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(2010-09-26 05:22:16)





Extensive Interpretation of Chuang Tzu Part 2
庄子演义 外篇


The Movements of the Heaven (4)

1 Traveling around many countries, Confucius looked for a country to exert his concept of governance. This time he arrived in the State of Wei. The result was the same—He can’t exert it there too. Shi Jin was a local senior politician. Yan Yuan asked him why Confucius was refused everywhere. What’s the true reason?
2 Yan Yuan asked, “My teacher, Confucius, went around many countries to exert his concept of governance. What do you think of it?”

3 Shi Jin replied, “I know you are sincerely in doing it, but your way does not work.”
4 Yan Yuan asked, “Why?”

5 Shi Jin explained, “Before sacrifice, the straw dog is protected carefully. We conserve it in the bamboo basket and cover it with cloth. The sacrificial staffs contribute it to god in a very reverent rite after they have done fast. However, when the sacrifice is finished, the straw dog is of no value itself; it is deserted and treaded on the roadside. Only those kids who looking for firewood alongside the road will treat it as a treasure. They will happily pick it up and bring it back home as firewood.
师金说:「祭祀用的刍狗,在尚未祭拜之前,我们细心地保护它,用竹篮子盛它,用布覆盖着它,祭司还必须先行斋戒之礼,才能在极恭敬的仪式下将之奉献给神。可是当祭祀完成后,刍狗本身就不再具有价值; 它被抛弃在路旁任人践踏; 捡柴的孩子会将它拾起,拿回家当柴烧。

6 If somebody thought that these items for sacrifice should be treasured up by putting them in the basket, covering them with cloth, taking them back home, and conserving them under the bed, his trouble would come. He wouldn’t sleep well with nightmare, because these items that were touched by god and ghost will disturb him.
如果有人认为这些祭拜过的东西应该珍藏,将之用竹篮子装起来,以毛巾覆盖,并将它带回家,将之放置于床底下,那么他就有麻烦了。非但晚上睡得不好,而且会做恶梦。 因为,这些鬼神碰过的东西,会干扰到他的清梦。

7 Your teacher, Confucius, did the same mistake. He held tightly the old regulations and decrees that were used by the past kings. He asked you to study, remember and look it as sutra. Therefore, he was pursued by Shima Heng in the State of Song and gained no common sense among local sages when he came to Wei last time. He also was not able to get an opportunity in the State of Zhou. Isn’t it like taking the straw dog back home and conserving it under the bed, which may disturb the sleeper?
你的老师孔丘先生,他也是犯了同样的错误。他将先王用过的一些陈规旧矩,法令规章等紧握不放; 又要你们这些弟子学习、熟背,奉若经典。所以在宋国才会受到司马桓的追杀; 上次来卫,本地贤达人士也不认同你们的看法;同样的,在周也毫无施展才学的机会。这不就像是那拾回刍狗,置于床下,因而不得安眠者是同样的道理吗?

8 As for the event that he was besieged between the State of Chen and Cai, and almost starved to death, isn’t it like having nightmare all the night due to the straw dog under the bed?

9 Let me take another example to explain that your way of seeking knowledge and study is out of place.
10 When we tour on a river, the vehicle surely is boat. When we travel on land, carriage surely is the vehicle. It is a mistake if we think that traveling on water by boat is so smooth and convenient that we intend to use boat as the vehicle for journey on land. The rigid thinking without considering the demands of changing circumstance, is certain to make us suffer and to impede us.
当我们在江河上旅行时,当然是利用船只做为交通工具; 在陆地上旅行时,则利用车子作为交通工具。假如是单纯的以为,当船舶在水上行走时,我们感觉是那么的顺畅和方便; 因此便错误的认定,在陆地上也可以依样画葫芦; 像这种不知随机应变的僵硬想法,必然会让我们吃足苦头,寸步难行了。

11 Ancient political environments and social structures are far from todays. It is the same with the journey on land and on water, in which we have to use different vehicle. The situation of the State of Zhou is very different from that of the State of Lu. Hence, we should adopt different ways and tactics in governance.

12 Today, we impose the policy and the administration that work well in the State of Lu on Zhou, by all means. Isn’t it like pushing boat on land? Thus we may not only become exhausted but also be overwhelmed with misfortune.

13 I believe that you don’t know a theory called ‘stage cart without destination’ in this world. Its keynote is: there is no fixed view in mind. All decisions and plans are made in the light of the true situations. They are adjusted according to the changes of objective environment. On appearance, it is all empty. But in fact, it can deal with anything at ease under any conditions.
我相信你们还不知道,这世上有一种 "无方之传" 的学说。其主旨在于: 心中没有定见,一切的决策方案,都按照真实情况,根据客观环境的转变去进行适当的调整。表面上,它看似空无一物,实际上,在任何情况下它都能应付自如。

14 Have you seen Gao that is used in the irrigation of farm land? When farmer presses down handle end, the other end rises; when farmer looses handle end, the other end falls down to bail water. It rises and falls at the will of farmer instead of the Gao’s will.

15 Politician should be like the Gao by acting what people ask him to do. Politician is a tool that people use to accomplish their will. He should not act on his own to ask people to do this or that so as to increase the burden and labor on the people.

16 So the Three Emperors and Five Kings didn’t consider if their laws, system, morals and etiquette were the same with others or not. What they concerned were if these brought bliss to people or not, or if these were not able to solve present problems or not. Their laws, system, morals and etiquette are compared to mandarin orange, pear, orange and pomelo. These fruits are different in tastes whereas they are all delicious.

17 Laws, system, morals and etiquette should change according to the objective environment.

18 If we dress monkey by force with grand toilette that is constituted by Emperor of Zhou, the monkey must be unrestful and tear it into pieces. The ancient political situation is different from todays, as Emperor of Zhou is different from monkey.

19 Someday Xishi (an ancient beauty) had a pain in her heart. With hand pressing on the chest and eyebrow frowning, she looked lovely and beautiful. Her neighbor was a sturdy village woman whose figure was like a barrel. Seeing Xishi’s delicate beauty, the woman tried to imitate Xishi to attract villager’s attention. To her surprise, the rich in the village thought her sick and close their doors when seeing her. The poor were not able to close the doors tightly and they were afraid of being infected by her, so they ran away with all of family members.

20 The woman only knew that Xishi was beautiful when she pressed on her heart and won other’s love and sympathy, but she didn’t know why her imitation received contrary attention. She should figure out on what kind of conditions matched can realize the results she wished to achieve.
21 Your teacher has made a mistake like this. It is touching and miserable that he has no way out today.”



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