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庄子演义-杂篇-盗跖(二)

(2011-02-14 10:19:46)
标签:

子张

满苟得

五斗米折腰

小人殉财

君子殉名

文化

Extensive Interpretation of Chuang Tzu Part 3

庄子演义 杂篇

Zhi the Robber (2)
盗跖 ()

1 Zi Zhang and Goude Man were close friends. Goude Man didn’t spend much time in studying; however, had a passion for traveling. Many wonderful scenic spots had witnessed his footprints.
子张与满苟得是同窗好友。满苟得不爱读书,平时各处游玩。好山,好水都有他的足迹。
2 One day, Zi Zhang asked Goude Man, “My Friend, shouldn’t you try to read more books? You really should polish your manners and social skills. You also need to pay closer attention to the moral virtues of our society; integrity, loyalty and trust. You cannot establish prestige within society unless you have built a good self reputation. It is only then, that you will be considered for positions within the government. Without ascertaining a post with the government or pursuing a good career, how do you expect to make a living or support your family?
有一天,子张对满苟得说:「苟得兄,你是不是应该多读些书,多学些礼仪及应酬的规矩; 注意自己的言行,信守仁义忠信等。只有培养好的名声,在社会上建立了一定的声望,政府出缺,公司雇人你才有被任用的机会。你不做官、谋事,怎么赚钱养家活口呢?

子张问于满苟得曰:「盍不为行?无行则不信,不信则不任,不任则不利。
3 I tell you truly. The fame and interest have direct close tie to the credit, righteousness, benevolence and loyalty.
我老实地告诉你,仁义忠信等实际上是与名利等有直接而紧密的关系的。

故观之名,计之利,而义真是也。
4 I sense your arrogance and superiority. I know you don’t care about the fame and interest. But does your process of self enrichment not include enhancing your morals?”
就算你自命清高,不屑名利,专注个人修行。修行人不也是应该在仁义忠信等个人修养上努力吗?」

若弃名利,反之于心,则夫士之为行,不可一日不为乎!」
5 Goude Man shook his head and said in a seemingly leisure manner, “I don’t think what you have said makes sense! According to the results of the careful observation after my abundant traveling experience, I found that only those who are cruel, greedy, and apt to achieve everything by any kind of means are suitable for winning a promotion and getting rich.
满苟得摇摇头,颇不以为然地说:「你说的那套不对吧!据我游走各地,仔细观察的结果。心狠手辣,欲达目的不择手段,贪、嗔、痴俱全的狠角色,才是升官发财的料。

满苟得曰:「无耻者富,多信者显。
6 If you want to be a high official, you must have good eloquence and be shameless in bragging. So, for seeking for the fame and interest, you must throw away all the regulations and be equipped with good eloquence instead of complying with the credit, righteousness, benevolence and loyalty.
要想做大官,必须是口若悬河,辩才无碍,吹牛不会脸红之辈。所以,要想求名利,只有丢弃所有的规矩以及在口才无碍上下功夫才行,绝不是讲什么仁义忠信之道。

夫名利之大者,几在无耻而信。故观之名,计之利,而信真是也。
7 Additionally, if you want to become a man of perfect practice, not seeking for the fame and interest, you should bent to attaining soundness, tranquility and peace. It is in vain to seek them by the credit, righteousness, benevolence and loyalty.”
再说,如果不求名利,想要修行,成为修行完备之人。那就应该往沉稳,安宁,祥和之心上下功夫。从仁义忠信上修是缘木求鱼,不会有结果的。」

若弃名利,反之于心,则夫士之为行,抱其天乎!」
8 Zizhang disagreed on Goude Man’s wrong theory. He refuted, “Both Jie and Zhou were Kings. They are very noble. All land under the sun belongs to them. Therefore, they can be regarded as rich men. Nevertheless, if I say to my servants, ‘Your conducts are as the same as Jie's and Zhou's. ’ They would felt very embarrassed at once. The reason is simple: all people know that Jie and Zhou are malicious. So my servants would answer back, ‘How am I so malicious. Don't do me wrong.’
子张不同意满苟得的歪理。他说:「桀、纣均为君王,他俩够尊贵的; 天下都是他俩的,所以,他俩也算是富有的。然而如果我骂我的仆人说:『你们的行为如同桀、纣。』仆人的脸色马上就会变得很难看。理由很简单,这些下人也知道桀、纣是坏人。他们会说:『我们哪有那么坏,你冤枉我们了。』

子张曰:「昔者桀、纣贵为天子,富有天下。今谓臧聚曰:『汝行如桀、纣。』则有怍色,有不服之心者,小人所贱也。
9 Both Confucius and Modi were poor scholars. If we told a minister, ‘Your virtue is like Confucius's and Modi's. ’ The minister will happily gap his mouth and say in modest manner, ‘Thank you. You flatter me.’ Response of the minister means that Confucius and Modi are symbols of nobility.
孔子、墨翟都是些穷学者。如果我们对宰相说:『你的德行如同孔子、墨翟。』那这位宰相一定乐的合不拢嘴。谦称:『哪里!哪里!你过奖了。』宰相这样的反应,就表示孔子、墨翟都是尊贵的象征。

