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道德经演义(五十七)

(2010-07-26 05:25:25)
标签:

病入膏肓

独善其身

文化


Zeyang (7) (1-20)(57。2)

庄子演义杂篇则阳(七)(1-20)(57。2)


1 Bai Ju was one of Laotse’s favorite disciples. He usually served Laotse in daily life and assisted him to receive guests. Bai Ju had done his job so well that Laotse trust in him.

柏矩是老子相当喜爱的弟子。平时他尽心的在老子身边侍候起居,接待宾客,从无疏漏,深得老子的信任。

2 That autumn witnessed the clearness of weather and the mountains fraught with beautiful maple leaves. Bai Ju wanted to travel in this mild weather season, so he suggested his master to have a tour.

这一年秋天,气候晴朗,满山的枫叶实在是美极了。柏矩心想,应该利用这个凉爽的季节出去走走,因此建议老师办个旅游。

柏矩学于老聃,曰:「请之天下游。」

3 As a man of perfect practice, Laotse wasn’t charmed by the objective conditions at all. He devoted himself to improving his subject conditions. Environment didn’t work on him.

老子已经是修行完备的人了,客观环境的一切对他而言,早已失去了吸引力;他天天专注在自己主观条件的提升上,无论周遭环境如何演变,对他来说,是起不了什么调剂作用的。

4 Therefore, Loatse dissuade him. “Why not practice at home and go around? Mountain is itself; so are water and human. Every place is as same as the other. It is unworthy of traveling for seeing various landscapes, different people and learning about different customs.”

因此老子说:「干嘛放着功不练,到处乱跑呢?山就是山,水就是水,人就是人,各地都是一样的; 为了看不同的风景,见不同的人; 为了接触不同的风俗习惯而大费周章的出门旅行是不值得的。」

老聃曰:「已矣!天下犹是也。」

5 Bai Ju thought it rather boring to stay at the same place all the year and do the same things all the days. Recalling his disciple doing so many trivia for him without any complaint, Laotse accepted his suggestion finally.

柏矩却认为,一整年呆在同一个地方,每天做着同样的事,实在是太闷,太枯燥了。老子看这位弟子,平常为自己做了那么多的事,从无怨言。因此,他一定想出去走走,那么就去走走吧!

6 Laotse said, “Where do you want to go?” Bai Ju became very delighted with Laotse’s words. He replied, “Let’s go to the State of Qi.”

老子说:「既然如此,那么你想要到哪儿去呢?」柏矩见老子松口,高兴的不得了。他说:「我们就先到齐国去吧!」

又请之,老聃曰:「汝将何始?」曰:「始于齐。」

7 The two headed for the State of Qi. The day there was an execution held in the market – a criminal was beheaded. The criminal lay on the ground, with his head away from body. Seeing the brute execution, Laotse felt very sad. He took off his coat to cover the criminal’s body. He knew that to respect the dead is one of the basic principles a man of practice should obey.

就这样师徒两人一路来到了齐国。这一天在市集上,有罪犯被斩首示众。罪犯仰卧在地上,身首异位。老子看见这幅残忍的景象,心中难过得不得了; 他立刻解下身上的外套,覆盖在受刑人的尸体上。他一向认为,对亡者的尊重,是修行人最起码应该作的事;

至齐,见辜人焉,推而强之,解朝服而幕之,号天而哭之,

8 Additionally, a man of practice can’t help stopping to pray when he sees the self-nature being separated from the flesh body, because theirs are harmonizing to the self-nature of the dead man.

另外一点,就是修行人碰到肉身与自性等分离的当儿,都难免会驻足祈祷一番。因为他们的自性与这亡者的自性是相应的。

9 Holding up his hands, Laotse looked up to the sky, tear shedding. He said in heart, “You go relaxingly. There is nothing worth of longing for. In my opinion, a terrible calamity will befall in this world. You leave now. Why not be lucky?”

