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道德经演义(六十六)

(2010-08-04 05:09:48)
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瑜伽行者

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Extensive interpretation of Tao Te Ching (66) 

道德经演义(六十六)

How did the great rivers and seas become the Lords of the Ravines? By being good at keeping low. That was how they became the Lords of the Ravines. 

江海所以能为百谷王者,以其善下之,故能为百谷王。

 

Therefore in order to be the chief among the people, one must speak like their inferiors.

是以圣人欲上民,必以言下之;

 

In order to be foremost among the people, one must walk behind them. 

欲先民,必以身后之。

 

Thus it is that the Sage stays above, and the people do not feel his weight. 

是以圣人处上而民不重,

 

Walk in front and the people do not wish him harm. 

处前而民不害。

 

Then the people of the world are glad to uphold him forever.  

是以天下乐推而不厌。

 

Because he does not contend, no one in the world can contend against him. 

以其不争,故天下莫能与之争。


Xu Wugui(7) (1-13)(66。1)  

庄子演义杂篇徐无鬼(七)(1-13)(66。1)


1 Guanzhong is dying for illness. Duke Huang of Qi went to see him. The anxiety-ridden duke asked in front of his bed, “In case you left, whom would I appoint as the ministry?”
管仲病危,齐桓公前往探视。在病床前,桓公忧心忡忡地问:「万一先生不幸,我应将宰相一职授与谁呢?」

管仲有病,桓公问之,曰:「仲父之病病矣,可不谓,云至于大病,则寡人恶乎属国而可?」

2 Forcing to opening his eyes, Guanzhong looked at the duke and asked, “Who do you think is the most proper one?”
管仲勉强睁开眼,看了看桓公,问道:「桓公心目中是否已经有了适当的人选呢?」

管仲曰:「公谁欲与?」

3 Duke Huang answered, “What about Baoshu Ya?”
桓公说:「你觉得鲍叔牙这人怎样?」

公曰:「鲍叔牙。」

4 Shaking his head, Guanzhong whispered, “Baoshu Ya is discriminated in evilness and goodness. He estranges the ones whom he distain. He keeps others’ err in his mind, always mentioning, and never pardons them.
管仲摇摇头,低声说:「鲍叔牙这个人善恶分明,凡是他看不起的人,就不跟他们亲近。别人只要犯了一点过错,他就会牢记在心,老是重复提起,永远也不会原谅别人

曰:「不可。其为人洁廉善士也。其于不己若者不比之。又一闻人之过,终身不忘。

5 If you appoint him as the ministry, his would carp at you all day and his verbosity would make you uneasy and annoyed.
如果你将宰相的位子交给他,那今后你的日子就难过了。他会天天挑你的毛病,唠唠叨叨地念个不停;

6 He would regard his ideas as the only standard and impose them on people, totally neglecting the people’s actual requirement. Under this kind of government, the people would live in a bad life. So, even if you appointed him as the ministry, you would fall out with him sooner or later.”
他会将他自己的那一套观念视为经典,强施于民,完全不理会百姓的要求; 这样一来,老百姓的日子肯定也不会好过。所以,就算你真的让他做了宰相,你们两个闹翻,也是迟早的事。」

使之治国,上且钩乎君,下且逆乎民。其得罪于君也,将弗久矣!」

7 Hearing Guanzhong’s analysis, Duke Huang felt it was very reasonable. Hence he asked again, “Who do you think is better?”
桓公听了管仲这样的分析,觉得蛮有道理,因此又问:「那你认为,应让谁出来当宰相会比较恰当呢?」

公曰:「然,则孰可?」

8 Guanzhong said, “Xipeng is eligible. In my opinion, Xipeng is amiable and clean-handed. Once he has power, I believe, he will self-restraint and uses it carefully. He will not swollen-headed for his high position, not to mentioning exploits his underling and people in his prefecture as he likes.
管仲说:「我认为,隰朋这家伙还可以考虑。隰朋这个人平易近人,贪念不高。他不会拿着鸡毛当令箭,他不会因身居高位而得意忘形; 更不会将自己的部属以及辖区内的百姓当成囊中之物,随意榨取。

9 He is modest to learn from the one who is more learned than him. He cares and sympathizes with one who is worse than him in aptitude and virtue, and always be ready to help them.
对于比自己高明的人,他虚心学习,承认自己不如对方。对于比自己能力低,甚至是品德较差的人,他则以同情以及呵护的心态去对待他们,并且希望能有机会帮助他们。

