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美国文学选读3

(2011-07-09 21:47:56)
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教育

4.          弗洛斯特反对当时的许多诗歌改革原则,相反奉行“旧瓶装新酒”的原则,采用旧形式来表达新内容,他采用新英格兰乡村的朴实用语,特别偏好传统的抒情类和叙事类,短小精悍的格式,作为一个自然主义诗人,很明显,他的作品中体现了浪漫主义作家的一些风格,在他看来,大自然是比喻和象征的无穷宝藏,作品中没有宗都的说教和冥想的玄思,他的诗歌都浅显明了,经常探讨黑暗中的神秘,宇宙万物中的各种不同的荒凉和嘈杂的风景,其实这就是人类自身居住的世界的另外一种表现,这个世界复杂、无助、孤寂Frost had rejected the revolutionary poetic principles of his contemporanes, choosing instead the old-fashioned way to be new. He employed the plain speech of rural New Englanders and preferred the short, traditional forms of lyric and narrative, As a poet of nature he had obvious affinities with romantic writers. He saw nature as a storehouse of analogy and symbol, but he had little faith in religious dogma or speculative thought. His poetry, for all its apparent simplicity, often probes mysteries of darkness and irrationality in the bleak and chaotic landscapes of an indifferent universe where men stand alone, unaided and perplexed.

5.          教材作品:《摘罢苹果》:After Apple-Picking

            《没有走的路》:The Road Not Taken

            《雪夜林边小立》:Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

            《部分》:Departmental

            《设计》:Design

            《大多数》:The Most of It

 

四、Carl Sandburg卡尔·桑德堡1878-1967

1.          在世时就获得了极高的评价,成为了美国电视观众所熟悉的诗人,美国人听他读他的诗作,吟唱他的民间故事,听他讲述关于林肯的各种奇闻轶事he lived to enjoy enormous popular acclaim, by the end of his life he had become a familiar figure to national television audiences who listened to him read his poems, sing folk ballads and relate anecdotes about Lincoln.

2.          同前辈惠特曼一样,桑德保的诗作描绘了美国人民生活的方方面面,描写了大草原及西部和东部的风光,他把现代城市作为花边勾画出了一幅优美的图景,从民粹主义者激进观点出发,桑德堡歌颂那些被社会遗弃的人,歌颂那些曾为城市文明作出贡献的移民和普通老百姓,歌颂那些在工业文明化的过程中已逝的和存活下来的人们 with the precedent of Whitman behind them, they present a sweeping panorama of American life, encompassing priairie, eastern,, and western landscapes as well as vignettes of the modern city. They celebrate, from the standpoint of a Populist radical, the lives of outcasts, the contributions of immigrants and common people to urban culture, and the occupations of those who have survived or been sacrificed in the rise of industrial civilization.

3.          1914年《芝加哥诗集》Chicago Poems

1918年《剥玉米的人》Cornhuskers

1920年《烟与钢》Smoke and Steel

1922年《太阳烧灼的西方石板》Slabs of the Sunburnt West

其它诗作《冰冷的墓》Cool Tombs; 《闪烁的深红》Flash Crimson

1936年《人民,是的》People, Yes

1927年《美国歌谣汇编》The American Songbag

1919年《芝加哥种族动乱》The Chicago Race Riots

《路特拜故事集》“The Rootabaga Stories(for Children)

4.          1929《摄影家斯泰肯》、1932年《玛丽·林肯》是他的二部传记性质的作品his biographies Steichen the PhotographerandMary Lincoln 他的散文代表作是《亚拍拉罕·林肯》,是一部纪念性的颂扬类传记His major work in prose was monumental and celebratory biography of Abraham Lincoln.

5.          教材作品:《芝加哥》:Chicago

             《港湾》:The Harbor

             《雾》:Fog

             《冰冷的墓》Cool Tombs

             《闪烁的深红》Flash Crimson

             《人民,是的》The People, Yes

 

五、Wallace Stevens华莱士·斯蒂文斯1879-1955

1.          他是一位极有天分的业余诗人,他不太注重自己在文坛上的荣誉和地位,他更关注自己作品本身的一种完美,他的作品的动机最初源于“秩序”的理念,他的“秩序”就是真理,就是自然与宇宙天然一致的次序,是人类与个体发现这种一致性的特权Wallace Stevens created his poetry as a gifted nonprofessional, less concerned about promoting his literary his literary reputation than about perfecting what he wrote. His work is primarily motivated by the belief that ideas of orderthat is, true ideas, correspond with an innate order in nature and the universe, and that it is the high privilege of individuals and mankind to discover this correspondence.