老子站在那,双手举起,仰头看天,目中不自禁地流下泪来。他心中念道:「你安心的去吧!这世上其实也没有什么值得留恋的。在我看,一场大灾难即将降临,你这时离开,又何尝不是一件幸运的事。」

曰:「子乎!子乎!天下有大菑,子独先离之。

10 After left the market, beheading in front of the mass still lingered on Laotse’s mind.

离开市集后,斩首示众这一幕仍然停留在老子的心中。

11 He told Bai Ju, “Governors warn people of not stealing and not killing, that is the reason why they behead criminals in front of the mass. Nevertheless, do a person’s stealing, killing and robbing has nothing to do with the governors?”

他对柏矩说:「为政者都警告百姓不可以偷盗、不可以杀人,他们将罪犯斩首示众就是这个目的; 然而,百姓偷盗、杀人越货等行为,难道与当政者就一点关系都没有吗?

曰『莫为盗﹗莫为杀人﹗』

12 When a society defines what the honor is and what the shame is, people are afraid to violate the taboo. Therefore, the complete virtue of people gets lost.

当一个社会将什么是荣耀、什么是羞辱划定清楚后,百姓就有了惧怕及不安的心; 害怕自己有朝一日会触犯法律,因此,德全就开始丧失了。

13 When some people of high rank and rich men accumulate the live stuff and wealth by unfair means, most people have to struggle for their lives.

当社会上有钱有势的人,为了一己之私而无所不用其极地搜刮财富时,社会上绝大多数为了生存而辛苦挣扎的事就发生了。

14 The standards of honor and shame set by governors make people discontented. The people of high rank and rich men plunder live stuff and wealth that most people live on. Most people have to toil all day for living. Do you think that nobody will take risk in desperation?

当政者树立荣辱的标准,造成百姓心存芥蒂; 有钱有势的人搜刮百姓赖以为生的资财,使得百姓的生活环境日趋严苛; 这样的社会,你难道不觉得,一些人会因此挺而走险吗?

荣辱立,然后睹所病;货财聚,然后睹所争。

15 In the ancient time, the governors’ policy focused on people’s bliss. They undertook all the wrongdoings by themselves. People’s error must result from the governor’s bad leadership. People always are right. Their wrongdoing is owing to governor’s error.

从前的主政者,他们的施政都是以百姓的幸福为唯一考量,百姓永远是对的,百姓犯错必是主政者领导无方,其缺失都归咎于自己的错误。

16 The recent governors are different from the past. They keep their policy as secrets, people are not advised clearly, and however, once people have done any mistake against the policy, they are condemned seriously. Governor drives people to do dangerous work, the one dare to reject will sentence through severe law.

今天的主政者就不同了。他们将施政列为国家机密,不让百姓知道,百姓不明白政策方向,稍有违犯则痛加责难。与此同时,主政者又促使百姓去干些危险的工作,畏缩不前者就立刻施以严法峻刑。

17 The service and tax that governors impose on people get more and more heavy. The escaper is punished by very inappropriate ways. Many people are banished to the frontier of country or killed.

主政者所加诸百姓身上的劳役、税捐日愈繁重,凡无法履行义务者就施以极不相称的惩罚,致使许多人被发配边疆,不从者就处以亟刑。

18 People are tired out under the severe governance. Some can’t stand and then take risk in desperation.

百姓在这种苛政下疲于奔命,有些人实在受不了就只好挺而走险。

今则不然,匿为物而愚不识,大为难而罪不敢,重为任而罚不胜,远其涂而诛不至。

19 We can’t understand it: if the governors discredit their people, how can they force people to have credit on them? When people can’t afford to pay the heavy tax, people are forced to play some tricks to escape it. When people can’t suit a certain environment, they manage to cover their embarrassment. When people lack money for living, they are desperate to steal and rob.

