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道德经演义(八十)

(2010-08-12 05:22:10)
标签:

小国寡民

苦行僧

文化

Extensive Interpretation of Tao Te Ching (80)

 道德经演义(八十)


Let there be a small country with a small population.

 小国寡民,

 Though there were individuals with the abilities of ten or a hundred men, there should be no employment of them.

 使有什伯人之器而下用。

 Let the people value their lives and not migrate far.

 使民重死而不远

 Though there be boats and carriages, none be there to ride them.

 虽有舟,无所乘之;

 Though there be armor and weapons, no occasion to display them.

 虽有甲兵,无所陈之。

 Let the people again tie ropes for reckoning,

 使人复结绳而用之。

 Let them think their own food delicious, their own clothes beautiful, their own residence comfortable, and their own costumes suitable.

 甘其食美其服,安其居,乐其俗。

 The neighboring settlements overlook one another.

 邻国相望,

 So that they can hear the barking of dogs and crowing of cocks of their neighbors,

 鸡犬之声相闻

 and the people till the end of their days shall never have been outside their country.

 使民至老死,不相往来。

Opening Casket (2) (12-20)(801)

庄子演义外篇胠箧()(12-20)(801)


12 The most ideal society is this: people live simple and plain lives and they knot ropes to record something without written language to accumulate knowledge. Therefore, people of pure and simple thinking live with other creatures under the condition of relatively balance field.
理想的社会应该是这样的:全体百姓都过着简单朴素的生活,他们结绳记事,没有文字去累积知识,因此思想单纯,得以与万物共同生存在一个比较均衡的状态之下,人类与万物和平相处,大家都有一定的空间生活。
13 They dont need to take their ingenuity for food because any food that can quench hunger is delicious. They dont require the best food and dont waste any food, for which lives are respected to some extent. People dont kill shark just for its fins. Thus shark is protected from extinction.
任何能解决饥饿的食物都是甘美的,他们不会为了吃而大费章,食物不求其精所以浪费就少了,生命也得到一定的尊重,人们不会为了鱼翅将鲨鱼翅割下而放弃整条鲨鱼,这样鲨鱼的生命就有一定的保障而不会灭亡。
14 Clothes that can keep body warm are good and beautiful. A deer hide that is cast on body in winter can keep people warm; where a small piece of it to cover some part of body in summer. It is unnecessary to dress much clothes, waste, heavy and clumsy.
衣服能遮体保暖就是美、就是好; 冬天一张吃剩的鹿皮做成衣服披在身上,身体就暖了。夏天将皮切割小些遮住重点即可,衣服其实是不必穿上一大堆,既笨重,又浪费。
15 In their wardrobe, modern people have a lot of clothes, some of which they dont wear a time in years. Use of clothes had been more than its function of warmness.
现代人衣柜里一大堆衣服,有些几年也难得穿上一回,衣服的意义老早已超过遮体避寒的功能。
16 The custom is formed by the habits; all people living in the certain area will accept and do it accordingly. For example, people celebrate the new year of lunar calendar in China, how they pass the last evening; how to prepare the dishes for it and how to display the sacrifice on the first day etc. All of those are serious and strictly written in terms of a certain style and in a certain time. Custom becomes the power to unify people and enforce them to live together tightly.
随着习惯而形成的风俗习惯,大家都接受。人们喜欢按照一定的模式,定时照样举行; 诸如,过年时怎么准备年菜?如何渡过除夕的夜晚?大年初一怎么拜年,祭祠等都丝毫不马虎的举行,让风俗习惯成为团结国民的力量,增强彼此间的向心力;
17 The society where the custom dismisses and even vanishes will collapse. People live peacefully and enjoy their works in villages. If nobody had induced them to immigrate to other place, the big cities would not have come into being, there would not have vagrants who gather in the corner of cities to be the source of crime, and the kids and the old would have not been left in the lonely villages.
风俗散乱消失的社会,是一个即将分崩离析的社会。百姓们在本地乡村里安居乐业,没有人去引诱他们迁移他处; 这样大城市就不会形成,游民不会聚集在城市的角落里成为犯罪的渊薮,乡下也不会成为老人幼儿的孤独村落。
18 Members of family stay together. The proportion of the old, the young and the kids is rational. Thus life of village becomes vigorous and active.
家中成员都聚在一起,乡村中老中青幼人口合理的分配,乡村生活就会活泼而有生气。
19 The sound of poultry and livestock in nearby tribes are heard each other. People live happily in their own field. Nobody has the concept of emigration. Thus the distribution of population all around the country becomes even and the ecological environment is conserved.
聚落与聚落间虽鸡狗声相闻,他们各具生活范畴,在各自的生活圈子中快乐的生活,没有人会生移民他乡之念,各地人口之分布就平均,而自然生态则得以保存矣!