仲尼、墨翟,穷为匹夫,今谓宰相曰『子行如仲尼、墨翟。』则变容易色,称不足者,士诚贵也。
10 Hence, he as a king is not certain to be noble. They as poor scholar are not sure to be humble. Differences between the humble and the noble are reputation and public identification of the credit, righteousness, benevolence and loyalty.”
所以,身为君王,不一定就贵; 穷为学者,未必就一定不受人尊敬。贵贱的分别在声望,在仁义忠信等行为是否受到社会大众的认同。」

故势为天子,未必贵也;穷为匹夫,未必贱也;贵贱之分,在行之美恶。」
11 Smiling, Goude Man said, “A thief steals other’s belongings by ransack closet and desk. If caught, he would be thrown into prison. However, if he steal great things, such as a company and even a country, that’s different. If you merger with other company, you are general manager or director of board; if you take the power of state, you are the leader of state. Do you think that those founders of a country are benevolent and righteousness? It is questionable.
满苟得笑了笑。他说:「偷小东西,翻箱倒柜地取人财物,如果不小心是会被关起来坐牢的。可是,偷大的东西,比如公司行号,甚至国家政府那就不同了。将别人公司吃下,你就是总经理、董事长。将政权拿下,你就是国家领导。你认为历任的开国元勋都是仁义之士吗?我看大有问题。
12 Duke Huan of Qi killed his elder brother and married elder brother’s wife. So to speak, he was a man of incest. However, since he appointed Guangzhong as minister, the government under his helm had done well.
齐桓公杀死兄长,娶自己嫂嫂为妻,可说是乱伦之人。可是他用管仲为相,国家还不是弄得挺不错。

满苟得曰:「小盗者拘,大盗者为诸侯,诸侯之门,仁义存焉。昔者桓公小白杀兄入嫂,而管仲为臣;
13 Tiancheng Zichang killed his king and replaced him with himself. He came to throne sanctimoniously. Didn’t your Confucius accept salary from him?
田成子常杀害其君,自己取而代之,人模人样的坐在皇帝位子上。你们孔先生不也曾接受他的奉禄吗?

田成子常杀君窃国,而孔子受币。
14 In class, you remark that this conduct is humble and unworthy of being learned from. However, in the real life and officialdom, you forget those principle and compromise with the reality.
在课堂上,你们说这种行为卑贱不足取。可是,在实际生活上,在官场上,你们就忘了那些理论原则,为五斗米折腰,与现实妥协了!

论则贱之,行则下之,则是言行之情悖战于胸中也,不亦拂乎!
15 What you have done, it doesn’t accord with what you have said. Is it contradictive? So they said ‘He who succeeds is king; he who failed is bandit.’ There is no direct and close tie between the fame, interest and the credit, righteousness, benevolence as well as loyalty.”
你们这种言行不一致的作法,不是很矛盾吗?所以,社会上流行一句话『成者为王,败者为寇』。升官发财跟仁义忠信等个人修养是没有什么直接关系的。」

故《书》曰:『孰恶孰美﹖成者为首,不成者为尾。』」
16 Zizhang felt that what Goude Man said was reasonable in a way; however, he still doubted it. He said, “If people desert benevolence, righteousness, royalty and credit, how to maintain the tie among relatives? How to rank the society? How to distinguish the orders of generation? If we can’t make clear the relations, such as father and son, king and minister, husband and wife, the young and the old, and friends, doesn’t the society go into mess?”
子张觉得满苟得说的也不完全没理,可是仍有些疑虑。他说:「如果社会上大家都不讲仁义忠信,那么亲戚之间的关系怎么维系?贵贱等社会等级怎么区分?长幼辈份怎么确立?父子、君臣、夫妇、长幼、朋友的关系都弄不清楚,社会不就乱了吗?」

子张曰:「子不为行,即将疏戚无伦,贵贱无义,长幼无序;五纪六位,将何以为别乎?」
17 Goude Man said, “Even if there were benevolence, righteousness, royalty and credit that you mentioned, would the social relation be sure to be stable? As you know, Yao killed his first son; Shun banished his father. Did they take responsibility of father and elder brother? Tang replaced Jie with himself; king Wu killed Zhou. Did they abide by the rule of king and minister? King Tai of Zhou consigned throne to his youngest son who made his elder brother flee to Jingman; Duke of Zhou killed his elder brother. Dare you say that the order of generations exists? Modi advocated comprehensive love. Thus it is not necessary to establish five relationships and the six positions.
满苟得说:「有你们说的那些仁义忠信等道理,社会上的关系也不一定就会稳定不变。你看尧杀长子,舜驱流父亲,他俩有尽父子,兄长之责吗?汤放桀,武王杀纣,君臣的关系他们有遵守吗?周太王传位给小儿子五季,害的长兄大伯虞仲逃亡荆蛮以避难; 周公杀兄等行为你说长幼真的有序吗?墨翟倡兼爱,那五纪六位又有什么区别的必要?
18 You Confucian worked out some fake and hypocritical theories and asked common people to abide by them, which is nothing but makes ruler convenient to manage. If I really want to seek the fame and interest, I attain them sooner without your theories.
你们儒家都是编些虚伪不实的道理,要小老百姓遵守,其目地无非是使当政者便于管理罢了。真想求名利,还是不信你们那套来的快些。

