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道德经演义(五十七)

(2010-07-26 05:11:54)
标签:

德全

形全

神全

风波之民

文化

Extensive interpretation of Tao Te Ching (57)

道德经演义(五十七)

Rule a kingdom by the Normal. Fight a battle by abnormal tactics of surprise. Win the world by doing nothing. How do I know it is so?

以正治国,以奇用兵,以无事取天下。吾何以知其然哉?

 

Through this:

以此:

 

The more prohibitions there are, the poorer the people become.

 天下多忌讳,而民弥贫。

 

The more capable officials in the government,the greater the chaos in the state.

朝多利器,国家滋昏。

 

The more skills of technique, the more cunning things are produced.

人多伎巧,奇物滋起。

 

The greater the number of statutes, the greater the number of thieves and brigands exist.

法令滋彰,盗贼多有。

 

Therefore the Sage says:

故圣人云:

 

I do nothing and the people are reformed of themselves.

我无为而民自化。

 

I love quietude and the people are righteous of themselves.

我好静而民自正。

 

I deal in no business and the people grow rich by themselves.

我无事而民自富。

 

I have no desires and the people are simple and honest by themselves.

我无欲而民自朴。


The Heaven and the Earth(10) (1-24)(57。1)

庄子演义外篇天地(十)(1-24)(57。1)


1 Zi Gong passed a small town called Hanyin when he traveled back to the State of Jin from the State of Chu.

子贡到楚国旅游,在返回晋国时,路过一个名叫汉阴的小镇。

2 Zi Gong saw a farmer toiling in a vegetable garden nearby road. The farmer bailed water with a barrel from the well and then carried the barrel to water vegetable one by one. Shaking his head, Zi Gong considered that this countryside lagged too much and the way of watering was ineffective. Watering a vegetable costs so much time, how big a garden the farmer can water within one day? No wonder they are so poor.

子贡注意到,一位农人在道旁菜园子里辛苦地工作。这位农人用桶在井里舀水,然后提着桶为一颗一颗的青菜浇水。子贡摇了摇头,认为这个乡下地方实在是太落伍了,工作如此的没有效率。一个浇水的动作要花那么多的时间,那他一天又能照顾多大个菜园呢?难怪他们这么穷。

3 Zi Gong had a sudden sympathy for the farmer. He felt that he must tell the local people the simple way of irrigation that they had been employed for years in the State of Jin.

子贡一时起了恻隐之心,他觉得有义务告诉当地人,他们在晋国实施多年的简易灌溉方式。

子贡南游于楚,反于晋,过汉阴,见一丈人方将为圃畦,凿隧而入井,抱瓮而出灌,搰搰然用力甚多而见功寡。

4 Zi Gong stopped his carriage, stepping down. Over the ridge of the garden, he said to the farmer. “I know a high efficient machine that can irrigate a field of a hundred more Mu every day. It saves labor and time. Would you like to have one?”

子贡叫车停住,他走下车来,隔着田埂,对这位农夫说:「我知道一种机械装置,它每天可以帮助农人灌溉上百亩农田,省时省力,非常地有效率,你想不想也装置一台呢?」

子贡曰:「有械于此,一日浸百畦,用力甚寡而见功多,夫子不欲乎?」

5 The farmer looked at the well-dressed stranger. “How does it look like?”

这位农人看了看这位衣冠楚楚的陌生人,说:「它长得什么样子啊?」

为圃者卬而视之曰:「奈何?」

6 Zi Gong said, “This is a wood-made machine. Its work principle is to use lever with one end light and the other end heavy. The light end carries water. The operator press slightly the heavy end andthe water is bailed out into the dug drain and then flows into the field. It is easier to water with the machine. It is called Gao. Have you heard it?”

子贡说:「这是一种木制的机械,主要的结构是一根木棍,利用杠杆原理,一头重一头轻,轻的那头用来提水,人只要轻轻地按重的那头,水就会自井中舀出注入挖好的水沟中形成持续的水流。有这种工具,灌溉就变得容易了。这种装置叫槔。你听说过吗?」

曰:「凿木为机,后重前轻,挈水若抽,数如泆汤,其名为槔。」

7 Laying down his barrel, the farmer laughed. “Oh, Gao. I don’t like it as well as all other machine tools. My teacher told me that a man who would like to use machine to save labor and time, inclines to the shortcut or secure advantages through pull or influence; a man like this is ready to resort to dubious shifts and to cheat his superiors and defraud his subordinates, of which a man of practice should avoid.

这位农人放下手上的水桶笑着说:「哦!你是说槔啊!我不喜欢它,也不喜欢所有机械的工具。我的老师告诉我,凡是喜欢使用机械以求省时省力者,他们在处事上也一样的喜欢寻快捷方式走后门。而做事喜欢寻快捷方式走后门的人,他们就一定会投机取巧,欺上蒙下,而这些都是一位修行者应该避免的。

8 My teacher preached it that ingenious conception in mind expels purity and simplicity, without which it is impossible to reach composure and tranquilness. All practices are impossible without a composed, tranquil and peaceful heart.