你想一想,为政者对百姓不诚信,如何强迫百姓对他们诚信? 当无力交付沉重的税捐时,百姓当然会耍些小手段来逃避苛税;当百姓不能适应某个环境时,他们就会设法来掩饰自己的尴尬;当百姓没钱生活时,他们就被迫去偷、去抢;

今立人之所病,聚人之所争,穷困人之身,使无休时,欲无至此,得乎﹗古之君人者,以得为在民,以失为在己;以正为在民,以枉为在己;故一形有失其形者,退而自责。民知力竭,则以伪继之。

20 When people do such offence things, whom do we blame? It is the people or the governors. I think that beheading in the market is not a proper policy.”

当百姓做出这些违法的事时,我们到底是应该责备百姓,抑或是主政者?斩首示众这件事,我认为是很有问题的。」

日出多伪,士民安取不伪﹗夫力不足则伪,知不足则欺,财不足则盗。盗窃之行,于谁责而可乎?」

Xianchi’s interpretation and remark(57。2) 

咸池评述(57。2)

1 The abstaining club at home, the ruler in teacher’s hand, heaven and hell of religionists, the law of governor, all those have an intention, it forces people to abide by a certain order and walk at a certain direction.

 

家中的戒棍、老师手中的教鞭、宗教家的天堂地狱、为政者的刑罚等都只有一个目的,那就是要人遵守一定的规矩、走一定的方向。

2 It is safe to accord with someone’s will and regulations. He, who infringes rules, would receive punishment. This is the inevitable result in every society, all members should follow and there have nothing to complain about. There must be regulation made in the place where even two or more people live. If feeling regulations are bad, you don’t need to be a monk, because the regulations in temple, which monk must abide by, are plentiful.

 

顺遂某人的意志,合乎规定的就没事,违背规矩的就会受到一定程度的处罚; 这是群居社会的必然结果,没有什么好抱怨的。事实上,只要是两人以上共同生活的圈子都不免会有这种约法三章的事。如果认为规章、戒律不好,那和尚也就不必当了,因为庙里规矩甚严,和尚们必须遵守的清规、戒律才多着呢!

3 Laotse seems to think that it is bad to give people any regulation; discrimination between honor and disgrace can affect people so as to make them grudge and fear; the mental obstacles destroy virtue; once virtue has a flaw, it no longer a complete virtue. It is impossible to practice if the complete virtue is of problem, since Taoism stresses all the three: complete virtue, complete form and complete soul.  

 

老庄似乎认为,凡是对人类行为所制定出的任何规章制度都是不好的; 因为荣辱的分际会扰乱人心,使人们心存芥蒂、恐惧,这样的恐惧心理难免也会损害德性,而德若存有缺陷就不能算是德全了。道家讲究的是德全、形全、神全,德全出现问题的话,修行就成为不可能了。

 

 4 With such analysis, the Taoism theory purely is made for man of practice. It is absolutely good to the practice of Zen, but it is impossible to be applied in society.

 

从这样的分析入手,我们不难发现,道家的理论其实纯粹是为了修行人而设定的。这样的理论对禅定修身有着绝对的好处,但就是不能广泛运用在群居的社会之中。

5 All rules and regulations in the infest society are mundane and ready for people. Practice of Zen; however, is prepared for escaping from transmigration and aloofness from this world. It hence is normal that their goals and ways are different.

 

任何群居社会的规范及原则都是入世的,都是为了世俗世界而做准备的。而禅定修行则是为了逃出轮回而做准备的,是出世的,目标不同,方法各异,也就不足为怪了。

6 Buddha asks man of practice to do no cause and to seek no worldly glory, which stands to reason. Doing cause and seeking worldly glory should be in the field of law. When they are out of the field of law or on the verge of law, their terror arises. When you drive at the speed that is higher than regulated speed and policeman stops you, do you feel feared and irritated?

 

世尊要修行人不做事业、不求世荣是有道理的。做事业、求世荣就得在世俗的法律范围内运作,当走到法律边缘或超越法律规定时,恐惧之心难免就会升起。当你在高速公路上超速驾驶,忽然被警察拦下来的那一刻,在你心中,是不是既懊恼又惶恐呢?

