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The Origin on the Succession of "the Second Buddha

(2010-06-08 20:58:01)
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杂谈

 

第二佛陀——宗喀巴的师承源流

The Origin on the Succession of "the Second Buddha"

--- Expounding the Source of succession of Tsongkhapa

 

Abstract

This thesis, on account of the overwhelmingly large research scope of Tibetan Buddhism, mainly starts from the consistency and inheritance of doctrines established by Master Tsongkhapa, who is the founder of Gelugpa, one of the important schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Through expounding the philosophies of every school in which the great masters acquire fairly plenty of doctrines which are inherited by Tsongkhapa, we found that the buddhism philosophy basis of the Gelugpa which was created by Tsongkhapa .

Tsongkhapa is a famous buddhist, a theorist, and a social activist in the history of Tibetan Buddhism. He created the far-reaching Gelugpa on the basis of Tibetan Buddhism Kadampa, known as 'the second Buddha.'Tsongkhapa's ideology is mainly the idea of “zhongguanyingchengpai”, inherits the Nagarjuna Bodhisattva’s ideology, and has far-reaching effects on future generations. And his book " The Great Treatise on the Bodhi ‘s Graded Path Lam Rim " and " The Great Treatise on the Vajrayana ‘s Graded Path Lam Rim "are the integration of all his life achievements. Therefore, we will set off from the two principal books and other classics to research Tsongkhapa's own philosophic ideas and get a better understanding the Gelugpa’s religious philosoph and the approach to self-cultivation.

This paper studies the inheritance of doctrines from Tsongkhapa by means of some research methods such as text analysis, literature study methods, statistical methods, finding the origin of all kinds of Tsongkhapa Buddhism from this paper.

 

Key words: Tibetan buddhism; Tsongkhapa.

 

AD 1357, Tsongkhapa (the year from 1357 to 1419) was born in the Cameroon region of Qinghai, Luosang Zhaba[1] as his dharma name, is a great thinker, a reformer on religion, and a great siddha of esoteric and exoteric dharma in the 14th century, and is known as the “the second Buddha”[2] by the people in the world and the embodiment of Jnana Yeshe Manjushri. In 63 years of his living in the world, Tsongkapa Hiroyuki visited famous teachers by touring vastly, accommodated the esoteric and  the exoteric closely, received followers and disseminated dharma, talked debate and wrote treatise, repaired really and proved personally , created temples, and carried forward the career of the pure Dharma. Based on the original Kadampa, the Gulug Sect, which was established by him, has been flourishing for 600 years by means of careful and precise religious vayu of upholding strictly the precepts, the esoteric firstly and the exoteric secondly, and sequential practice, and has become the most important sect of Tibetan Buddhist. The Dalai Lama, Panchen Erdene, Akiyoshi Hutogtu, and Jebtsundamba Rinpoche incarnation system are praised for the people in the world, with its mysterious heritage and the high status of political religion in Tibet and Mongolia.

In the process of studying of all his life, Tsongkhapa was ever a disciple of more than 30[3] gurus one after another to learn esoteric and exoteric dharma, and they mainly came from the Kadampa, Sakya, and Kagyu, and they played a very important role in the development of philosophy ideas and tantric practice of all Tsongkhapa's life. Tsongkhapa's ideology can be said to set the deepest philosophy in Tibet then and tantric practice (religious practice), as every guru of which he was a disciple was the most learned monk of every sect in Tibet at that time. During them, those people, such as Dhondup Rinchen, a well-known Kadampa monk, who was Tsongkhapa’s enlightenmenting teacher, Ren Dawa, a famous Sakya scholar, and so on, had particularly profound effect on Tsongkhapa.

Toinzhub Rinchen, who was born in Tongren in Qinghai, became a monk when he was young, went to Tibet to study scripture when he was 15-year-old, and systematically studied the esoteric and exoteric teachings of the Kadampa, is a well-known Kadampa monk, and Buton Rinchen, a famous scholar in the Tibetan history, called him "Amdo debate stating teacher"[4], and he became famous for a while. Later, he was a disciple of Chin, the abbot in Na Tang temple, as a teacher, and after studying successfully, the teacher ordered him to return to the place named Xiaqiong in Amdo to build monasteries and preach ,and entrusted that there will be an unparalleled disciple, who represented Manjushri’s nirmanakaya appears. Also he asked Toinzhub Rinchen to receive the disciple as a apprentice, nurtured him carefully, and gave Luosang Zhaba as his dharma name. Later, Toinzhub Rinchen built monasteries in Xiaqiong, and sure enough there was a tremendously exalted disciple, and received him as a apprentice, and he is the second Buddha - Tsongkhapa guru who we say today. As soon as Tsongkhapa was born, Toinzhub Rinchen sent many gifts to him, and exhorted the child’s parents to take care of him carefully. When 3-year-old, Tsongkhapa ordained the lay Buddhist by the Rube Dorje[5], who is the Rinpoche IV of the Karmapa’s black hat, and at 7-year-old, he was sent to Toinzhub Rinchen department officially, and became a monk. He engaged in studying scripture at Toinzhub Rinchen’s department for 10 years, and when 16-year-old, Tsongkhapa left for Tibet to tour and study various esoteric and exoteric teaching methods. Before leaving, Toinzhub Rinchen made special exhortations to Tsongkhapa, instructing Tsongkhapa the procedure and method on studying scripture after arriving in Tibet, and specifically explaining the sequence[6] of studying scriptures (the program of studying scriptures) in those methods, which is quite critical. The first monastery after Tsongkhapa arriving in Tibet was the Diwajin Temple, which was the mother temple of Dunzhu Rinchen and was close to Toinzhub Rinchen. In addition to the Diwajin Temple being the famous temple of the Karma for that time, he asked his disciples to study here, because he also took the thing into account that Tsongkhapa can be well cared for here.