我的老师也曾这么说过:『机心存于胸,则纯白不备,纯白不备,则沉稳宁静就变得不可能』,没有一颗沉稳宁静的心,修行就上不了路。。

9 We have the Gao you mentioned but I just dislike using it.”

你说的槔我们这儿也有,只是我不喜欢用它罢了。」

为圃者忿然作色而笑曰:「吾闻之吾师,有机械者必有机事,有机事者必有机心。机心存于胸中,则纯白不备;纯白不备,则神生不定,神生不定者,道之所不载也。吾非不知,羞而不为也。」

10 Zi Gong learned from Confucius for some time. He was regarded as one of main disciples of Confucius. Today hearing “A man with an unrestful spirit, Tao will not come to him” by the farmer, he felt very abashed and lowered his head without a word.

子贡在孔子那儿学习已经有相当长的一段时间了,他也一直被公认为是孔子的大弟子之一,今天从这位乡下农人这儿听到“神生不定者,道之所不载也” 这样的教训,真把他羞的无地自容,他不觉低下了头,一句话也说不出来。

子贡瞒然惭,俯而不对。

11 The farmer detected the atmosphere of embarrassment. He tried to break the deadlock. “Who are you? Judged from your dress, you must be somebody. ”

我们这位农夫朋友也感觉到气氛的尴尬,他试图打破僵局:「你是谁啊!看你的装扮应该是位大人物吧!」

有间,为圃者曰:「子奚为者邪?」

12 Zi Gong seemed to pick up some confidence. He thought that it is time to save his face back. Zi Gong replied seriously, “I am a disciple of Confucius.”

子贡的信心似乎又恢复了些,心想这可能是自己挽回面子的时候。因此,他正色地回答说:「我是孔子的弟子。」

曰:「孔丘之徒也。」

13 “Oh.” The farmer responded, “You are one of the groups who read many books and try to act as the sages. Your group ran around many countries for years and tried to benefit the masses by the ideal that few people agreed on, by which you publicize your fame. However, I think that it is kind of you to stop to help a countryside farmer. Nevertheless, you must take off the lofty look from your face and wipe off your pride from your heart. By these, it is possible to continue your practice. If not, you have difficulty in looking after yourself, let alone the governance of a country. Well, you go on to travel. I have no time to talk more with you.”

「哦!」农人应道:「你们不就是那一群读了许多书,试图扮演圣人的角色,长年来东奔西跑地想要利益众生; 抱着没有多少人认同的理想,到处宣扬以建立自己的名声的修行者吗?我看你这个人不错,颇有爱心,愿意停下来帮助一个乡下农人,不过,你必须将你脸上高人一等的容貌清除掉,将你心中骄傲的心态抹杀掉,这样你的修行之路才有可能走下去,如果不这样做的话,你甚至连自己都照顾不好,更不要说治理天下了。好了!你还是上路吧!我也没闲工夫跟你多聊了。」

为圃者曰:「子非夫博学以拟圣,于于以盖众,独弦哀歌以卖名声于天下者乎?汝方将忘汝神气,堕汝形骸,而庶几乎!而身之不能治,而何暇治天下乎!子往矣,无乏吾事。」

14 With the little regained confidence, Zi Gong fell into the bottom of depression again. Lowered his head, Zi Gong stepped slowly back to his carriage. In silence, he tasted what the farmer said and felt depressed as if his effort of years became futile.

刚刚恢复一点儿的信心,这时又跌回谷底。子贡低着头,慢慢地走回车子,他一句话也没说,一个人默默地想着这位乡下农人的话,怅然若失,觉得自己这么多年的努力,好像全泡汤了。

子贡卑陬失色,顼顼然不自得,行三十里而后愈。

15 Dropping deeply into the mood of disappointment and shame, Zi Gong gradually recovered after rode for thirty li on his way back to the State of Lu. His disciples kept silent due to Zi Gong’s expression. They didn’t ask something until Zi Gong became unclouded somewhat. “Sir. Just now whom did you talk with? Why did your expression become depressed and heavy when you stepped on the carriage?”

就这样神情赧然地坐在车里直到卅里外,他才逐渐回过神来。子贡的随行弟子看见老师这个样子,谁也不敢出声,直到老师神情稍微开朗之后,才开口问道:「老师!你刚刚是跟谁说话啊!为什么上车后就神情大变,一路上郁郁寡欢,心事重重呢?」

其弟子曰:「向之人何为者邪?夫子何故见之变容失色,终日不自反邪?」

16 Shaking his head, Zi Gong whispered, “I always thought that my teacher, Confucius was the only sage in this world. Today I found another one.

子贡摇摇头,低声地说:「我一直认为,你们的师公是这世上唯一的智者,然而,今天却让我发现了另外一位。

17 Confucius taught us to try our best to get a job well done and do it efficiently, so I believed that the tactics and skill are necessary. Those are the ways that we should learn. However, the farmer I talked with pointed out our essential mistakes.