甘其食美其服,乐其俗,安其居,邻国相望,鸡狗之音相闻,民至老死而不相往来。
20 This ideal society prevailed in the ancient time, such as the ages of Rongcheng Shi, Dating Shi, Bohuang Shi, Zhongyang Shi, Lilu Shi, Lichu Shi, Xuanyuan Shi, Hexu Shi, Zunlu Shi, Zhurong Shi, Fuxi Shi, and Shengnong Shi. However now nobody knows it.
这种社会在古时容成氏、大庭氏、伯皇氏、中央氏、栗陆氏、骊畜氏、轩辕氏、赫胥氏、尊卢氏、祝融氏、伏羲氏、神农氏等世代都盛行过,而今却已不为人知久矣

子独不知至德之乎?昔者容成氏、大庭氏、伯皇氏、中央氏、栗陆氏、骊畜氏、轩辕氏、赫胥氏、尊卢氏、祝融氏、伏氏、神农氏,当是时也,民结绳而用之。

Xianchis Interpretation and Remark(801)

咸池评述(801)  

1 In a healthy and stable society, people love their local life and reluctant to immigrate to foreign land. In order to reach this kind of environment, each town and village should be a self-sufficient society. Only in serious drought, plague or war, do people have to unwillingly migrate to other place. 

 一个健康而稳定的社会,它的百姓是重土而安迁的。每一个乡镇,每一个村落都能自给自足,是促成这样社会存在的必要条件。只有在大旱、在流行病盛行或战争时期,百姓们才会在无可奈何的情况下大幅迁移。
2 In Chuang Tzu’s ideal society, he didn’t expect to see a society that was more prosperous and rich than other places. He thought that reasons of social problem are that such a society attracts people to move so that unbalance of population comes into being.

在庄子的理想社会里,他不希望看到一个特别兴盛,特别富足的社会在某地出现。他认为社会问题的形成,部份因素就在于这类社会将它邻近的百姓吸引了过去,由此造成人口的分布不均匀。
3 Relation between people becomes nervous and apathy in a big city, especially the metropolises. Where people’s deep-rooted bad habits would inevitability come out, such as cheating each other, fraud and cruelness. This is why we often say that countryside people are honest and warm-hearted while urban people are sly and insidious.

 现今社会,尤其是大型都市,人与人之间关系变得紧绷、冷漠。人类的劣根性诸如: 尔虞我诈、欺骗、狠恶等纷纷出笼。我们常说:「乡下人比较老实、热忱,而城市里的人就比较狡猾、阴险。」说的就是这个道理。
4 Laotse and Chuang Tzu advocated that people should back to nature. They loathed seeing maliciousness, indifference and slyness and the best way to prevent them are that people love their local life and reluctant to immigrate to foreign land. If people’s hearts are intact, they would think their own food delicious, their own clothes beautiful, their own residence comfortable, and their own costumes suitable.

老子、庄子都提倡回归人性自然之道。他们对险恶、冷漠、狡诈的人心自然是排斥而不愿意见到的。而为了避免这种人心的方法就在于重土安迁,如此百姓才能少被知识污染,也才能有效融入于甘其食,美其服,安其居,乐其俗的层面之中。

 

 

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