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战略:ITA训练手册-中英文(六)

(2011-06-29 18:41:25)
标签:

战略

ita

训练

手册

战术

比赛

定律

发球

接发球

体育

分类: 网球

Tactics
战术


The goal is for the players to be able to automatically choose the right shot for every given situation on the court based on his/her game.
主要的目标是基于选手的比赛类型,训练选手在不同的状况下能选择正确的打法
How do we achieve these goals? Mainly through full court drills that require decision
making and open skill situation. However the following drills should also be used:
如何达到这些目标?主要是透过运用整个球场于开放性状况下,选手需要自己选择打法的训练法,下列的训练法也应该采用:

˙Basket drills to practice the appropriate response to a given situation.
 教练利用送球到固定的位置让选手学习正确的应对方式
˙Starting the point with the response that you are trying to develop.
 也可以在每一分的开始,就以教练指定要学习的打法开始
˙Structured game situations and patterns. Drills where the player is looking for a certain shot to execute the correct response.
 学习建构比赛的打法或模式,利用各种不同的训练法,让选手学习选择正确的打法

In order to achieve the tactical goals, the players need to understand and be able to apply the following concepts:
为了达到战术的目标选手必须了解和能应用以下的概念
˙Geometry of the court.
 网球场的几何原理
˙Basic Tactical Rules for singes and doubles.
 单打与双打的基本战术
˙Game styles and how to counter them.
 不同的选手类型和如何面对他们
Geometry of the Court.
网球场的几何原理
Teach the players the importance of:
指导选手了解以下各要点的重要性:

˙Catching the ball on the rise.
 学习球在上升时就回击
˙Looking for short balls when playing aggressively or when playing short and low.
 当积极攻击或回球又低又短时,应预期对手回球较短并准备上前攻击
˙Positioning after each shot depending on the direction of shot.
 依据击球的方向和落点,调整准备的位置
˙Playing high and slower when on defense.
 防守时回击高一点慢一点的球路
˙Playing cross-court to rally, and down the line to attack.
 底线抽球以斜线为主,攻击才选择直线
˙Approaching down the line.
 上网进逼球应选择直线球

 

“Laws of the Game”
比赛的定律

Tennis, like everything else in life, has a set of rules that make life easier when followed, but complicate matters when not. The following rules are the most important strategical concepts of the game. As a matter of fact, they are the key to playing solid tennis; they are the “Laws of the Game.” These laws should be learned and practiced until they become second nature.
网球,和生命中其它的东西一样,都有一套基本的规则,让生活变得容易;相反的,缺乏这些规则生活将变得非常复杂。以下的守则是网球比赛中最主要的战术概念,事实上它们就是让你成为顶尖选手的关键基础,它们是 “比赛中不变的定律”,这些定律必须学习并不断的练习直到变成习惯为止。

Laws of the Serve
发球的定律
First Serve
第一发球
˙The goal of the first serve is to force the opponent to return a weak shot and gain control of the point.
 第一发球的目标是迫使对手回击较软弱的球,好让你掌控该分
˙Adjust your serve so that you can get at least 50% of first serves in, shoot for 70%.
 调整你的发球使你第一发球成功率达到50%以上,并赢得其中的70%以上
˙After your first serve, look to move into the court to attack a short return.
 第一发球后,准备上前攻击较短的接发球
˙Vary the location, pace, and spin. Use the serve to the body.
 变换不同的落点、速度和旋转,也可以考虑发球往对手身体正中央
˙Use the slice serve to hit wide or to the ”T”.
 利用切削发球发往外角或中央 ”T” 的位置

Second Serve
第二发球
˙The goal of the second serve is to keep the returner in a neutral position.
 第二发球的目标是至少维持对等优势
˙Serve mostly to the opponent’s weakness.
 将大多数的球发往对手的弱点
˙Use the serve into the body against chip-and-charge.
 面对喜欢接发球上网的对手可以往他身上发
˙Hit the serve at the maximum speed at which you can make a 100%.
 以你有100%自信发进的最快球速发第二发球