孔先生教导我们,应该努力工作,想办法将事情办得妥当而有效率。所以我相信策略、技巧是必要的,也是我们应该学习的圣人之道。可是今天这位乡下人却点出了我们根本上的错误。

曰:「始吾以为天下一人耳,不知复有夫人也。吾闻之夫子,事求可,功求成。用力少,见功多者,圣人之道。

18 He deemed that the Tao of sage stressed intact and original personality, without articifice, falseness and glozing, which is called ‘Complete Virtue’. A man of complete virtue should keep physical intactness, namely keeping body’s original feature and normal situation. For example, we should not fatigue too much, going to bed and getting up early; we go on diet, keeping fit; we don’t dye hair; we don’t seek too much fame and wealth, keeping our health from being ruined by causes.

他认为,圣人之道,在于讲求不着雕斧的完整人格。不做作、不虚假、不文饰,也就是所谓的德全。德全的人首先应注意形全; 也就是身体的原貌、身体的正常状态。比如我们不过分地劳累,早睡早起,不暴饮暴食,身体不胖不瘦,不染头发、不过分追求名利,不让功名事业给身体带来太重的负担等都是形全应该注意的;

19 By keeping physical intactness, it is possible to have a composed, tranquil and peaceful heart.

形全之后,一颗沉稳宁静的心才有可能实现。

20 A composed, tranquil and peaceful heart is called ‘Complete Mind’, after which, the practice is on the right way to seek for Tao.

沉稳宁静的心,我们称之谓神全。神全之后修行才算上了路,道才有可能求得。

今徒不然。执道者德全,德全者形全,形全者神全。神全者,圣人之道也。

21 A man of perfect practice focuses his care on the subjective conditions, disregarding the change of objective conditions. He, who intends to intervene or boost the change of objective condition, attempts to achieve success of causes by the skills, tactics and artifices. These are enough to destroy the sound and peaceful mood so the practice has come to an end.

一位修行完备的人,他专注在自己主观条件的照顾,对客观条件的变化,他既不干涉,也不助长。凡是企图干涉或助长客观条件之变化者,他们必定企图利用计谋、策略等技巧以谋取事业、世荣,而这些举措,都足以破坏沉稳安宁的心境,这样一来,修行之路就走不下去了。

22 Hence, the right way of practice is to do everything that maintains a composed, tranquil and peaceful heart and to do nothing that distract and even spoil a composed, tranquil and peaceful heart.

所以正确的修行之路是: 维护沉稳安宁之心的事就去做; 破坏、干扰沉稳安宁之心的事就别做。

托生与民并行而不知其所之,汒乎淳备哉!功利机巧,必忘夫人之心。若夫人者,非其志不之,非其心不为。

23 He insists on doing something right that even other people may disapprove of. He doesn’t put a finger on something wrong that even it would bring great fame and wealth to him. The objective conditions, such as the honor, shame, praise and disparagement, have no influence on him. By doing that such a man would be a perfect practice someday.

举凡他认为正面的、应当做的事,虽然天下人都反对,都不赞成,修行人也坚持做下去。负面的事虽然会获得大名大利,修行人却弃之不顾,更不会将之放在心上。客观条件的荣辱与褒贬等都不能影响他。也唯有这样的人,才最终有可能修炼完美,成为一个修行完备之人。

虽以天下誉之,得其所谓,謷然不顾;以天下非之,失其所谓,傥然不受。

24 Me, Zi Gong is no more than a vulgar fellow who bustle around for the fame and interest. It is a shame! It is a shame!”

我子贡不过是一个为了功名利禄四处奔走,整天忙碌的庸俗之人。惭愧,惭愧!」

天下之非誉,无益损焉,是谓全德之人哉!我之谓风波之民。」

 

Xianchi’s interpretation and remark (57。1)

咸池评述(57。1)

1 Buddha asks us to keep no-self and be flexibility in mind.

 

世尊要我们无相、无住而生其心。

2 No-self and be flexibility are right attitude to the objective condition. The general name of objective condition is self, and the objective condition is where the self can establish on.

 

无相、无住是一种对待客观条件的正确态度,而客观条件的总称就是相; 也就是住的凭借了。

 

3 The objective condition also refers to the five skandhas --form, feeling, perception, impulse and cconsciousness. Buddha thought that five skandhas are impermanent and impermanence is suffering and source of trouble. Only if the five skandhas are thought empty and vain, your heart would be obstacle-free, fear-free and far away from perverted mind and finally could reach the goal--Nirvana.

 

客观条件也是指色受想行识等五蕴。世尊认为五蕴无常,无常是苦,是麻烦的来源,只有将五蕴视为空,视为虚幻,人才能心无罣碍,无有恐怖,远离颠倒梦想,究竟涅盘。

4 Chuang Tzu used complete virtue, complete form and complete soul to ask man of practice to reach the obstacle-free state. His way is different in approaches from but equal in result with Buddha’s.

 

庄子用德全、形全、神全来要求修行者做到心无罣碍,在这里,他与世尊的法明显地是有着异曲同工之妙的。

 

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