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庄子演义-外篇-天运(四)

(2010-09-26 05:22:16)
标签:

刍狗

陆上行舟

无方之传

文化

Extensive Interpretation of Chuang Tzu Part 2
庄子演义 外篇

 

The Movements of the Heaven (4)
天运(四)

1 Traveling around many countries, Confucius looked for a country to exert his concept of governance. This time he arrived in the State of Wei. The result was the same—He can’t exert it there too. Shi Jin was a local senior politician. Yan Yuan asked him why Confucius was refused everywhere. What’s the true reason?
孔子跑遍天下,以求施展其治国的理念。这一趟到了卫国,结果还是一样的有志难伸。师金是当地一名政界的老前辈,颜渊想问他,为什么孔子老是到处碰壁,其真正的原因究竟是什么?
2 Yan Yuan asked, “My teacher, Confucius, went around many countries to exert his concept of governance. What do you think of it?”
颜渊说:「依您看,我的老师孔丘先生这样的游走天下,以求施展抱负的做法怎样?」

孔子西游于卫,颜渊问师金曰:「以夫子之行为奚如?」
3 Shi Jin replied, “I know you are sincerely in doing it, but your way does not work.”
师金回答:「你们是用心良苦的,可惜就是行不通啊!」
4 Yan Yuan asked, “Why?”
颜渊问:「为什么?」

师金曰:「惜乎!而夫子其穷哉!」颜渊曰:「何也?」
5 Shi Jin explained, “Before sacrifice, the straw dog is protected carefully. We conserve it in the bamboo basket and cover it with cloth. The sacrificial staffs contribute it to god in a very reverent rite after they have done fast. However, when the sacrifice is finished, the straw dog is of no value itself; it is deserted and treaded on the roadside. Only those kids who looking for firewood alongside the road will treat it as a treasure. They will happily pick it up and bring it back home as firewood.
师金说:「祭祀用的刍狗,在尚未祭拜之前,我们细心地保护它,用竹篮子盛它,用布覆盖着它,祭司还必须先行斋戒之礼,才能在极恭敬的仪式下将之奉献给神。可是当祭祀完成后,刍狗本身就不再具有价值; 它被抛弃在路旁任人践踏; 捡柴的孩子会将它拾起,拿回家当柴烧。

师金曰:「夫刍狗之未陈也,盛以箧衍,巾以文绣,尸祝斋戒以将之。及其已陈也,行者践其首脊,苏者取而爨之而已;
6 If somebody thought that these items for sacrifice should be treasured up by putting them in the basket, covering them with cloth, taking them back home, and conserving them under the bed, his trouble would come. He wouldn’t sleep well with nightmare, because these items that were touched by god and ghost will disturb him.
如果有人认为这些祭拜过的东西应该珍藏,将之用竹篮子装起来,以毛巾覆盖,并将它带回家,将之放置于床底下,那么他就有麻烦了。非但晚上睡得不好,而且会做恶梦。 因为,这些鬼神碰过的东西,会干扰到他的清梦。

将复取而盛以箧衍,巾以文绣,游居寝卧其下,彼不得梦,必且数瞇焉。
7 Your teacher, Confucius, did the same mistake. He held tightly the old regulations and decrees that were used by the past kings. He asked you to study, remember and look it as sutra. Therefore, he was pursued by Shima Heng in the State of Song and gained no common sense among local sages when he came to Wei last time. He also was not able to get an opportunity in the State of Zhou. Isn’t it like taking the straw dog back home and conserving it under the bed, which may disturb the sleeper?
你的老师孔丘先生,他也是犯了同样的错误。他将先王用过的一些陈规旧矩,法令规章等紧握不放; 又要你们这些弟子学习、熟背,奉若经典。所以在宋国才会受到司马桓的追杀; 上次来卫,本地贤达人士也不认同你们的看法;同样的,在周也毫无施展才学的机会。这不就像是那拾回刍狗,置于床下,因而不得安眠者是同样的道理吗?

今而夫子亦取先王已陈刍狗,聚弟子游居寝卧其下。
8 As for the event that he was besieged between the State of Chen and Cai, and almost starved to death, isn’t it like having nightmare all the night due to the straw dog under the bed?
至于曾经被围困于陈蔡两国边境之间,因七天不能得享热食而差点饿死的事,这是不是有点像是将刍狗藏于床下而整夜恶梦连连的缘故呢?

故伐树于宋,削迹于卫,穷于商周,是非其梦邪?围于陈蔡之间,七日不火食,死生相与邻,是非其瞇邪?
9 Let me take another example to explain that your way of seeking knowledge and study is out of place.
让我再举一个例子来说明你们做学问与求知识的不当之处。
10 When we tour on a river, the vehicle surely is boat. When we travel on land, carriage surely is the vehicle. It is a mistake if we think that traveling on water by boat is so smooth and convenient that we intend to use boat as the vehicle for journey on land. The rigid thinking without considering the demands of changing circumstance, is certain to make us suffer and to impede us.
当我们在江河上旅行时,当然是利用船只做为交通工具; 在陆地上旅行时,则利用车子作为交通工具。假如是单纯的以为,当船舶在水上行走时,我们感觉是那么的顺畅和方便; 因此便错误的认定,在陆地上也可以依样画葫芦; 像这种不知随机应变的僵硬想法,必然会让我们吃足苦头,寸步难行了。

夫水行莫如用舟,而陆行莫如用车。以舟之可行于水也,而求推之于陆,则没世不行寻常。
11 Ancient political environments and social structures are far from todays. It is the same with the journey on land and on water, in which we have to use different vehicle. The situation of the State of Zhou is very different from that of the State of Lu. Hence, we should adopt different ways and tactics in governance.
古时的政治环境与社会结构,与今天的政治环境及社会结构迥然不同,这与我们在水上旅行与陆地旅行时,必须使用不同的交通工具是一样的道理。周朝与鲁国其国情间的差异性,是很明显的,所以,在治理上也应该有不同的策略及方法才对。