对曰:「勿已,则隰朋可。其为人也,上忘而下畔,愧不若黄帝,而哀不己若者。

10 We call the one who treats others by his perfect and lofty virtue a sage, and the one who helps others at any time with his wealth, aptitude and knowledge a wise man.
以自己崇高完善的品德待人的人,我们说他是圣人。而以自己的财力,能力及学识等随时准备帮助别人的,我们则称他为贤人。

以德分人谓之圣,以财分人谓之贤。

11 Nobody likes the one who thinks that he is wiser, richer and more incorruptible than others and looks down on others. This kind of man, he has no support from the masses.
自以为比别人高明、廉洁、优秀、富有,并且看不起比自己差的人; 这种人在社会上是不受欢迎的,是没有群众基础的;

12 To the contrary, the one, who is called wise man, always helps others at any time with his wealth, aptitude and knowledge; he will soon drum up support for his management.
相反的,那些以自己的财力及能力,以及学识等; 真诚地、谦虚地、热心地帮助别人的人,这种人的群众基础及支持度就明显的高出许多了。

以贤临人,未有得人者也;以贤下人,未有不得人者也。

13 Therefore, if Xipeng is appointed as the ministry, the country would be prosperous, peaceful and people would live in safety.”
所以,选用隰朋这样的人为相,则齐国就肯定会升平和乐,国泰而民安了!」

其于国有不闻也,其于家有不见也。勿已,则隰朋可。」

 

Xianchi’s interpretation and remark (66。1)

咸池评述(66。1)

 
1 As a self-aloof intellect, we disgust some local vulgar leaders who make a spectacle of themselves and are neither rhyme nor reason. They drink, gamble and marry concubine. We often have no other alternative and sign, “There is such people; there is such government and its officials. What can we do?”

站在一个自命清高的知识分子的立场,我们对某些粗俗的地方官员感到不屑,他们喝酒、赌搏、娶小老婆、在公众场合丑态百出,几乎一无是处的种种表现,我们也会无奈地说:「有什么样的人民就会出现什么样的政府、就会有什么样的官员。既然如此,我们就认命吧!。」

 

2 In the other view, they seem not the worst politicians because they have rounded off their sharp edges, and submerged their turmoil. Therefore they become peer of common people, make same habit of common people as theirs and agree on people’s ideas.

可是换另一个角度,从这些人挫其锐,同其尘、与百姓之间相处水乳兼容,甚至以百姓的生活习惯为依归、以百姓的观念为观念的各种情况看来,似乎他们也不算是最烂的政治人物。 
 
3 People in the countryside like drinking, playing mahjong, and having concubine, so do they. When their deed and concepts are in accordance with local people’s, are the policies made by them closer to people’s requirements?

乡下老百姓喜欢喝酒,他也喝; 百姓喜欢打麻将,他也打; 百姓喜欢拈花惹草,喜欢包二奶,他也跟着娶一门小老婆; 当他的生活行为、观念举止完全贴近百姓,与百姓之间达成一致之后,他所制订出来的政策、所推行出来的制度,是否也更能贴近百姓的需求呢?

4 Guanzhong reminded Huang Duke of Qi that a man, who considers himself aloof, ideal and ambitious, should not be consigned to rule, because such person will publicize ideology so as to make people in chaos of revolution.

管仲提醒齐桓公不要去找那些自命清高,富有理想,怀有远大抱负的人来掌权,就是为了避免这种人会搞意识型态,甚至于将百姓带进巨大变革的纷乱之中。

5 To the contrary, those politicians who seem vulgar stay with people everyday so that they can understand people’s requirements more clearly and help them. Though they are not the best politician, they are not the warlords who people feel awful. They never become Wang Anshi.

相反的,这些看起来粗俗不堪的官员,他们每天与百姓混在一起,反而更能清楚地了解百姓的需求,更能为他们解决问题。他们虽然不是最佳的政治人物,然而有一点可以肯定的是,他们绝对不会是令百姓望而生畏的纳粹军阀,也绝对不会成为王安石。

6 After knowing Guangzhong’s advice, should we adjust the qualifications on politician?

读了管仲的忠告之后,我们之对于政治人物的要求,是否也应该适度的调整一番呢?

 

Xianchi’s interpretation of Tao Te Ching (66) a。66

 咸池评述道德经演义(六十六)a。66


1 If we do anything by following a certain purpose, our behavior will be unnatural and inferior. To be king of the ravines, the place must be low; to be leader of people, you have to speak humbly to the people and follow them in person. All these are schemed application and something done for a purpose.