2.          1923年《风琴》Harmonium;

1935年《关于秩序的思想》Ideas of Order

1937年《带蓝吉它的人》The Man With the Blue Guitar

1942年《一个世界的几个部分》Parts of a World

1947年《入夏》Transport to Summer

1950年《秋天的曙光》The Auroras of Autumn

1951年《必要的天使》Necessary Angel

1954年《诗歌选集》Collected Poems获得了国家图书奖及普利策奖he received the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize;

1957年《遗著》Opus Posthumous

1966年《书信集》Letters

其它作品:《谐音》“Harmonium; 《星期六早晨》Sunday Morning.

3.          他的作品滑稽、新奇、怪诞,他尝试过多种实验性写作风格,他作品中有法式优雅、奇异的幻想,及古怪的声音,引人入胜的类比,深不可测的书名等,其后期作品中反映的主要是理想与现实中交叉的矛盾,构造一系列的对立,冥想和哲理成份越来越多,作为杰出文化精英,他的作品有时艰深,有时古奥,他也承认他的作品是“为自己建造的一座殿堂”Stevens invoked the comic, the strange, the bizarre. He adopted a variety of experimental styles, created poetic surfaces of Frenchified elegance, exotic imagery, odd sounds, curious analogies, and inscrutable titles. The problem of the interrelation between the ideal and the real became a constant theme in his later poetry and led him to elaborate a series of oppositions, he became in his later work increasingly meditative and philosophical, an intellectual elitist, at times difficult and obscure, who wrote, as he admitted for a gallery of ones own.

4.          教材作品:《彼得·昆士弹琴》:Peter Quince at the Clavier

             《坛子的轶事》:Anecdote of the Jar

             《冰淇淋皇帝》:The Emperor of Ice-Cream

 

六、Thomas Stearns Eliot托马斯·斯特恩斯·爱略特1888-1965

    1948年诺贝尔奖(won the Nobel Prize in 1948

1.          1917年第一本诗集《普鲁弗洛克及其它一些观察》his first book of poems Prufrock and Other Observations,同他后来的大部分作品一样,这部作品触及到了人性中的软弱、沮丧等弱点,正确地思索了国家、人民、宗教信仰等的丧失like much of his later work it concerns various aspects of the frustration and enfeeblement of individual character as seen in perspective with the decay of states, peoples, and religious faith.

2.          1920年第四部《诗集》发行,第一首诗为《小老头》his fourth volume Poems, withGerontionas its leading poem, published. 1920年还出版了诗集《圣林》其中还收入了几篇杂文,在《传统和个人天才》文章中,作者第一次阐释了自己的审美观,他提出的美学原理成为了现代评论极为有效的一种评判标准。知识、情感、体验的融合程度与集中程度是爱略特判定诗歌好坏的标准in 1920 also appeared The Sacred Wood, containing, among other essays,Tradition and the Individual Talent, the earliest statement of his aesthetics. The aesthetic principle which he first elaborated in this essay provided a useful instrument for modern criticism. The degree to which fusion and concentration of intellects feeling, and experience were achieved was Eliots criterion for judging the poem.

3.          《荒原》是现代文学中的主要经典作品之一,讲述的主题就是第一次世界大战给人们的启示,荒原意味着西方文明的衰落,现代人在精神上和文化上的颓废,采用讽刺性对比,大量使用了文学引用,该作品中作者还创造了一种新的文学形式,即相关的主题在连续运动中构成交响效果 The Waste Land, one of the major works of modern literature. Its subject, the apparent failure of western civilization which World War I seemed to demonstrate, suggested the spiritual debility of the modern individual and his culture while in satirical counterpoint his Sweeney poems had symbolized the rising tide of anticultural infidelity and human baseness. It used abundant of literary reference. It also introduced a form-the orchestration of related themes in successive movements.