古今非水陆与?周鲁非舟车与?
12 Today, we impose the policy and the administration that work well in the State of Lu on Zhou, by all means. Isn’t it like pushing boat on land? Thus we may not only become exhausted but also be overwhelmed with misfortune.
今天,我们一定要将在鲁国行的通的那套施政方针用在周朝,这是不是有点像在陆上推舟呢?非但累的半死,而且还会引来灾祸。

今蕲行周于鲁,是犹推舟于陆也!劳而无功,身必有殃。
13 I believe that you don’t know a theory called ‘stage cart without destination’ in this world. Its keynote is: there is no fixed view in mind. All decisions and plans are made in the light of the true situations. They are adjusted according to the changes of objective environment. On appearance, it is all empty. But in fact, it can deal with anything at ease under any conditions.
我相信你们还不知道,这世上有一种 "无方之传" 的学说。其主旨在于: 心中没有定见,一切的决策方案,都按照真实情况,根据客观环境的转变去进行适当的调整。表面上,它看似空无一物,实际上,在任何情况下它都能应付自如。

彼未知夫无方之传,应物而不穷者也。
14 Have you seen Gao that is used in the irrigation of farm land? When farmer presses down handle end, the other end rises; when farmer looses handle end, the other end falls down to bail water. It rises and falls at the will of farmer instead of the Gao’s will.
你看过田间灌溉用的桔槔吗?农人按这边它就仰起来,农人一放开它就落下去汲水。桔槔仰起与落下并非是它自己要这样做的,它完全是因应农人的意志而摇动的。

且子独不见夫桔槔者乎?引之则俯,舍之则仰。
15 Politician should be like the Gao by acting what people ask him to do. Politician is a tool that people use to accomplish their will. He should not act on his own to ask people to do this or that so as to increase the burden and labor on the people.
政治人物也应该要像桔槔,百姓要他怎么做他就怎么做。政治人物只是完成百姓意志的工具,不应该自做主张,要求百姓做这做那,徒然增加他们的负担与劳役。

彼,人之所引,非引人者也。故俯仰而不得罪于人。
16 So the Three Emperors and Five Kings didn’t consider if their laws, system, morals and etiquette were the same with others or not. What they concerned were if these brought bliss to people or not, or if these were not able to solve present problems or not. Their laws, system, morals and etiquette are compared to mandarin orange, pear, orange and pomelo. These fruits are different in tastes whereas they are all delicious.
所以三皇五帝时的礼仪法度,他们不太讲究是否与别人相同,而只在乎这套方法能否为百姓带来幸福,能否解决当下的问题。也因为这样,有人将三皇五帝时的礼仪法度;分别比喻为柑梨橘柚。这些水果的味道各异,可是它们的甘美可口却是一样的。

故夫三皇五帝之礼义法度,不矜于同而矜于治。故譬三皇五帝之礼义法度,其犹柤梨橘柚邪!其味相反而皆可于口。
17 Laws, system, morals and etiquette should change according to the objective environment.
礼义法度就应该这样,随着客观环境的更易不同而有所变化。

故礼义法度者,应时而变者也。
18 If we dress monkey by force with grand toilette that is constituted by Emperor of Zhou, the monkey must be unrestful and tear it into pieces. The ancient political situation is different from todays, as Emperor of Zhou is different from monkey.
如果我们勉强为猴子穿上周公制定的礼服,猴子必定感到全身不舒服,非得将之撕的粉碎而后快。而我们古代与现今政情的不同,其差别就像周公与猴子一样,其间的差异性是极大的。

今取蝯狙而衣以周公之服,彼必龁啮挽裂,尽去而后慊。观古今之异,犹蝯狙之异乎周公也。
19 Someday Xishi (an ancient beauty) had a pain in her heart. With hand pressing on the chest and eyebrow frowning, she looked lovely and beautiful. Her neighbor was a sturdy village woman whose figure was like a barrel. Seeing Xishi’s delicate beauty, the woman tried to imitate Xishi to attract villager’s attention. To her surprise, the rich in the village thought her sick and close their doors when seeing her. The poor were not able to close the doors tightly and they were afraid of being infected by her, so they ran away with all of family members.
有一天西施心痛,她以手轻按着胸,皱着眉,一副娇弱柔美的样子颇令人疼爱。邻居一位身体粗壮,三围如水桶的村妇,看见西施惹人怜爱的样子,想摹仿她以博取乡人的注意。没想到村子里有钱的富人看见了她这个样子,以为她染上什么病了,赶快将所有的门窗都关上。穷人家门关不严实,可又害怕传染病会上身,无法可施之下,他们只得携老扶幼,带着全家大小一起逃离了该村。

故西施病心而矉其里,其里之丑人见之而美之,归亦捧心而矉其里。其里之富人见之,坚闭门而不出;贫人见之,挈妻子而去走。
20 The woman only knew that Xishi was beautiful when she pressed on her heart and won other’s love and sympathy, but she didn’t know why her imitation received contrary attention. She should figure out on what kind of conditions matched can realize the results she wished to achieve.
这位村妇只知道西施皱眉捧胸很美,会赢得别人的疼惜与关注,可是她却不知道,为什么皱眉捧胸会有这样特别的效果?是什么客观条件搭配下才会引人怜惜。
21 Your teacher has made a mistake like this. It is touching and miserable that he has no way out today.”
你们的老师就是犯了这样的毛病,才会落得今天走头无路的田地,真是可惜复可悲啊!」

彼知矉美而不知矉之所以美。惜乎,而夫子其穷哉!」

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