General Serving Laws
一般的发球定律
˙Serve and volley if opponent stands far behind the baseline to receive.
 如果对手老是站在底线后方很远的位置接发球,可以采取发球上网战术
˙Serve and volley if opponent keeps slicing the return.
 如果对手接发球都是采用切球,也可以采取发球上网战术
˙Serve mostly to weakness but vary the placement and spin some. A 20% variation is enough to keep opponent guessing.
发球主要发往对手的弱点,但是偶而也要变换落点和旋转,只要有20%的变化就可以让对手难以捉摸
˙Serve to the weak side on key points.
 在关键分时发往对手较弱的一边
˙Focus on the contact point when under pressure or when you feel your serve is off.
 在压力下或发球感觉不好时,只要专注于击球点
˙Try to stretch the opponent with your serve.
   利用发球将对手拉开
˙Work on being able to hit the slice and the flat serve off the same toss in different directions.
 无论切削发球或平击发球,都要学习能以相同的托球位置,发往不同的方向和位置
˙Run to the net following the direction of your serve when you serve and volley.
 当你采取发球上网时,应随着你的发球方向上前
˙Uses the slice serve to the body if the opponent is returning very well.
 当对手的接发球非常顺手时,可以采取切削发球发向他的身体
˙Make sure you get the first serve in after a double fault.
 当发生双发失误后,下一分最好第一发球就发进

Laws of the Return
接发球

First serve return
面对第一发球时
˙Return down the middle of the court or cross court.
 回击往中央或对角线
˙Use slice if you are going to block.
 如果只想挡回去用切球
˙Keep the return deep. Strive to start the point in a neutral position.
 尽量将球回深,取得对等优势

Second serve return
面对第二发球
˙Go down the line if you can hurt the opponent, otherwise go down the middle or cross-court.
 如果是攻击可选择直线,否则应回击往中央或对角线
˙Adjust where your stand to return second serves. Look to use your weapon and move into the court to catch the ball early.
 调整接发球准备位置,尽量使用你的武器并上前早一点回击
˙Move diagonally towards the ball and catch the ball early if the opponent is using kick serves. Do not let the ball get above your shoulder.
 如果对手采取上旋发球,往斜前方上前早一点回击,别让来球跳超过肩膀高度
˙Strive to control the point with the return against a weak serve.
 面对较软弱的第二发球,要利用接发球取得掌控
˙If you run around the backhand, use an inside out forehand unless you are going for a winner.
 如果你想闪身以正拍攻击,采取由内而外的打法,除非要击出致胜球
˙Return wide serves cross-court or down the middle. Only go down the line if you are going for a winner.
 对于大外角的发球,回击往对角线或中央,只有回击致胜球才打直线

Chip & Charge
上前切球上网
˙Start moving forward as the opponent tosses the ball.
 在对手托球时,就开始上前
˙On the deuce court always try to use your forehand when chipping and charging. On ad court always try to use a backhand. (right-handed player).
 在右边接发球区应该以正拍切球上网,左边发球区则以反拍处理为宜(右手持拍为例)
˙Play to the middle of the court or down the line unless you can hurt the opponent.
 除非能压制对手,否则应选择回击往直线或中央

Clay court return
红土球场的接发球
˙Use a longer swing with good acceleration and height over the net.
 可以采用较大的挥拍动作取得较好的加速度,同时过网高一点
˙You can stand further back to return.
 可以站在后面一点的位置接发球

General
总则
˙Always make the opponent play.
 想尽办法让对手必须回击
˙Vary your position to adjust to the server. Cover his/her favorite shot.
 依据对手调整接发球位置,注意对手的专长和习惯性
˙On key point return the first serve FH to FH and BH to BH or to the middle.
 面对关键分的第一发球,选择正拍回击往正拍,反拍往反拍或都回击往中央
˙Put pressure on the server by varying your position on key points.
 在关键分利用调整接发球位置来给对手施加压力
˙Do not let the opponent surprise you with his/her favorite serve on key point.
 在关键分不要让对手以他的拿手发球得分
˙Against a serve-and-volleyer hit at his/her feet to the middle of the court on first serves. Make the server stretch on second serve returns.
 面对发球上网的对手,第一发球回击往中央他的脚边,第二发球则要让对手受到压迫
˙Stay relaxed and watch the ball after the bounce. The most common cause of mistakes in the return is not watching the ball or tensing up.
 保持轻松冷静,专注的看球,接发球最常发生的错误就是没有注意看球或过于紧张。

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