7 Businessman plays tricks to escape tax. Once he receives the notice of penalty from tax bureau, doesn’t he feel much panic?

 

商人为了省钱,免不了会耍一些手段以逃避税捐。一旦收到税捐处的处罚通知,他们心中的波澜会小吗?

8 Accident happens in a factory and workers wound or even die. The boss must answer for it in law besides large sum of compensation. So, such a factory of middle size or small size could go into bankruptcy. Does the boss feel easy? Does the boss have complete soul? The answer is definitely no. For this reason, the life of man of practice and the life of the man in the infest society is totally different worlds.

 

工厂里发生工安事件,工人受了伤甚至死亡,做老板的除了要赔偿巨额伤亡补偿金外,还要背负法律责任。一家中小企业可能就会这样而被迫关门,这时,老板的心情会安宁沉稳吗?神全有可能存在吗? 答案当然是否定的。所以修行人及一般人必定是泾渭分明的两个世界。

9 It is said that Great Zen is practiced in downtown. But if you are manager of the market or peddler of fish whom competing with a lot of peers; your practice in downtown is of problem. 

 

有人说大禅修于市。可是如果你在市场里当管理员、做鱼贩子,有一大堆竞争者,你想要修于市的话,难免会遇到问题。

10 Many people practices in big temple where there are so many monks and nuns. There are intricate relations among them. It is inevitable for them to compete with each other for positions, and argue for the distributions of various labors in temple. In such a place, they perhaps have difficulty in entering the gate of practice--complete virtue, complete form and complete soul. 

 

许多人到大庙中去修行,庙中和尚尼姑一大群,彼此之间都维系着一定的关系。可想而知,那种尔虞我诈、争夺权位的事难免的也会发生; 各种劳役恐怕也难得公平。在这样的埸所之中修行,大概也很难求得德全、形全、神全的门径的。

11 History reveals that it is rational that many successful men of practice in temple are humble monks, such as cleaner, cooker or firewood monks. They are in charge of a singular work that is irrelevant to others. They instead take advantage to gain complete virtue, complete form and complete soul. Monks of power and rank; however, deal with trivia and shoot troubles all day. They instead lose the tranquil and stable mind. It is unworthy for them to have hair cut and abide by regulations, in my opinion.

 

历史告诉我们,许多在庙里修行成功者,大都是出自扫地和尚、伙头和尚、砍柴和尚是有其道理的。这些人单纯的负责着一项与他人不生关连的工作,结果反而得到德全、 形全、神全上的便利; 反观那些有权有势的和尚,他们天天处理庙中琐事,为了替人排解纠纷,最后反而失去了安宁,沉稳的心境。头是白剃了,戒也白守了,在我看来这是挺冤枉的。

 

Xianchi’s interpretation of Tao Te Ching (57) a。57

咸池评述道德经演义(五十七)a。57


1 In the view of modern people, it is difficult to understand this theory of Laotse.

 

 老子的这套说法,如果以现代人的眼光来看是很难理解的。

 

2 Let’s retrospect Zheng He’s voyage to foreign countries in early Ming Dynasty. We feel proud for Chinese technology of making ship and knowledge of navigation at that time. We are proud to know that there were more than thirty thousand people on hundreds of ships did great voyages through Southeast Asia, India, and went as far as to the east coast of Africa for as long as 20 years. We feel pitiful and irritated; however, when we read that in the later time, stiff-mind ministers in court restricted the ship team, and all Zheng He’s visiting records were destroyed; they even banned building ocean ship with over three masts. Since then Chinese lost the opportunity of domination of the world.

