautiful(美丽的) scenery(景色).

e.g. Only if/when he is seriously ill(生病的) does he stay in bed.

由so(neither, nor)指代前面一句的内容表示“也是(也不)”的意义时,通常位于句首,并引起倒装, 如:

e.g. Tom can’t speak(说,讲) French(法语). Nor(Neither) can Jack.

e.g. He has finished(完成) his work, and so have I.

注:当so 引出的句子是对上文的内容加以证实或肯定时,不用倒装,如:

e.g.  “Bill will win(赢得) the race(赛跑).”—so he will.

当对as等引导的分句中的形容词、分词强调时,一般采取以下倒装结构:形容词/分词/副词/+as/ +主语+谓语

e.g. Strong as he is, he cannot lift(举起) the big stone(石头).

虚拟条件句中如果出现了were, had或should等词,也引起部分倒装,但如从句中没有were, had或should,则不能这样做。如:

e.g. Should he come(来), tell him to ring me up(给某人打电话).

→ If he should come, tell him to ring me up.

e.g.Had they not helped(帮助)  us, our experiment(实验) would have failed(失败).

→ If they had not helped, our experiment would have failed.

职称英语考题中可能会对倒装结构进行直接或间接地考察,如:

(选自2003年版职称英语考试综合类教材)

From Why does food cost so high?

The farmers(农民) have not been benefited (使。。。受益)very much. ___________.

A.   Nor have the middlemen(中间人).

B.    to increase the prices for food.

C.    that they cannot agree on(对...达成一致意见) the causes of the increase in prices.

D.    to agree on the reasons for the increase.

E.    by buying prepared food.

F.    the popularization(普及) of convenience food.

空格处应该出现一个完整的句子,因此只有选项A是答案(其他选项都不是独立的句子)。选项A是一个倒装结构:与前句中的否定结构形成呼应的连词nor(也不, 也没有)出现在句首,句中谓语提到主语的前面形成倒装。 选项A说“中间人也没有(获得很大利润)”。


 

40  强调句, 倒装句,虚拟语气的结构,it句型等特殊句子结构有时也会出现在职称英语阅读理解考题中, 这些结构中所涉及到的从句结构是考生在复习中需要了解的内容。

1 强调句

强调谓语的方法:在谓语动词前面加助动词(do/does/did)

e.g.I am a student.

e.g.I do be a student.

e.g.He liked music(音乐).

e.g.He did like music.

 

基本句型1:It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who ...  (被强调部分为句子的主语,宾语,表语或状语 )


e.g.It was they that (who ) cleaned(打扫) the classroom(教室) yesterday(昨天).

e.g.It was in the street(街道) that I met(遇见) her father(父亲).

 

比较:

e.g.It is certain(确信无疑的) that they will win(赢).

e.g.It was they that cleaned the classroom yesterday.

 

识别强调句型与it句型的方法:

如果是强调句型,把强调句型的基本框架结构(It is/was ... that/who)划掉后应该是一个完整无缺的句子;

如果是it句型,把it句型中出现的(It is/was ... that/who)划掉后,将会出现不完整地句子结构;

强调句型2:It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ...( “直到...才...”)

e.g. It was not until she took off (取下)her dark glasses (墨镜)that I realized(意识到) she was a famous(著名的) film(电影) star(明星).

英语中,通常是主语在谓语动词的前面, 是“主语+谓语”结构,这叫陈述语序,也称为正常语序, 如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前, 就称为倒装语序。有的倒装语序把整个谓语动词放在主语之前, 称为完全倒装,有的只是谓语动词的一部分(通常是助动词情态动词,系动词be或谓语的一部分)放在主语之前, 称为部分倒装。复习中考生主要需要了解部分倒装结构的构成形式

 

部分倒装

1.否定词或具有(半)否定意义的词语置于句首作为句首状语时,一般必须采用部分倒装语序。具有否定或半否定意义的词和词组有:no(不,没有) , never(从不, 决不), seldom(很少), little(很少的), few(很少的), rarely(很少地), hardly(几乎不), never before(从不), no longer(不再), no more(不再), not until(直到...才), in no way(决不), in/under no circumstances(决不), in no case(决不), hardly...when(一...就...), scarcely...when/before(一...就...), no sooner...than(一...就...)等,如:

e.g. Never before have I seen(看见) such a  wonderful(奇妙的) park(公园).

e.g. No sooner had I gone out(出去) than it rained(下雨).我刚出去,就下雨了。

e.g. Seldom have I met(遇见) him recently(最近). 最近我很少遇见他。

e.g. Under no circumstances will we be the first(第一) to use nuclear weapons(核武器).

“only(仅仅) + 副词、介词短语、状语从句”位于句首,即当句首状语由only修饰时,需要采用部分倒装, 如:

e.g. Only in Beijing have I seen(看见) so beautiful(美丽的) scenery(景色).

e.g. Only if/when he is seriously ill(生病的) does he stay in bed.