4.          1925年《空心人》The Hollow Men

1930年《灰星期三》Ash-Wednesday

1943年《四个四重奏》Four Quartets

1924年,他的第二卷评论集《向德赖登致敬》Homage to John Dryden, his second volume of criticism

1932年《萎缩争论》Sweeney Agonistes; 《耶利尔诗集》Ariel Poems

1935年《大教堂凶杀案》Murder in the Cathedral

1936年《诗歌选集》、《论文集》、《古代和现代》“Collected Poems,Collected Essays,Ancient and Modern

1933年《诗歌的用法和评论的用法》The Uses of Poetry and the Uses of Criticism

1952年《完美的诗歌与剧作》The Complete Poems and Plays

5.          他的戏剧作品:1939年《家庭重聚》The Family Reunion

1949年《鸡尾酒会》The Cocktail Part

1953年《机要秘书》The Confidential Clerk

1958年《政界元老》The Elder Statesman

6.          教材作品:《J·阿尔弗雷德·普鲁弗洛克的情歌》The Love Song of J·Alfred Prufrock

             《序曲》Preludes

             《三贤哲的旅程》“Journey of the Magi

             《空心人 给老盖伊一文钱吧》“The Hollow Men A Penny for the Old Guy

 

七、F· Scott Fitzgerald  F·司格特·菲茨杰拉德1896-1940

1.          1920年他第一本小说《人间天堂》This Side of Paradise取得名声后迎娶美人泽达won success, fame, and Zelda. 这本小说描写了美国“躁动青年”的放荡和随意生活,该作品在商业上立刻获得了极大的成功,泽达和菲茨杰拉德也决心过上他小说中描述的这种放荡无羁的生活,他们甚至有过之而无不及The book, with its portrayal of the casual dissipations of flaming youth, was an immediate commercial success, and Zelda and Scott Fitzgerald attempted to live up to-or even beyond-his fictional portraits of scandalous young men and women.

2.          第二本小说《漂亮的和该死的》The beautiful and Damned

《爵士时代故事集》Tales of the Jazz Age

《蔬菜》或叫《从邮递员到总统》The Vegetableorfrom Postman to President

3.          1925年的《了不起的盖茨比》The Great Gatsby1934年的《夜色温柔》“Tender Is the Night,在这两部小说中,菲茨杰拉德提示了外表闪耀着天真的时代中的刺耳喧嚣。他运用生动优雅的散文,揭露了美国拜金主义的空虚,表现了美国人对爱情、豪华生活和各种欲望无止境的追求had revealed the stridency of an age of glittering innocence. In vivid and graceful prose he had, at the same time, portrayed the hollowness of the American worship of riches and the unending American dream of love, splendor, and fulfilled desires.

4.          教材作品:《了不起的盖茨比》The Great Gatsby”八、Ernest Hemingway厄恩斯特·海明威1899-1961

    1954年他因“现代叙述艺术的精湛技巧”而获得诺贝尔文学奖he was awarded a Nobel Prize for his mastery of the art of modern narration. 1961年在家自杀。

1.          一战中作为美国在法国的救护队的一名志愿驾驶员到军队服役,后转移到意大利前线,后受重伤 In World WarI, he volunteered to serve as a driver for an American ambulance unit in France, then transferred to duty on the Italian front, where he was seriously wounded.

2.          他极大地推动了报告文学的发展,他认为报告文学句子结构要简单,用语要节制,想象要简练,要采用不受感情影响的、戏剧化的语调he developed a spare, tight, reportorial prose based on simple sentence structure and using a restricted vocabulary, precise imagery, and an impersonal, dramatic tone.

3.          1923年第一本书《三个故事和十篇诗歌》Three Stories and Ten Poems

4.          1926年《太阳照样升起》The Sun Also Rises 海明威逐渐成为了格特鲁特·斯泰因所说的“迷惘的一代”的代言人 Hemingway became the spokesman for what Gertrude Stein had called a lost generation.

5.          对充斥于现代社会人们生活中的无聊、失败、死亡等,海明威有时做出的是消极评论,后来这种人生虚无主义的观点进行了修改,他反复运用坚定的语气声称,人凭借自己的勇气和方式,还是有可能过上美好生活的,在海明威看来,人类最伟大莫过于在压力之下显示自己的从容,或“最大限度地挖掘自己使自己成为一个纯粹的人” His works have sometimes been read as an essentially negative commentary on a modern world filled with sterility, failure, and death. Yet such a nihilistic vision is repeatedly modified by Hemingways affirmative assertion of the possibility of living with style and courage. To Hemingway, mans greatest achievement is to show grace under pressure, orpurity of line through the maximum of exposure.