 

 回顾郑和下西洋这段历史,我们对于明朝初年中国人高超的造船技术、丰富的航海知识,以及三万人共乘数百艘船,浩浩荡荡地经过南洋,印度,一直到达到非洲沿岸长达20多年的海权盛事,都会感到兴奋不已。至于郑和的航海舰队后来遭受到朝廷儒臣们的严加紧缩,甚至于最后销毁所有的访外记录,不准建造超过三桅之远洋船只等; 儒臣们的这些举措,无异于将中国人可能从此称霸世界的机会完全自我摧毁,想到这里,我们不免情绪高涨,并且深深为之扼腕叹息。

3 In 1910s, there was a wave of anti-Confucius surging in Chinese intellects. The reason mostly was that they hated the stiff-mind Confucian that restricts Chinese development in science, industry and national defense so that China became object that foreign powers bullied.

 

民国初年,有一股反孔的浪潮在知识界兴起,其中最大的原因就是为了痛恨这些老旧的封建思想, 处处限制了中国人在科技、工业、国防等方面的发展; 甚至因此而致使中国沦为外国诸强百般凌辱、任意索取的下场及笑柄。

4) The year of 2002 witnessed China’s rise again. It is better time to reflect the theory of Laotse objectively that “The more skills of technique, the more cunning things are produced. The greater the number of statutes, the greater the number of thieves and brigands exist.” Since our material enjoyment is increasing and life becomes comfortable because of novelty things, does worldly moral really go bad? Do really robber and thief infest? 

 

在公元2002年的今天,中国人又站起来了。眼下我们重新开始反省,对所谓人多伎巧、奇物滋起,法令滋彰,盗贼多有等这番话,应是比较能够客观的审议了。然而,在物质享受增加,生活水准因为奇物而方便舒适后的今天,社会上又是否真的如老子所说的世风日下,盗贼多有呢?

5 Social problems is not our topic. We just mention that in the modern society there are few heroes like Robin Hood and few bandits who occupy hills to be the king.

 

社会问题不是我们所要讨论的课题,我们只提一点,那就是现今社会梁山泊式的好汉是少多了; 据地为王、为寇的盗匪也确是少多了。

6 Laotse’s non-action, tranquility, impunity and desireless are thought difficult to be realized in such complicated society as today. Modern society can’t run and people can’t live, without police, judge and powerful government. In a city of millions of population, people can’t move, reside and even can’t survive without powerful government. Without traffic police and modern traffic grid, people can’t travel and go to work. Without sewage treatment plant, there is a problem in water source. Without garbage process system, urban sanitation can’t be maintained. Without government support, water and electric power can’t be supplied. In short, a powerful and effective government is absolutely necessary for the modern society.

 

 老子的无为、好静、无事、无欲,在当前这样复杂的社会结构下是难以实现的。现代社会已经走到没有警察,没有法官,没有强而有力的政府就无法运作的地步了。试想,一个上百万居民的都市,如果缺少了一个强而有力的政府的引导,百姓立刻就会走不动、住不安; 没有交通警察、没有现代化高效的交通网,我们简直就出不了门,也上不了班。没有污水处理厂,我们的水源就会发生问题;没有垃圾处理机制,城市卫生就不能维持;没有政府出面,水电就供应不了。总而言之,在现今样样讲求效率的社会当中,一个强而有力、有所作为的好政府是绝对缺不得的。

7 Laotse’s theory can only be applied on life of man of practice. After man of practice stops his cause and worldly glory, he can calm down, reduce desires, and do practice of Zen and yoga and Qi, kundalini, essence and refinement can exert themselves so as to develop their original potential.

 

由此可见,老子的这套东西,还是应用在修行者的生活上会比较合适。当修行者不做事业,不求世荣; 整个人静了下来,清心寡欲之后,禅修、瑜伽就变成可能; 气、挫火、精、妙用等才能充分发挥祂们的功能,也才能进一步的开发人体内本来就具有的潜能。

8 Society of human has been incurable. Let’s we, the man of practice, conduct ourselves virtuously and respectively.

 

 总之,人类社会是已经病入膏肓,不可救药了,我们修行人还是选择独善其身吧!

 

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