由so(neither, nor)指代前面一句的内容表示“也是(也不)”的意义时,通常位于句首,并引起倒装, 如:

e.g. Tom can’t speak(说,讲) French(法语). Nor(Neither) can Jack.

e.g. He has finished(完成) his work, and so have I.

注:当so 引出的句子是对上文的内容加以证实或肯定时,不用倒装, 如:

e.g.  “Bill will win(赢得) the race(赛跑).”—so he will.

当对as等引导的分句中的形容词、分词强调时,一般采取以下倒装结构:形容词/分词/副词/+as/ +主语+谓语

e.g. Strong as he is, he cannot lift(举起) the big stone(石头).

虚拟条件句中如果出现了were, had或should等词,也引起部分倒装,但如从句中没有were, had或should,则不能这样做。如:

e.g. Should he come(来), tell him to ring me up(给某人打电话).

→ If he should come, tell him to ring me up.

e.g.Had they not helped(帮助)  us, our experiment(实验) would have failed(失败).

→ If they had not helped, our experiment would have failed.

职称英语考题中可能会对倒装结构进行直接或间接地考察,如:

(选自2003年版职称英语考试综合类教材)

From Why does food cost so high?

The farmers(农民) have not been benefited (使。。。受益)very much. ___________.

A.   Nor have the middlemen(中间人).

B.    to increase the prices for food.

C.    that they cannot agree on(对...达成一致意见) the causes of the increase in prices.

D.    to agree on the reasons for the increase.

E.    by buying prepared food.

F.    the popularization(普及) of convenience food.

空格处应该出现一个完整的句子,因此只有选项A是答案(其他选项都不是独立的句子)。选项A是一个倒装结构:与前句中的否定结构形成呼应的连词nor(也不, 也没有)出现在句首, 句中谓语提到主语的前面形成倒装。 选项A说“中间人也没有(获得很大利润)”。


41e.g. It is advisable(明智的) that she leave(离开,出发,留下) now(现在).

 

        虚拟语气结构

虚拟语气是谓语动词的一种形式,用于表示非真实的假设,或表示命令、建议以及说话人的主观愿望,有时也有使语气缓和、委婉的作用。

 

假如他来晚了怎么办?

 

你来一下。→→→最好来一下。

你去。→→→还是

 

考生在复习中主要掌握条件句中虚拟语气的构成和一些常见的虚拟结构形式(在表示愿望、建议、要求、命令等含义的动词后出现的宾语从句及由这些动词派生的同根名词后面的主语从句、表语从句及同位语从句中使用的虚拟语气结构,和某些形容词后面的主语从句中使用的虚拟语气结构)。

Ⅰ、条件句中的虚拟语气

1.构成

含有条件状语从句的句子称为条件句。如果所表示的条件是真实的,或者完全可能实现的,则称为真实条件句,其主句和从句的谓语都用陈述语气,如:

You may be blamed(指责, 批评) if you make the same(相同的) mistake (错误)again(再次).

 

如果条件句表示的条件根本不可能实现或实现的可能性很小时,则称为虚拟条件句,其主句和从句的谓语就要用虚拟语气,现以动词give和tell为例列表如下:

 

 

条件从句

主句

与现在事实相反的假定

gave

should + tell

would + tell

与过去事实相反的假定

had + given

should + have + told

would + have + told

推测未来不可能实现或实现可能性很小的假定

should + give

were to + give

gave

should + tell

would + tell

 

注:

①     在与现在事实相反的假设条件从句中谓语为be时,一般不分人称,多用过去式的复数形式were。如主语为第一、三人称单数时,也可用was (但“if I were you…”中只能用were)

 


422.用法

(1) 与现在事实相反的假定,如:

If the sun stopped (停止)radiating(发射出(光,热), 辐射) heat(热) and light(光), life(生命) on Earth(地球) would be impossible(不可能的) .

 

If I were you, I should start (开始)packing(收拾行李) now.

 

(2) 与过去事实相反的假定,如:

If you had started your work(工作) earlier(更早地), you would have finished(完成) it. (would: 要, 会, 就会, 将要)

 

 (3) 推测未来不可能实现或实现可能性很小的假定。如:

If I should live(生活) in the twenty-second century(世纪), I would spend (度过)my vacation(假期)on the moon(月球).

 

注:

1.虚拟条件除用从句表示外,还可以通过介词短语等来表示,这时句中动词也用虚拟语气, 如:

Without dust(灰尘), there would be no clouds(云) and no rain(雨).

 

But for(要不是) your cooperation(合作), my business(企业) would have collapsed(垮掉).

 

2.虚拟条件句中如果出现了were, had或should等词,通常引起部分倒装,但如从句中没有were, had或should,则不能这样做。如:

e.g. Had he come home(回家), he would have met(遇见) his mother(母亲).

←←←← If he had come home, he would have met his mother.