满苟得曰:「尧杀长子,舜流母弟,疏戚有伦乎?汤放桀,武王杀纣,贵贱有义乎?王季为适,周公杀兄,长幼有序乎?儒者伪辞,墨子兼爱,五纪六位,将有别乎?且子正为名,我正为利。
19 Now let’s return to the original topic. Your Confucian makes much of reputation, but I am pragmatic. I make much of how to acquire fortune. Frankly speaking, there is no tie between the fame, interest and the practice, Tao.
现在让我们再回到原来的主题。你们儒家注重名声,而我比较务实,我注重实际上财富如何取得。认真地说,名与利是与道,与修行不相干的。

名利之实,不顺于理,不监于道。
20 I remembered that we once disputed on the fame and interest in Sir Wuyue’s class. Then, he remarked that common people marched forward courageously for wealth at risk of losing life, while man of virtue who you Confucian praises will go through fire and water for reputation. The two kinds of conduct are different in goal setting, but as for changes of nature and humanity, their consequences are the same.
我记得,以前我俩在无约先生那儿就曾为名利辩论过。无约先生当时就表示,一般人为财,不顾生命安危,勇往直前。你们儒家称赞的所谓君子,则以名为重,愿意为名赴汤蹈火在所不惜。两种行为的取向,有所不同; 可是,改变天性,违背人性的结果都是一样的。

吾日与子讼于无约,曰『小人殉财,君子殉名,其所以变其精、易其性,则异矣;乃至于弃其所为而殉其所不为,则一也。』
21 So, men of practice should not be like worldly people who stoop to anything to make money all day despite of their safety. They should not learn your Confucians also who deal with everything in society with affectation. We should calm down to seek for sound, tranquil and peaceful heart. Once self-nature and so on is set free to develop and the great wisdom improves us. As regarding to the right and wrong, we better let it be what it is.
所以,修行的人应该不要像一般凡夫俗子,整天为了钱财不择手段,不顾安危; 也不要学你们这些儒生,为了名声,虚情假意地在社会中周旋。我们应该静下来求得一颗沉稳,安宁,祥和的心,让自性等自由地伸展,让大智慧来提升我们; 是非曲直则听其自然。

故曰:无为小人,反殉而天;无为君子,从天之理。若枉若直,相而天极;面观四方,与时消息。若是若非,执而圆机;独成而意,与道徘徊。
22 We observed around and adjusted ourselves in the light of change. Right or wrong, let it is what it is. Master your mood and keep it from influence on your sound, tranquil and peaceful heart. Never stiffen your idea and never act in a Procrustean way for the stale regulations and queer ideas. It is stupidest way to die for an idea or a concept. Don’t seek the ranks and wealth and don’t pursue achievements and fame. All these efforts would jeopardize your self-nature, which men of practice should avoid.
我们观察四周环境,随其变化而适当地调整。是也好,非也好,都不去管它。掌握你的情绪,不要让环境影响那颗沉稳,安宁,祥和的心。千万不要固执你的行为, 不要为了那僵硬的臭规矩、怪理念,削足适履。什么殉道是最不智的行为。不要追逐富贵,不要追求功业、名声。所有这些努力都会伤害你的真实自性,是修行人一 定要避免的。

无转而行,无成而义,将失而所为。无赴而富,无徇而成,将弃而天。
23 Bigan was heart-rippen and Zixu jumped into river, which resulted from the bane of fealty. Zhigong testified that his father stolen bamboo pole and Weisheng kept faith so as to be drowned under the bridge, which resulted from the bane of faith. Baojiao died on tree and Shensheng jumped into river, which paid for lofty reputation. Confucius couldn’t take part in his mother’s funeral and Kuanzi couldn’t bid farewell to his dying father, which were caused by benevolence and righteousness. All these stories came down from the past, and will keep on to the future. If our offspring were educated through your Confucian theories, their suffering would be endless.”
比干被剖心,子胥投江这是尽忠的祸害;直躬证实自己父亲偷竿,尾生守信桥下被淹死,这是守信的祸患; 鲍焦抱树饥渴而死,申生跳河自尽,这是清誉的代价; 孔子不能为母亲送终,匡子不能对临死的父亲道别,这是仁义造成的缺失。这些事情,从上代流传下来,后代还要继续传下去。如果照你们儒家的说法来教育我们的子孙后代,那他们的苦难就没完没了了。」

比干剖心,子胥抉眼,忠之祸也;直躬证父,尾生溺死,信之患也;鲍子立干,申子不自理,廉之害也;孔子不见母,匡子不见父,义之失也。此上世之所传、下世之所语,以为士者正其言,必其行,故服其殃,离其患也。」

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