 如果是抱着某一个目的去做事,那么我们的行为就会显得不自然而成为下品了。为了想成为百谷之王,所以才表现得那么低下,为了想成为百姓的领袖,因此才以言下之,以身后之; 所有这些,都是心机的运用,是为了达到某一种目的而做的事。

2 According to Laotse’s moral standard, this is not the best one. He, who determines to be a king by any means, will show his true face soon, regardless of his good disguise, when he becomes king.

 在老子自己的道德标准上说,这也不算是最好的一面。一个怀有机心、不择手段,想要坐上国家大位的人,不论他掩饰得多么好,只要他一坐上了那个位子,他的庐山真面目难免就会暴露无遗。

3 Humbleness, reverence and respect must be from the inner heart. The feeling that is coherent in inside and outside is reliable and unwavering. We affirm that it is good characters that he speaks humbly to people and follows them in person. But the utilitarian goal that you want to be sage and king should be avoided in the beginning of cultivation of the virtues.

谦卑、恭敬、尊重他人的素养必须是发自内心深处的,内外一致的真情才算可靠,才不会变质。我们肯定老子说的以言下之、以身后之以及不争的个性是好的,是优质的。但是在培养这种德性之初、以及在整个酝酿的过程当中,我们都应该避免抱有为圣、为王的功利目标。
 
4 As a yoga doer, we spend a lot of time in sitting and practice every day. Why do so? If we are made to speak of a goal, it mostly is ambiguous and illegible. If say we want to be sage or Buddha, it is too far. Speaking frankly, we have no idea about what will be of being sage or Buddha. Most common people who doing rite is for worldly fame and interest; however, it is our yoga doer bans it severely. Nothing is the real purpose. The last conclusion is that we just do the thing regularly that we don’t know why. In silliness, we think that we should practice and sit on time every day. After practice, we feel relaxed and easy, and sleep well. Long-term practice makes us supple, eyes-bright, body-light and energetic. All these phenomena emerge due to long-term practice. In the beginning and process of practice, we never think and expect about these results.

作为一个瑜伽行者,我们每天都必须花费许多时间在打坐、练功之上。我们这样做的原因又是为了什么?如果一定要讲出一个目的来,我们的答案也大都是含糊不清的。如果说我们的目的是为了成佛、成圣,那样未免太遥远了,而且老实说,我们自己也不太清楚什么是成佛、成圣。一般人在寺庙之中,在佛、菩萨面前老是不停的膜拜是为了求得一些世俗上的名利,可是那又绝对是我们瑜伽行者所严格禁止的。作为一名瑜伽行者,我们只是时间一到就自动去做一件自己也搞不清楚的事情而已,我们只是胡里胡涂地觉得自己应该每天定时练功、打坐; 当自己做完这些事情之后,人也就明显觉得轻松自在,练完功之后觉也睡得安稳。如此长期不辍,一路修炼下来的结果,是身体柔软,体轻目明,活泼而有力。而所有这些现象都是长期练功之后所自然流露出的现象,然而,在练功之初或练功的过程中,我们是绝对不会妄想要达致这些成果的。

5 As for humbleness and reverence, yoga doer does reverence to stiff degree. When meeting people, he does a very low bow. When departing, he does it too. It is like judo players greeting before and after match. Such salutation is from heart to show reverence to people’s Buddha nature. There is no other idea for fame and interest in our mind. After bow, we even tell him that our salutation is done to show reverence to his Buddha nature, instead of his form, shadow and flesh body. He may not do it in return.  

 说到谦卑、恭敬这方面,我们瑜伽行者之对于他人的恭敬及礼数确是到了有些近于迂腐的地步,在与人交往之前必先行90度鞠躬,完事后也得行同样的大礼。这一点还真有些像柔道选手在比赛前后的礼貌规矩。可是我们这样的礼是出于自然的,是发自内心对众生佛性的恭敬,在我们心里完全没有其它功利的想法,事后我们甚至还会告诉对方,这是对你佛性的恭敬,你可以不必答礼; 因为,这个礼并不是针对着你的这个形、影、肉身而发的。

6 A yoga doer is polite and humble before people, never offending them, because he daren’t offend god and should show reverence to Buddha. He never considers being the master, which strays from the point very much. He daren’t consider it.

一位瑜伽行者对众生要谦卑有礼,不能有丝毫的轻慢; 主要是因为我们不敢得罪佛、侵犯神,因此,我们在佛的面前必须表现出必恭必敬的态度; 至于我们是不是想成为他的主子,那就离题太远了,因为对此,我们根本就是连想也不敢想象的。

 

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