In the career of Tsongkhapa’s studying scripture, the second important person is Ren Dawa[7], a famous Sakya scholar, is the major guru of Tsongkhapa in the exoteric theory, especially the Madhyamaka view. Ren Dawa became a monk at 18-year-old, and after systematically learning the five major views and many other exoteric classics, he transferred into the esoteric for amending the dharma, accessing to the sacred merit. Later, when Ren Dawa went to Maekura , he coincided Tsongkhapa with each other, who especially visited to Ren Dawa. With great compatibility, Ren Dawa is extraordinary conversation, so Tsongkhapa respected Ren Dawa as his teacher, studying various exoteric classics. Ren Dawa especially introduced the Madhyamaka view to Tsongkhapa when he taught exoteric sutra, which laid a good foundation for the Tsongkhapa’s philosophy views, namely Madhyamaka and Consequence Prasangika views.

On the base of inheriting the Kadampa, Tsongkapa created the Gulug Sect, which has been to emphasize the discipline itself, and the commandments of the Gulug Sect is one of the most stringent factions in Tibetan Buddhism. Because when Tibetan Buddhism was in the Yuan Dynasty, many monks paid close attention to tantric practice, paid no attention to exoteric foundation, and paid no attention to the monk precepts, thus creating many social problems, which played a significant negative effect on propagating of the Buddhism in Tibet. Seeing this situation, Tsongkhapa determined to reform Tibetan Buddhism. In 1386, Tsongkhapa followed Cuchi Rinchen and ordained the monks, becoming a qualified monk. Cuchi Rinchen is just inheritance system[8] of Shakya room Lee Ba Tuoluo, a well-known ordained teacher. The people called the Gulug Sect as the Yellow Sect, in fact, which had certain relations with that Tsongkhapa promoted discipline. In addition to the ordained teacher who was carefully selected by him before, wearing a yellow hat change also one of the contents[9]. In the history of Tibetan Buddhism, there were two monks ever wearing yellow hat before Tsongkhapa, and these two masters are the monks who promoted discipline, and strictly upheld discipline, and they are separately Gewa Raosai and Shakya room Lee Batuo Luo. It can be to say that Tsongkhapa wore the yellow hat of the patriarch teaching the precepts change. Changing the color of the hat has the meaning of reregulating rules at the same time.

“The Great Treatise on the Bodhi ‘s Graded Path Lam Rim” and “ The Great Treatise on the Vajrayana ‘s Graded Path Lam Rim  are on behalf of the thought and practice system of Tsongkhapa’s exoteric Buddhism and esoteric Buddhism, and these two books summary all the Tibetan Buddhist scripture and describe Tsongkhapa’s own practice experience and in-depth knowledge, being a system themselves. The origin of these supreme theories is inseparable from the earnest teachings of Toinzhub Rinchen in the early years of Tsongkhapa and the inheritance of the Madhyamaka of Professor Ren Dawa. Of course, many masters in Tibet have played an important role in the exoteric and esoteric teachings of Tsongkhapa. It shows that the predecessors have a significant impact on the main idea and heritage of Tsongkapa. Without teaching blessing from Toinzhub Rinchen, Ren Dawa, and many other monks, Tsongkhapa will not get such a high status and achievement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working Bibliography:

 

Chen, Qingying, Life Image History on Calendar Dalai Lamas. Beijing: China Tibetology Publishing House, 2006.

Ga ,Zangjia, Snowy Religion. Beijing: Religious and Cultural Press, 2003.

Sai Cang,Luo Sang, Hua Dan ,A Brief History of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Beijing: Religious and Cultural Press, 2002.

Wang Sen, Tsongkhapa Chronicle. Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House, 1987 .

Wang Sen, Biography of  Tsongkhapa. Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House ,1987.

Wang Yao, Chu, Junjie, A Critical Biography of Tsongkhapa. Nanjing: Nanjing University Press,1995.

Xu ,Decun, Research on Tibetan Buddhism. Beijing: Religious and Cultural Press, 2008.

Ya, Hanzhang, the Dalai Lama's Biography. Beijing: People's Publishing House, 1984.

Ya,Hanzhang, Biography of Panchen Erdene. Beijing: People's Publishing House ,1984.

Zhou, Runnian, Liu Hongji,  Temple Education of China Tibetan. Lanzhou: Gansu Education Publishing House ,1998.

Zhu, Lixia, Research on Tsongkhapa Buddhist Thought. Beijing:China Social Sciences Publishing House,2007.



[1] Refer to “Tsongkhapa Biography” written by Jia Caojie.

[2] At 3-year-old,he followed Rube Dorje and was ordained the monk, and Rube Dorje praised him “He must become the second Buddha,” referring to Chronicle of Tsongkhapa” written by Wang Sen.

[3] Refer to “Chronicle of Tsongkhapa” written by Wang Sen.

[4] Refer to “The Monks Strategy of the Tibetan Buddhist” written by Laca Yixi Duoji.

[5] He is the fourth generation of the Karmapa .

[6] Provides the scope and sequence of studying sutra, referring to “Tsongkhapa Biography” written by Jia Caojie.

[7] Refer to “The Monks Strategy of the Tibetan Buddhist” written by Laca Yixi Duoji.

[8] Refer to Tsongkhapa Biography Treatise” written by Wang Sen.

[9] Refer to “the Buddhism History” written by Song Bar.

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