虚拟语气的其他常见用法

1.在表示愿望、建议、要求、命令等含义的动词后所带的宾语从句及由这些动词派生的同根名词后面出现的主语从句、表语从句及同位语从句中的谓语一般用虚拟语气,即“should +动词原形”或只用动词原形。这类从句常见的动词有:demand(要求), request(要求), require(要求), propose(建议), suggest(建议), recommend(建议), move (提议), order(命令), command(命令), insist(坚决主张/要求) 等, 如:

We all(全部) insist(坚持主张) that we(should) not rest(休息) until we finish the work.

 

2.某些形容词后面的主语从句的谓语用虚拟语气

在It is necessary(必要的) (important(重要的), essential(必要的), advisable(明智的),better(更好的))等句型中的主语从句中,谓语一般用“should +动词原形”或只用动词原形, 如:

e.g. It is essential(必要的)  that men in space(太空) should take (携带)their own(自己的) air(空气) with them in order to (为了)breathe(呼吸).

 

虚拟语气的其他常见用法

 

3.在“it is (high, about) time + 从句”的结构中,从句结构由连接词that引导, that也可以省略掉,从句谓语动词用过去式。该结构可理解为“该是做...的时候了”,如:

It’s (about) time (that) the children(孩子们) went to bed(上床睡觉).

        形容词和副词的比较级结构

 

   英语中的形容词或副词在构成比较级或最高级时会出现规则变化和不规则变化两种形式, 进行规则变化时还需要根据单词的音节数进行区分:

 

单音节形容词及副词比较级及最高级的构成形式:

在单音节形容词及副词后及少数双音节形容词和少数副词原级后, 加-er(构成比较级), -est(构成最高级)。

cold(寒冷的, 冷淡的) – colder – coldest

small (小的)– smaller – smallest

 

dry(干的, 干燥的) – drier – driest

hot(热的, 热情的, 辣的) – hotter – hottest

 

pretty(漂亮的) – prettier – prettiest

 

hard(努力地,辛苦地) – harder – hardest


43双音节和多音节形容词及大多数副词的比较级及最高级的构成形式:

在原级形容词或副词前加more, most分别表示比较级和最高级。

 

interesting(有趣的)  – more interesting – most interesting

friendly(友好的) – more friendly – most friendly

 

conservatively(保守地) – more conservatively – most conservatively

 

另外还有少数单音节形容词通过在原级加more ,most分别构成相对应的比较级和最高级, 如:

tired(疲劳的) – more tired – most tired

pleased(高兴的) – more pleased – most pleased

glad(高兴的) – more glad – most glad

fit (合适的, 健康的)– more fit – most fit

 

有极少数的形容词/副词在构成比较级及最高级时会出现不规则变化,复习中需要掌握的这类形容词/副词有:

good(好的, 优良的) / well(满意地,充分地,健康的)  – better - best

many / much – more   - most

bad(有害的) / badly(严重地) – worse  - worst

little (很少的)     – less   - least

far(遥远的/遥远地)         – further/farther – furthest

 

    历年职称英语考题中多次涉及到形容词副/词比较级/最高级这个考点, 及与它们相关的比较状语从句结构:

    2008年综合类C级考卷中的概括大意与完成句子考题也涉及到了“形容词比较级结构”这个考点:

28. Pollution(污染) levels(程度) are lower  ___.

完成句子题的被选项为:

A.     on the downwind side

B.     during rush hours

C.     in spring and autumn

D.     to toxic air

E.     between autumn and winter

F.     as exposure to nuclear radiation

问题中问:在什么时候?或在什么地点? 或以什么方式?“污染程度较低”

文章中与该问题相对应的语句为:

Pollution levels tend to (往往)be at their lowest during spring(春季) and autumn(秋季)when winds(风) are freshest(清新的, 新鲜的).

该句涉及到了形容词的最高级结构: at their lowest = at their lowest levels

该句说“在春天和秋天污染程度往往最低, 在这两个季节里空气中的风最清新。”根据该句内容判断C(在春天和秋天)是答案。

考生在复习中应该掌握的形容词/副词比较级结构用法归纳如下:

1.“as+adj./adv.+as(与...一样地(形容词/副词的意义))或not so(as)+adj./adv.+as”(不如...那样地(形容词/副词的意义))

He can run(跑) as fast(很快地) as(与...一样) I can (run).

 

My computer(计算机) is not so(as) expensive(昂贵的) as yours.

 

2.“the same (+ n.) as...”表示“与...一样(的...)”

Your pen(钢笔) is the same as mine.

 

3. “形容词/副词比较级+ than ”(比...更(形容词/副词的意义)

Jack(杰克) is much(even, still, far) cleverer(更聪明的) than Mary(玛丽).

 

Jack works(工作) harder(更努力地) than Mary.

 

4.“The+形容词/副词比较级…,the+ 形容词/副词比较级…”(越…,越…)
The more difficult(困难的) the questions(问题) are, the less likely(可能的, 可能) he is able to (能够)answer(回答) them.

 

5. “形容词/副词最高级 ” + 介词(of/in)短语结构

Of(= among/在...之中) all of them, she is the best(最好的).

 

The mountain(山) is the highest(最高的) in the world(世界上).

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