6.          1929年《永别了,武器》A Farewell to Arms

1932年《死在午后》Death in the Afternoon

1935年《非洲的青山》The Green Hills of Africa

1940年《丧钟为谁而呜》For Whom the Bell Tolls

1950年《过河入林》Across the River and into the trees

1952年《老人与海》The Old Man and the Sea(triumphant even in defeat)

7.          教材作品:《永别了,武器》A Farewell to Arms

 

九、John Steinbeck约翰·斯坦贝克1902-1968

1.          斯坦贝克对同时代社会问题的探讨,尤其是对无产农民的苦难的描写,于1940年获得普利策奖,1962年获得了诺贝尔文学奖 Steinbecks treatment of the social problems of his time, particularly the plight of the dispossessed farmer, earned him a Pulitzer Prize in 1940, and, in 1962, a Nobel Prize for literature.

2.          他是二十世纪三十年代,美国大萧条时期最杰出的小说家was the foremost novelist of the American Depression of the 1930s

3.          由于他对人们苦难生活有着直接的接触,因此他的大部分作品表达的都是对那些移民工人和下层社会人们的同情,他的作品反映的主要是体力劳动者的真实生活 His sympathy for the migrant workers and the down-trodden, so evident in his writing, was the result of firsthand knowledge of their struggles. His writing reflected his concern with the rituals of manual labor.

4.          1935年《托蒂亚平地》Tortilla Flat

《胜负未决的战斗》In Dubious Battle

1937年《鼠与人》Of Mice and Men

1938年《长谷》“The Long Valley

1939年《愤怒的葡萄》“The Grapes of Wrath, 作品讲述的是“奥克斯”人从一个长期遭受干旱和沙暴袭击的“沙尘谷”地区移民到加利福尼亚的一段故事,故事在移民的梦想破灭和悲惨的结局中结束,书中他肯定了普通老百姓为了生活与生命抗争的顽强品质 showed the migration of the Okiesfrom theDust Bowlsto California, a migration that ended in broken dreams and misery but at the same time affirmed the ability of the common people to endure and prevail.

19441年《科特兹之海》The Sea of Cortez

5.          教材作品:《愤怒的葡萄》The Grapes of Wrath

 

十、William Faulkner威廉·福克纳1897-1962

     1950年获诺贝尔文学奖

1.          11931年《圣殿》Sanctuary; 1927年《沙多里斯》Sartoris.随后他开始认识到“故乡的一枚小小邮票也值得去写,故乡有它一辈子也写不完的素材,我把这些素材经过升华,最后成为小说,有了这些基础以后,我可以随心所欲地达到一种绝对的高境界。打开别人的金矿,为自己创造了一个宇宙”then he discovered, as he said later,that my own little postage stamp of native soil was worth writing about and that I would never live long enough to exhaust it and that by sublimating the actual into the apocryphal I would have complete liberty to use whatever talent I might have to its absolute top. It opened up a gold mine of other people, so I created a cosmos of my own.

2.          1929年《喧嚣与骚动》The Sound and the Fury

1930年《在我弥留之际》As I Lay Dying

1932年《八月之光》Light in August

1934年《马蒂诺医生和其它故事选》Doctor Martino and Others Stories

1949年《大树林》Big Woods

1936年《押沙龙,押沙龙》Absalom, Absalom

1942年《去吧,摩西》Go Down, Moses

史努比家族三部曲,第11940年《小乡村》,第21957年《小镇》,第3部《大宅》,the trilogy on the Snopes family: The Hamlet,The Town,The Mansion.

3.          尽管福克纳一生几乎都是在密西西比度过的,但他游历却非常广泛,他作品的中心主题却是不局限在牛津,也不在密西西比河,甚至也不在美国,在他看来,“人类心灵与自己冲突”才是宇宙永恒的主题although his home was always in Mississippi, Faulkner traveled extensively. His central theme, however, was not Oxford, or Mississippi, or even America. It was, as he put it, the universal theme of the problems of the human heart in conflict with itself.

教材作品:《给艾米莉小姐的玫瑰》:“A Rose for Emily

 

 


 

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